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1821. IT REQUIRES, however, no the very important office of the skin, demonstration to prove that the state or insensible perspiration, are duly of the former is essentially different performed. from that of the latter.

1829. IT IS EXTREMELY IMPROPER 1822. IN THE FIRST YEAR OF IN- to consider every noise of an infant as FANCY, many expressions of the tender. a claim upon our assistance, and to organs are to be considered only as intrude either food or drink, with a efforts or manifestations of power. view to satisfy its supposed wants.

1823. WE OBSERVE, for instance, By such injudicious conduct, childthat a child, as soon as it is undressed, ren readily acquire the injurious habit or disencumbered from swaddling of demanding nutriment at improper clothes, moves its arms and legs, and times, and without necessity; their often makes a variety of strong exer- digestion becomes impaired; and contions; yet no reasonable person would sequently, at this early age, the whole suppose that such attempts arise from mass of the fluids is gradually cora preternatural or oppressive state of rupted. the little agent.

1830. SOMETIMES, HOWEVER, THE 1824. IT IS THEREFORE EQUALLY MOTHER OR NURSE removes the child ABSURD to draw an unfavourable in- from its couch, carries it about, freference from every inarticulate cry; quently in the middle of the night, because, in most instances, these vo- and thus exposes it to repeated colds, ciferating sounds imply the effort which which are in their effects infinitely children necessarily make to display the more dangerous than the most violent strength of their lungs, and exercise cries. the organs of respiration.

1831. WE LEARN FROM DAILY Ex1825. NATURE HAS WISELY OR- PERIENCE, that children who have been DAINED that by these very efforts the the least indulged, thrive much better, power and utility of functions so essen- unfold all their faculties quicker, and tial to life should be developed, and acquire more muscular strength and rendered more perfect with every inspi- vigour of mind, than those who have ration.

been constantly favoured, and treated 1826. HENCE IT FOLLOWS, that by their parents with the most solithose over-anxious parents or nurses, citous attention : bodily weakness and who continually endeavour to pre- mental imbecility are the usual attrivent infants crying, do them a ma- butes of the latter. terial injury; for, by such imprudent 1832. THE FIRST AND PRINCIPAL management, their children seldom or Rule of education ought never to be never acquire a perfect form of the forgotten—that man is intended to be breast, while the foundation is laid in a free and independent agent; that his the pectoral vessels for obstructions moral and physical powers ought to and other diseases.

be spontaneously developed ; that he 1827. INDEPENDENTLY of any par- should as soon as possible be made ticular causes, the cries of children, acquainted with the nature and uses of with regard to their general effects, are all his faculties, in order to attain that highly beneficial and necessary. degree of perfection which is consistent

1828. IN THE FIRST PERIOD OF with the structure of his organs; and LIFE, such exertions are the almost that he was not originally designed for only exercise of the infant; thus the what we endeavour to make of him by circulation of the blood, and all the artificial aid. other fluids, is rendered more uniform ; 1833. THE GREATEST ART in digestion, nutrition, and the growth of educating children consists in a con. the body are thereby promoted; and tinued vigilance over all their acthe different secretions, together with tions, without ever giving them an





opportunity of discovering that they preferably to the day, and for this purare guided and watched.

pose they ought to remove all external 1834. THERE ARE, HOWEVER, IN- impressions which may disturb their STANCES in which the loud complaints rest, such as noise, light, &c., but of infants demand our attention. especially not to obey every call for

1835. Tuus, IF THEIR CRIES BE taking them up, and giving food at UNUSUALLY VIOLENT and long con- improper times. tinued, we may conclude that they are 1841. AFTER THE SECOND YEAR of troubled with colic pains; if, on such their age, they will not instinctively occasions, they move their arms and require to sleep in the forenoon, though hands repeatedly towards the face, after dinner it may be continued to the painful teething may account for the third and fourth year of life, if the child cause; and if other morbid phenomena shows a particular inclination to repose; accompany their cries, or if these expres- because, till that age, the full half of sions be repeated at certain periods of life may safely be allotted to sleep. the day, we ought not to slight them, 1842. FROM THAT PERIOD, however, but endeavour to discover the proximate sleep ought to be shortened for the space or remote causes.

