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the peel of two and the juice of six boiled with the other parts; scrape lemons, six whites and shells of eggs clean all the pith, or inside, from them; beat together, and a bottle of sherry or lay them in folds, and cut them into Madeira ; whisk the whole together thin slices of about an inch long

. until it is on the boil, then put it by Clarify your sugar; then throw you the side of the stove, and let it simmer peels and pulp into it, stir it well, and a quarter of an hour; strain it through let it boil about half an hour. If the a jelly-bag : what is strained first must sugar is broken into small pieces, and be poured into the bag again, until it boiled with the fruit, it will answer is as bright and clear as rock water; the purpose of clarifying, but it must be then put the jelly in moulds, to be cold well skimmed when it boils. Marmalade and firm; if the weather is too warm, should be made at the end of March, it requires some ice. When it is wished or the beginning of April, as Seville to be very stiff, half an ounce of isin- oranges are then in their best state. glass may be added when the wine is put 1912. Apple Marmalade.- Peel


be flavoured by the juice of and core two pounds of sub-acid apples various fruits and spices, &c., and co- and put them in an enamelled sauceloured with saffron, cochineal, red beet- pan with one pint of sweet cider

, or juice, spinach juice, claret, &c., and it half a pint of pure wine, and one is sometimes made with cherry brandy, pound of crushed sugar. Cook them red noyeau, curaçoa, or essence

of punch. by a gentle heat three hours, or longer, 1911. Orange Marmalade.- until the fruit is very soft, then squeeze Choose the largest Seville oranges, as it first through a cullender and their they usually contain the greatest quan- through a sieve.

If not sufficiently tity of juice, and choose them with sweet, add powdered sugar to suit your clear skins, as the skins form the largest taste, and put away in jars made aire part of the marmalade. Weigh the tight by a piece of wet bladder. It is oranges, and weigh also an equal quan- delicious when eaten with milk, and tity of loaf sugar. Peel the oranges, still better with cream. dividing the peels into quarters, and 1913. Plum or Apricot Jam.. put them into a preserving-pan ; 'cover After taking away the stones from the them well with water, and set them on apricots, and cutting out

any the fire to boil : in the meantime pre- they may have, put them

over a slow pare your oranges; divide them into fire, in a clean stewpan, with half a pint gores, then scrape with a teaspoon all of water; when scalded, rub them the pulp from the white skin, or, in- through a hair sieve; to every pound of stead of peeling the oranges, cut a hole pulp put one pound of sifted loaf sugar

, in the orange and

scoop out the pulp; put it into a preserving-pan over a brisk remove carefully all the pips, of which fire, and when it boils skim it well, and there are innumerable small ones in the throw in the kernels of the apricots Seville orange, which will escape obser- and half an ounce of bitter almonds, vation unless they are very minutely blanched ; boil it a quarter of an hou examined. Have a large basin near fast, and stirring it all the time ; you with some cold water in it, to move it from the fire, fill it into pots, throw the pips and peels into—a pint is and cover them. Greengages may sufficient for a dozen oranges. A great done in the same way. deal of glutinous matter adheres to 1914. Almond Flavour. (Esthem, which, when strained through a SENCE OF PEACH KERNELS QUINTsieve, should be boiled with the other ESSENCE OF NOYEAU.)- Dissolve parts. When the peels have boiled ounce of essential oil of bitter almonds till they are sufficiently tender to in one pint of spirit of wine

. Use it admit

of a fork being stuck into them, as flavouring for cordials, and for pero strain them; some of which may be fuming pastry. In large quantities it


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is exceedingly poisonous. A few drops 1920. Freezing without Ice only should be used to several pounds or Acids.—The use of ice in cooling of syrups, pastry, &c. Cost : oil of depends upon the fact of its requiring a bitter almonds, ls. per ounce; spirit, vast quantity of heat to convert it from 2s. 6d. per pint. Usually sold in quar- a solid into a liquid state, or in other ter or half-ounce bottles at Is.

