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sal ammoniae is expensive, it is better paste, plenty of clean water, and keep to use the crude muriate of ammonia, them in a warm, dry, and sunny situawhich is the same substance as sal am- tion. moniac, but before it has been purified 1937. Canaries.--To distinguish by sublimation. This is not usually a cock bird from a hen, observe the bird kept by druggists, but may be readily when it is singing, and if it be a cock obtained of any of the artificial manure you will perceive the throat heaving merchants, at a very moderate rate ; with a pulse-like motion, a peculiarity and its purity may be readily tested by which is scarcely perceptible in the placing a portion of it on a red-hot iron, hen. Feed young canaries with white when it should fly off in a vapour, and yolk of hard egg, mixed together leaving scarcely any residue.

with a little bread steeped in water. 1933. COLDNESS OF THE MATERIALS This should be pressed and placed in Used.—It is hardly necessary to add, one vessel, while in another should be that in icing wines, or freezing, the put some boiled rape seed, washed in effect is great in proportion to the cold- fresh water. Change the food every day. ness of the materials used : therefore, When they are a month old, put them every article employed, viz., the water, into separate cages. Cut the claws of tubs, mixtures, &c., should be as cool as cage birds occasionally, when they bepossible.

come too long, but in doing so be care1934. Blackbirds. The cock ful not to draw blood. bird is of a deep black, with a yellow

1938. Canaries. — Especial care bill. The female is dark brown. It is must be taken to keep the canary scrudifficult to distinguish male from female pulously clean. For this purpose, the birds when young;

but the darkest cage should be strewed every morning generally are males. Their food con- with clean sand, or rather, fine gravel, sists of German paste, bread, meat, and for small pebbles are absolutely essential bits of apple. The same treatment as to life and health in cage-birds : fresh given for the thrush applies to the water must be given every day, both blackbird.

for drinking and bathing; the latter 1935. Food of Blackbirds.-being in a shallow vessel ; and, during The natural food of the blackbird is the moulting season, a small bit of iron berries, worms, insects, shelled snails, should be put into the water for drinkcherries, and other similar fruit; and ing. The food of a canary should conits artificial food, lean fresh meat, cut sist principally of summer rape seed, that very small, and mixed with bread, or is, of those small brown rape seeds which German paste.

are obtained from plants sown in the 1936. Thrushes.-A cock may be spring, and which ripen during the distinguished from a hen by a darker summer; large and black rape seeds, on back, and the more glossy appearance the contrary, are produced by such of the feathers. The belly also is plants as are sown in autumn and white. Their natural food is insects, reaped in spring. A little chickweed in worms, and snails. In a domesticated spring, lettuce leaves in summer, and state they will meat raw meat, but endive in autumn, with slices of sweet snails and worms should be procured apple in winter, may be safely given; for them. Young birds are hatched but bread and sugar ought to be geneabout the middle of April, and should rally avoided. Occasionally, also, a few be kept very warm. They should be poppy or canary seeds, and a small fed with raw meat, cut small, or bread quantity of bruised hemp seed may be mixed in milk with hemp seed well added, but the last very sparingly. bruised; when they can feed them- Cleanliness, simple food, and fresh but selves give them lean meat cut small, not cold air, are essential to the welland mixed with bread or German being of a canary. During the winter,



the cage should never be hung in a room lettuce, &c., and occasionally berries. without a fire, but even then, when the When confined, they are usually fed air is mild, and the sun shines bright, with a paste made in the following the little prisoner will be refreshed by manner :- Take a portion of bread, having the window open. The cage well-baked and stale, put it into fresh should never be less than eight inches water, and leave it until quite soaked in diameter, and a foot high, with through, then squeeze out the water perches at different heights.

and pour boiled milk over it, adding 1939. Bulfinches. Old birds two-thirds of the same quantity of barley should be fed with German Paste, No. 2, meal well sifted, or, what is better, and occasionally rape seed. The Ger- wheat meal. This should be made mans sometimes give them a little fresh every two days. Occasionally poppy-seed, and a grain or two of rice, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg should steeped in Canary wine, when teaching be crumbled small and given to the them to pipe, as a reward for the pro- birds, as well as a little hemp seed, meal gress they make. . Bird organs, or worms, and elder berries. Great cleanflageolets, are used to teach them. liness should be observed in the cages They breed three or four times a year. of these birds. The young require to be kept very 1942. Parrots may best be taught warm, and to be fed every two hours to talk by covering the cage at night, or with rape seed, soaked for several hours rather in the evening, and then repeatin cold water, afterwards scalded and ing to them slowly and distinctly the strained, bruised, mixed with bread, words they are desired to learn. They and moistened with milk. One, two, should be kept away from places where or three mouthfuls at a time.

they would be liable to hear disagreeable 1940. Linnets.- Cock birds are noises, such as street cries, and the browner on the back than the hens, whistling and shouts of boys at play, and have some of the large feathers of or they will imitate them, and become the wings white up to the quills. too noisy to be tolerated. Parrots may Canary and hemp seed, with occasion- be fed upon soaked bread, biscuit

, ally a little groundsel, water-cress, mashed potatoes, and rape seed. They chickweed, &c., constitute their food. are fond of nuts.