of one hour with every succeeding year; 1836. INFANTS CANNOT SLEEP TOO so that a child of seven years old may LONG ; and it is a favourable symptom sleep about eight, and not exceeding when they enjoy a calm and long- nine hours: this proportion may be continued rest, of which they should by continued to the age of adolescence, no means be deprived, as this is the and even manhood. greatest support granted to them by 1843. TO AWAKEN CHILDREN from

their sleep with a noise, or in an impetu1837. A CHILD LIVES

ous manner, is extremely injudicious TIVELY MUCH FASTER than an adult; and hurtful; nor is it proper to carry its blood flows more rapidly; every them from a dark room immediately stimulus operates more powerfully; and into a glaring light, or against a daznot only its constituent parts, but its zling wall; for the sudden impression vital resources also, are more speedily of light debilitates the organs of vision, consumed.

and lays the foundation of weak eyes, 1838. SLEEP PROMOTES MORE from early infancy. CALM and uniform circulation of the 1844. A BEDROOM OR NURSERY blood; it facilitates the assimilation of ought to be spacious and lofty, dry, the nutriment received, and contributes airy, and not inhabited through the towards a more copious and regular day. deposition of alimentary matter, while 1845. No SERVANTS, if possible, the horizontal posture is the most should be suffered to sleep in the same favourable to the growth and develop- room, and no linen or washed clothes ment of the child.

should ever be hung there to dry, as 1839. SLEEP OUGHT TO BE IN PRO- they contaminate the air in which so PORTION to the age of the infant. After considerable a portion of infantile life the age of six months, the periods of must be spent. sleep, as well as all other animal func- 1846. THE CONSEQUENCES attendtions, may in some degree be regulated; ing a vitiated atmosphere in such rooms yet, even then, a child should be suffered are serious, and often fatal. to sleep the whole night, and several 1847. FEATHER BEDS should be hours both in the morning and in the banished from nurseries, as they are unafternoon.

natural and debilitating contrivances. 1840. MOTHERS AND NURSES should 1848. THE WINDOWS should never endeavour to accustom infants, from the be opened at night, but may be left open time of their birth, to sleep in the night the whole day in fine clear weather.





1349. LASTLY, THE BEDSTEAD must into a quart of milk, then stir it quickly not be placed too low on the floor; nor into a quart of boiling water, and bui is it proper to let children sleep on a it up a few minutes till it is thickened: couch which is made without any ele- sweeten with sugar. Oatmeal, where vation from the ground; because the it is found to agree with the stomach, most mephitic and pernicious stratum is much better for children, being a mild of air in an apartment is that within aperient as well as cleanser; fine flour one or two feet from the floor, while in every shape is the reverse. Where the most wholesome, or atmospheric air, biscuit-powder is in use, let it be made is in the middle of the room, and the at home; this, at all events, will preinflammable gas ascends to the top. vent them getting the sweepings of the 1850. Cookery for Children.

baker's counters, boxes, and baskets.

All the waste bread in the nursery, hard 1851. Food FOR AN INFANT.—Take ends of stale loaves, &c., ought to be of fresh cow's milk, ore tablespoonful, dried in the oven or screen, and reduced and mix with two tablespoonfuls of to powder in the mortar. hot water; sweeten with loaf sugar, as 1857. MEATS FOR CHILDREN.much as may be agreeable. This quan- Mutton, lamb, and poultry are the best. tity is sufficient for once feeding a new- Birds and the white meat of fowls are born infant; and the same quantity the most delicate food of this kind that may be given every two or three hours, can be given. These meats should be -not oftener,—till the mother's breast slowly cooked, and no gravy, if made affords natural nourishment.

rich with butter, should be eaten by 1852. MILK FOR INFANTS Six a young child. Never give children Months Old.—Take one pint of milk, hard, tough, half-cooked meats, of one pint of water; boil it, and add one any kind. tablespoonful of flour. Dissolve the 1858. VEGETABLES FOR CHILDREN. flour first in half a teacupful of water; --Eggs, &c.— Their rice ought to be it must be strained in gradually, and cooked in no more water than is necesboiled hard twenty minutes. As the sary to swell it; their apples roasted, child grows older, one-third water. If or stewed with no more water than is properly made, it is the most nutritious, necessary to steam them; their vegeat the same time the most delicate food tables só well cooked as to make them that can be given to young

children. require little butter, and less digestion; 1853. BROTH, made of lamb or their eggs boiled slowly and soft. The chicken, with stale bread toasted, and boiling of their milk ought to be dibroken in, is safe and wholesome for the rected by the state of their bowels; if dinners of children when first weaned. flatulent or bilious, a very little curry