words, to melt it; and the heat so re1915. Syrup of Orange or quired is obtained from those objects Lemon Peel.–Of fresh outer rind with which it may be in contact. A of Seville orange, or lemon peel, three pound of ice requires nearly as much ounces, apothecaries' weight; boiling heat to melt it as would be sufficient to water, a pint and a half; infuse them make a pound of cold water boiling hot; for a night in a close vessel ; then strain hence its cooling power is extremely the liquor ; let it stand to settle; and great. But ice does not begin to melt having poured it off clear from the until the temperature is above the sediment, dissolve in it two pounds of freezing point, and therefore it cannot double refined loaf sugar, and make it be employed in freezing liquids, &c., into a syrup with a gentle heat. but only in cooling them. If, how

1916. Indian Syrup. (A deli- ever, any substance is mixed with ice cious summer drink.)-Five pounds of which is capable of causing it to melt lump sugar, two ounces of citric acid, more rapidly, and at a lower tema gallon of boiling water: when cold perature, a still more intense cooling add half a drachm of essence of lemon effect is the result; such a substance is and half a drachm of spirit of wine; common salt, and the degree of cold stir it well, and bottle it. About produced by the mixture of one part of two tablespoonfuls to a glass of cold salt with two parts of snow or pounded water.

ice, is greater than thirty degrees 1917. Apples in Syrup for below freezing. In making ice-creams Immediate Use.—Pare and core and dessert ices, the following artisome hard round apples, and throw cles are required: Pewter ice-pots them into a basin of water; as they are with tightly-fitting lids, furnished with done, clarify as much loaf sugar as will handles; wooden ice-pails, to hold the cover them; put the apples in along rough ice and salt, which should be with the juice and rind of a lemon, and stoutly made, about the same depth as let them simmer till they are quite the ice-pots, and nine or ten inches clear; great care must be taken not to more in diameter,--each should have a break them. Place them on the dish hole in the side, fitted with a good cork, they are to appear upon at table, and in order that the water from the melted pour the syrup over.

ice may be drawn off as required. In 1918. Pounding Almonds. — addition, a broad spatula, about four They should be dried for a few days inches long, rounded at the end, and after being blanched. Set them in a furnished with a long wooden handle, warm place, strewn singly over a dish is necessary to scrape the frozen cream or tin. A little powdered lump sugar from the sides of the ice-pot, and for will assist the pounding. They may be mixing the whole smoothly together. first chopped small, and rolled with a When making ices, place the mixture rolling pin.--ALMOND PASTE may be of cream and fruit to be frozen, in the made in the same manner.

ice-pot, cover it with the lid, and put / 1919. Blanched Almonds. the pot in the ice-pail, which proceed to Put them into cold water, and heat them fill up with coarsely-pounded ice and slowly to scalding; then take them out salt, in the proportion of about one part and peel them quickly, throwing them of salt to three of ice; let the whole into cold water as they are done. Dry remain a few minutes (if covered by a them in a cloth before serving. blanket, so much the better), then whirl

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the pot briskly by the handle for a few a cooling one, the materials used ought minutes, take off the lid, and with the to be capable of producing by themspatula scrape the iced cream from the selves an amount of cold more than sides, mixing the whole smoothly; put thirty degrees below the freezing point on the lid, and whirl again, repeating of water, and this the ordinary mis. all the operations every few minutes tures will not do. Much more efficient until the whole of the cream is well and really freezing mixtures may be frozen. Great care and considerable made by using acids to dissolve the labour are required in stirring, so that salts. The cheapest, and perhaps the the whole cream may, be smoothly best, of these for ordinary use, is one frozen, and not in hard lumps. When which is frequently employed in finished, if it is required to be kept any France, both for making dessert ices, time, the melted ice and salt should be and cooling wines, &c. It consists of allowed to escape, by removing the coarsely powdered Glauber salt (sulphate cork, and the pail filled up with fresh of soda), on which is poured about materials. It is scarcely necessary to two-thirds its weight of spirit of salts add, that if any of the melted ice and (muriatic acid). The mixture should salt is allowed to mix with the cream, be made in a wooden vessel, as that is the latter is spoiled. From the diffi- preferable to one made of metal, which culty of obtaining ice in places distant conducts the external heat to the mafrom large towns, and in hot countries, terials with great rapidity; and when and from the impracticability of keeping the substance to be cooled is placed it any length of time, or, in fact, of in the mixture, the whole should be keeping small quantities more than a covered with a blanket, a piece of old few hours, its use is much limited, and woollen carpet doubled, or some other many have been the attempts to obtain non-conducting material, to prevent an efficient substitute. For this pur- the access of the external warmth; the pose various salts have been employed, vessel used for icing wines should not which, when dissolved in water, or in be too large, that there may be no acids, absorb a sufficient amount of heat waste of the freezing mixture. This to freeze substances with which they combination produces a degree of cold may be placed in contact. We shall thirty degrees below freezing; and if not attempt, in this article, to describe the materials are bought of any of the all the various freezing mixtures that wholesale druggists or drysalters, it is have been devised, but speak only of exceedingly economical. It is open, those which have been found practically however, to the very great objection, useful, state the circumstances which that the muriatic acid is an exceedingly have prevented any of them coming corrosive liquid, and of a pungent