Cayenne pepper, 1941. Skylarks. — The cock is sprinkled upon a bone, and given to recognized by the largeness of his eye, them occasionally, is said to be very the length of his claws, the mode of beneficial. They should be kept very erecting his crest, and by marks of clean, and allowed a bath frequently. white in the tail. It is also a larger It would be difficult to point out modes bird than the hen. The cage should be of treatment of the diseases of parrots. of the following proportions :—Length, When they become affected in any way, one foot five inches; width, nine inches; it is best to keep them warm, change height, one foot three inches. There their food for a time, and give them should be a circular projection in front lukewarm water to bathe in. to admit of a fresh turf being placed 1943. German Paste.-German every two or three days, and the bottom paste for cage birds, which will be of the cage should be plentifully and found of better quality and cheaper constantly sprinkled with river sand. than what is sold in the shops.—Boil four All vessels containing food should be eggs until quite hard, then throw them placed outside, and the top of the cage into cold water; remove the whites and should be arched and padded, so that grate or pound the yolks until quite the bird may not injure itself by jump- fine, and add a pound of white eaing about. Their food, in a natural meal and a tablespoonful of olive oil. state, consists of seeds, insects, and also Mix the whole up together, and press buds, green herbage, as clover, endive, the dough through a tin cullender so as



to form into small grains like shot. Fry clean washed every time fresh food them over a gentle fire, gradually is put upon it. It is foul and heated stirring them until of a light brown water which is the sole cause of the colour, when they are fit for use. pip.

1944. Insects from Bird- 1951. To Fatten Fowls in a cages, Drawers, &c. - To keep Short Time.-Mix together ground away insects from birds' eyes, suspend rice well scalded with milk, and add a little bag of sulphur in the cage. This some coarse sugar. Feed them with is said to be healthful for birds generally, this in the daytime, but not too much as well as serving to keep away insects at once; let it be rather thick. by which they become infested.

1952. Poultry. — The editor of 1945. Squirrels. - In a domestic the Gardener's Chronicle says, in reply state these little animals are fed with to a correspondent, —“It is, in our hazel nuts, or indeed any kind of nuts; opinion, a bad thing to give fowls eggand occasionally bread and milk. They shells. They supply nothing that is not should be kept very clean.

equally furnished by lime, and especially 1946. Rabbits should be kept dry bricklayers' rubbish, old ceilings, &c. and warm. Their best food is celery, Never do anything that has a tendency parsley, and carrots; but they will eat to make them eat eggs. They are apt almost any kind of vegetable, especially scholars. If they find worms in a natural the dandelion, milk-thistle, &c. In

way they are good food, but it is a bad spring it is recommended to give them plan to give them by the handful. The tares. A little bran, and any kind of colour of a golden Poland cock is not grain occasionally is beneficial, as too very essential, provided it be uniform, much green food is very hurtful. Care and the spangling regular, the legs a should be taken not to over-feed them. good clear blue, and the wing well laced. When fed upon dry food a little skim The top-knot should not have too much milk will be good for them. Tea white." leaves also, in small quantities, are said 1953. Gold Fish.

Great care to be good for them.

must be taken of gold fish, as they are 1947. White Mice are fed upon very sensitive; and hence a loud noise, bread soaked in milk, peas, oats, beans, strong smell, violent or even slight &c., and any kind of nuts.

shaking of the vessel, will sometimes 1948. Monkeys feed upon bread, destroy them. Small worms which are and fruit of any kind. Do not let common to the water, suffice for their them have meat, except, perhaps, small food in general; but the Chinese, who bones.

bring gold fish to great perfection, throw 1949. Guinea Pigs very much small balls of paste into the water, of resemble rabbits in their living, and which they are very fond. They give may be treated nearly the same. They them also lean pork, dried in the sun, should be kept dry, warm, and very and reduced to a very fine and delicate clean.

powder. Fresh river-water must be 1950. To Fatten Poultry. given them every day. Care must be Poultry should be fattened in coops, and taken to collect the spawn, when seen kept very clean. They should be fur- floating on the water, as otherwise it nished with gravel, but with no water. will be destroyed by the fish themselves. Their only food, barley-meal, should be This spawn is put into a vessel, and exmixed with water, so as to serve them posed to the sun, until vivified by the for drink. Their thirst makes them eat heat. Gold fish, however, seldom demore than they would, in order to ex-posit spawn when kept in vases. In tract the water that is among the food. order to procure a supply, they must be This should not be put in troughs, but put into reservoirs of a considerable laid upon a board, which should be depth, in some parts at least, well shaded



at intervals with water-lilies, and con- unless a veterinary surgeon be called in. stantly supplied with fresh water. During the distemper, dogs should be