1854. Milk, fresh from the cow, powder may be given in their vegewith a very little loaf sugar, is good tables with good effect. Turmeric and and safe food for young children. the warm seeds (not hot peppers) are From three years old to seven, pure milk, also particularly useful in such cases. into which stale bread is crumbled, is 1859. POTATOES AND PEAS.-Potathe best breakfast and supper for a toes, particularly some kinds, are not child.

easily digested by children; but this 1855. FOR A CHILD'S LUNCHEON.- may be remedied by mashing them very Good sweet butter, with stale bread, is fine, and seasoning them with sugar and one of the most nutritious, at the same a little milk. When peas are dressed time the most wholesome articles of for children, let them be seasoned with food that can be given children after mint and sugar, which will take off the they are weaned.

flatulency. If they are old, let them be 1856. Milk PORRIDGE.—Stir four pulped, as the skins are perfectly inditablespoonfuls of oatmeal, smoothly, I gestible by children's stomachs. Never




give them vegetables less stewed than often to cause most fatal diseases, would pulp through a jullender. especially in children. Why is this?

1860. RICE PUDDING WITH FRUIT. Because we do not conform to the -In a pint of new milk put two large natural laws in using this kind of diet. spoonfuls of rice, well washed; then These laws are very simple, and easy to add two apples, pared and quartered, understand. Let the fruit be ripe when

a few currants or raisins. Simmer you eat it; and eat when you require slowly till the rice is very soft, then food. Fruits that have seeds are much add one egg beaten, to bind it: serve more wholesome than the stone fruits. with cream and sugar.

But all fruits are better, for very young 1861. PUDDINGS AND PANCAKES FOR children, if baked or cooked in some CHILDREN.-Sugar and egg, browned manner, and eaten with bread. The before the fire, or dropped as fritters French always eat bread with raw fruit. into a hot frying-pan, without fat, will Apples and winter pears are very exmake a nourishing meal.

cellent food for chiīdren,-indeed, for 1862. To PREPARE FRUIT FOR / almost any person in health,—but best CHILDREN.- A far more wholesome when eaten for breakfast or dinner. If way than in pies or puddings, is to put taken late in the evening, fruit often apples sliced, or plums, currants, goose- proves injurious. The old saying, that berries, &c., into a stone jar, and apples are gold in the morning, silver at sprinkle among them as much sugar as noon, and lead at night, is pretty near necessary. Set the jar in an oven on the truth. Both apples and pears are a hearth, with a teacupful of water to often good and nutritious when baked prevent the fruit from burning; or put or stewed, for those delicate constithe jar into a saucepan of water till its tutions that cannot bear raw fruit. contents be perfectly done. Slices of Much of the fruit gathered when unbread or some rice may be put into the ripe might be rendered fit for food by jar, to eat with the fruit.

preserving in sugar. 1863. RICE AND APPLES.-Core as 1866. RIPE CURRANTS are excelmany nice apples as will fill the dish ; lent food for children. Mash the boil them in light syrup; prepare a fruit, sprinkle with sugar, and with quarter of a pound of rice in milk with good bread let them eat of this fruit sugar and salt; put some of the rice in freely. the dish, put in the apples, and fill up 1867. BLACKBERRY JAM.-Gather the intervals with rice; bake it in the the fruit in dry weather; allow half a oven till it is a fine colour.

pound of good brown sugar to every 1864. A NICE APPLE CAKE FOR pound of fruit; boil the whole together CHILDREN. — Grate some stale bread, gently for an hour, or till the blackand slice about double the quantity of berries are soft, stirring and mashing apples; butter a mould, and line it with them well. Preserve it like any other sugar paste, and strew in some crumbs, jam, and it will be found very useful mixed with a little sugar; then lay in in families, particularly for children, reapples, with a few bits of butter over gulating their bowels, and enabling you them, and so continue till the dish is to dispense with cathartics. It may be full ; cover it with crumbs, or prepared spread on bread, or on puddings, inrice; season with cinnamon and sugar. stead of butter : and even when the Bake it well.