, into common use, and conclude by disagreeable odour: this almost pregiving the composition of the New cludes its use for any purpose except Freezing Preparation, which is now ex- that of icing wines. ported so largely to India, and the com- 1921. FURTHER DIRECTIONS.-Ace position of which has hitherto never tual quantities

3-one pound of muriate been made public. Many of the freezing of ammonia, or sal ammoniac, finely mixtures which are to be found de- powdered, is to be intimately mixed scribed in books are incorrectly so with two pounds of nitrate of potash or named, for although they themselves saltpetre, also in powder; this misture are below the freezing point, yet they we may call No. 1. No. 2 is formed are not sufficiently powerful to freeze by. crushing three pounds of the best any quantity of water, or other sub- Scotch soda. In use, an equal bulk stances, when placed in a vessel within both No. 1 and No. 2 is to be taken, them. In order to be efficient as a stirred together, placed in the ice-pail

, freezing

mixture, as distinguished from surrounding the ice-pot, and rather legs




cold water poured on than will dissolve employed. Of course the quantity of the whole; if one quart of No. 1, and sugar must be proportionately diminthe same bulk of No. 2 are taken, it ished. will require about one quart of water 1925. STRAWBERRY-WATER ICEto dissolve them, and the temperature One large pottle of scarlet strawberries, will fall, if the materials used are cool, |-the juice of a lemon, a pound of sugar, to nearly thirty degrees below freezing. or one pint of strong syrup, half a pint Those who fail, may trace their want of of water. Mix,-first rubbing the fruit success to one or other of the following through a sieve,-and freeze. points :—the use of too small a quantity 1926. RASPBERRY-WATER ICE in of the preparation,—the employment of the same manner. a few ounces; whereas, in freezing ices, 1927. LEMON-WATER ICE.- Lemon the ice-pot must be entirely surrounded juice and water, each half a pint; with the freezing material: no one strong syrup, one pint: the rind of the would attempt to freeze with four lemons should be rasped off, before ounces of ice and salt. Again, too squeezing, with lump sugar, which is to large a quantity of water may be used be added to the juice; mix the whole; to dissolve the preparation, when all strain after standing an hour, and the excess of water has to be cooled freeze. Beat up with a little sugar the down instead of the substance it is whites of two or three eggs, and as the wished to freeze. All the materials ice is beginning to set, work this in used should be pure, and as cool as can with the spatula, which will much be obtained. The ice-pail in which the improve the consistence and taste. mixture is made must be of some non

1928. ORANGE-WATER Ice in the conducting material, as wood, which

same way. will prevent the access of warmth from 1929. Nitrate of Ammonia as the air; and the ice-pot, in which the a Freezing Mixture.--Another subliquor to be frozen is placed, should be stance which is free from any corrosive of pewter, and surrounded nearly to its action or unpleasant odour, is the nitrate top by the freezing mixture. Bear in of ammonia, which, if simply dissolved mind that the making of ice-cream, in rather less than its own weight of under any circumstances, is an opera- water, reduces the temperature to about tion requiring considerable dexterity twenty-five degrees below freezing. The and practice.

objections to its use are, that its frigorific

power is not sufficiently great to freeze 1922. To make Dessert Ices, readily; and if it be required to form both Cream and Water.