blackberries are bought, it is cheaper 1865. FRUITS FOR CHILDREN. than butter. In the country every That fruits are naturally healthy in family should preserve at least half a their season, if rightly taken, no one peck of blackberries. who believes that the Creator is a kind 1868. TO MAKE SENNA AND MANNA and beneficent Being can doubt. And PALATABLE.—Take half an ounce, when yet the use of summer fruits appears mixed, senna and manna; put in half




milk, one pint, or twenty ounces : bake favours us with the following simple one hour in a quick oven.

receipt, which, she says, gives less 1881. Nice Plum Cake.—Take of trouble than any other, and has never flour one pound; bicarbonate of soda, been known to fail :- Take five eggs, quarter of an ounce; butter, six ounces; and half a pound of loaf sugar, sifted; loaf sugar, six ounces; currants, six break the eggs upon the sugar, and ounces; three eggs; milk, about four beat all together with a steel fork ounces ; bake for one hour and a half in for half an hour. Previously take the a tin or pan.

weight of two eggs and a half, in their 1882. Lemon Buns.—Take of flour shells, of flour. After you have beaten one pound; bicarbonate of soda, three the eggs and sugar the time specified, dracắms; muriatic acid, three drachms ; grate in the rind of a lemon (the juice butter, four ounces; loaf sugar, four may be added at pleasure), stir in the ounces; one egg; essence of lemon, six flour, and immediately pour it into a tin or eight drops : make into twenty lined with buttered paper, and let it buns, and bake in a quick oven for fifteen be instantly put into rather a cool oren. minutes.

1888. Sponge Cake.--Take equal 1883. Soda CAKE.-Take of flour weight of eggs and sugar; half their half a pound; bicarbonate of soda, two weight in sifted flour; to twelve eggs drachms; tartaric acid, two drachms; add the grated rind of three lemons, butter, four ounces; white sugar, two and the juice of two. Beat the eggs ounces; currants, four ounces; two carefully, white and yolks separately, eggs; warm milk, half a teacupful. before they are used. Stir the materials

1884. EXCELLENT Biscuits. —Take thoroughly together, and bake in a quick of flour two pounds ; carbonate of ammonia, three drachms, in fine powder ; 1889. Almond Sponge Cake is white sugar, four ounces; arrowroot, made by adding blanched almonds to one ounce; butter, four ounces; one the above. egg: mix into a stiff paste with new 1890. Yule Cake. — Take one milk, and beat them well with a rolling- pound of fresh butter; one pound of pin for half an hour; roll out thin, and sugar; one pound and a half of flour; cut them out with a docker, and bake two pounds of currants; a glass of in a quick oven for fifteen minutes. brandy; one pound of sweetmeats; two

1885. WINE BISCUITS. Take of ounces of sweet almonds; ten eggs; a flour half a pound; butter, four ounces; quarter of an ounce of allspice; and a sugar, four ounces; two eggs; carbo- quarter of an ounce of cinnamon. Melt nate of ammonia, one drachm; white the butter to a cream, and put in the wine, enough to mix to a proper con- sugar. Stir it till quite light, adding sistence. Cut out with a glass. the allspice and pounded cinnamon; in

1886. GINGER Cakes. — To two a quarter of an hour, take the yolks of pounds of flour add three quarters the eggs, and work them two or three of a pound of good moist sugar, one at a time; and the whites of the same ounce best Jamaica ginger well mixed must by this time be beaten into a strong in the flour ; bave ready three quarters snow, quite ready to work in. As the of a pound of lard, melted, and four paste must not stand to chill the butter, eggs well beaten : mix the lard and or it will be heavy, work in the whites eggs together, and stir into the flour, gradually, then add the orange peel, which will form a paste; roll out in lemon, and citron, cut in fine strips, and thin cakes, and bake in a moderately the currants, which must be mixed in heated oven. Lemon biscuits may be well, with the sweet almonds; then add made in a similar way, by substituting the sifted flour and glass of brandy. essence of lemon for ginger.

Bake this cake in a tin hoop, in a hot 1887. Sponge Cake.- A lady oven, for three Łours, and put twelve



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