dessert ices, it is requisite to renew the 1923. STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM.— process, at the expiration of a quarter Take one pint of strawberries, one pint of an hour, a second, or even, if the of cream, nearly half a pound of pow- weather is very hot, and the water dered white sugar, the juice of a lemon; used is rather warm, a third or fourth mash the fruit through a sieve, and time. Again, the nitrate of ammonia take out the seeds : mix with the other is a very expensive salt; even in France, articles, and freeze. A little new milk where it is manufactured expressly for added makes the whole freeze more this purpose, it is sold at the rate of quickly.

three francs a pound; and in this 1924. RASPBERRY ICE CREAM.--country it cannot be obtained under The same as strawberry. These ices a much higher price. One great reare often coloured by cochineal, but commendation, however, attends its the addition is not advantageous to the use, namely, that it may be recovered flavour. Strawberry or raspberry jam again, and used any number of times, by may be used instead of the fresh fruit, simply boiling away the water in which or equal quantities of jam and fruit it is dissolved, by a gentle fire, until a




small portion, on being removed, crystal- cannot be regarded as a freezing one, lizes on cooling.

although very efficient in cooling. 1930. Washing Soda as a The other powder is formed simply of Freezing Mixture.--If, however, the best Scotch soda, crushed in a nitrate of ammonia in coarse powder is mortar, or by passing through a mill; put into the cooler, and there is then added although, as hitherto prepared, its aptwice its weight of freshly crushed wash- pearance has been disguised' by the ing soda, and an equal quantity of the admixture of small quantities of other coldest water that can be obtained, an in- materials, which have, however, tended tensely powerful frigorific mixture is the to diminish its efficacy. The two result, the cold often falling to forty powders so prepared must be sepadegrees below freezing: This is by far rately kept in closely-covered vessels, the most efficacious freezing mixture and in as cool a place as possible; for that can be made without the use of if the crushed soda is exposed to the ice or acids. But, unfortunately, it air, it loses the water it contains, and has an almost insuperable objection, is considerably weakened in power; that the nitrate of ammonia is decom- and if the other mixture is exposed, it posed by the soda, and cannot be attracts moisture from the air, and disrecovered by evaporation ; this raises solves in it-becoming useless. To the expense to so great a height, that use the mixture, take an equal bulk of the plan is practically useless. the two powders, mix them together

1931. The New Freezing Pre- by stirring, and immediately introduce paration without Ice or Acids them into the ice-pail, or vessel in obviates all these objections. It is easy which they are to be dissolved, and of use, not corrosive in its properties, and pour on as much water (the coldest capable of being used at any time, at a that can be obtained) as is sufficient to minute's notice ; is easy of transport, dissolve them; if a pint measure of each being in a solid form, and, moreover, of the powders is used, they will require moderate in its cost. In India, to about a pint of water to dissolve them. which country it has been exported in More water than is necessary should enormous quantities, it has excited the not be used, as in that case the addimost lively interest, and the Nepaulese tional water is cooled instead of the princes, when in London, paid the substance that it is wished to freeze, greatest attention to its use. It con- Less than a pint of each powder, and sists of two powders, the first of which about the same quantity of water, will is composed of one part by weight of be found sufficient to ice two bottles of muriate of ammonia, or sal-ammoniac wine, one after the other, in the hottest powder, and intimately mixed with of weather, if a tub is used of such a size two parts by weight of nitrate of pot- as to prevent the waste of materials. ash, or saltpetre. These quantities 1932. Muriate of Ammonia as are almost exactly in (what is called by a Freezing Mixture. If the ordichemists) the combining proportions nary sal ammoniac of the shops is used, of the two salts, and by reacting on it will be found both difficult to powder, each other, the original compounds and expensive; in fact, it is so exceedare destroyed, and in the place of mu- ingly tough, that the only way in which riate of ammonia and nitrate of potash, it can be easily divided, except in a drug we have nitrate of ammonia and mu- mill, is by putting as large a riate of potash; thus we have succeeded of the salt into water which is actually in producing nitrate of ammonia at a boiling as the latter will dissolve ; as the cheap rate, accompanied

by another solution cools, the salt crystallizes out in salt, the muriate of potash, which also the solid form, and if stirred as it cools, it produces considerable cold when dis- separates in a state of fine division. As solved: but this mixture, used alone, this process is troublesome, and as the


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