1954. To Chloroform Bees.- allowed to run on the grass ; their diet The quantity of chloroform required for should be spare; and a little sulphur an ordinary hive is the sixth part of an be placed in their water. Chemists ounce; a very large hive may take who dispense cattle medicines can nearly a quarter of an ounce. Set down generally advise with sufficient safety a table opposite to, and about four feet upon the diseases of dogs, and it is distant from the hive; on the table best for unskilful persons to abstain spread a thick linen cloth; in the centre from physicing them. Hydrophobia of the table place a small shallow break- is the most dreadful of all diseases. fast plate, which cover with a piece of The first symptoms are attended by wire gauze, to prevent the bees from thirst, fever, and languor. The dog coming in immediate contact with the starts convulsively in his sleep, and chloroform. Now quickly and cau- when awake, though restless, is lantiously lift the hive from the board on guid. When a dog is suspected, he which it is standing, set it down on the should be firmly chained in a place where top of the table, keeping the plate in neither children nor dogs nor cats can the centre; cover the hive closely up get near him. Any one going to attend with cloths, and in twenty minutes or him should wear thick leather gloves, so the bees are not only sound asleep, and proceed with great caution. When but not one is left among the combs ; a dog snaps savagely at an imaginary the whole of them are lying helpless on object, it is almost a certain indication the table. You now remove what honey of madness; and when it exhibits & you think fit, replace the hive in its old terror of fluids, it is confirmed hydrostand, and the bees, as they recover, will phobia. Some dogs exhibit a great return to their domicile. A bright, caim, dislike of musical sounds, and when sunny day is the best ; and you should this is the case they are too frequently commence your operations early in made sport of. But it is a dangerous the morning, before many of them are sport, as dogs have sometimes been abroad.

driven mad by it. In many diseases 1955. Dogs.- The best way to keep dogs will be benefited by warm baths. dogs healthy is to let them have plenty The mange is a contagious disease, of oxercise, and not to over-feed them. which it is difficult to get rid of when Let them at all times have a plentiful once contracted. The best way is to supply of clean water, and encourage apply to a veterinary chemist for an them to take to swimming, as it assists ointment, and to keep applying it for their cleanliness. When you wash some time after the disease bas disapthem do not use a particle of soap, or peared, or it will break out again. you will prevent their licking them- 1956. Cats.—It is generally supselves, and they may become habitually posed that cats are more attached to dirty. Properly treated, dogs should places than to individuals, but this is an be fed only once a day. Meat boiled error. They obstinately cling to certain for dogs, and the liquor in which it is places, because it is there they expect to boiled thickened with barley meal, or see the persons to whom they are attached. oatmeal, forms capital food. The dis- A cat will return to an empty house, temper is liable to attack dogs from and remain in it many weeks. But four months to four years old. It when at last she finds that the family

. prevails most in spring and autumn. does not return, she strays away, and if The disease is known by dulness of she chances then to find the family, the eye, husky cough, shivering, loss she will abide with them. The same of appetite and spirits, and fits. When rules of feeding which apply to dogs fits occur, the dog will most likely die, apply also to cats.

They sħould not



be over-fed, nor too frequently. Cats assured, if you pursue a course of this are liable to the same diseases as dogs; kind, they will not return to you unthough they do not become ill so fre- laden with intelligence; and, rather quently. A little brimstone in their than it should be uninteresting, they milk occasionally is a good preventive. will by degrees learn to embellish, in The veterinary chemist will also pre- such a manner as shall not fail to call scribe for the serious diseases of cats. forth remarks and expressions of wonder 1957. Choice of Friends. We from you. You will

, by this course, should ever have it fixed in our me- render the spirit of curiosity, which is mories, that by the character of those so early visible in children, and which, whom we choose for our friends our own if rightly directed, may be made the character is likely to be formed, and will instrument of enriching and enlarging certainly be judged of by the world. their minds a vehicle of mischief which We ought, therefore, to be slow and will serve only to narrow them. cautious in contracting intimacy; but

1960. Rules of Conduct. We when a virtuous friendship is once es- cannot do better than quote the valutablished, we must ever consider it as a able injunctions of that excellent woman, sacred engagement.—Dr. Blair. Mrs. Fry, who combined in her charac

1958. Words.-Soft words soften ter and conduct all that is truly excelthe soul-angry words are fuel to the lent in woman: i. I never lose any time, flame of wrath, and make it blaze more - I do not think that time lost which is freely. Kind words make other people spent in amusement or recreation somo good-natured-cold words freeze peo- part of each day; but always be in the ple, and hot words scorch them, and habit of being employed. i. Never err bitter words make them bitter, and the least in truth. ii. Never say an ill wrathful words make wrathful. There thing of a person when thou canst say a is such a rush of all other kinds of good thing of him; not only speak words in our days, that it seems de- charitably, but feel so. iv. Never be sirable to give kind words a chance irritable or unkind to anybody. among them. There are vain words, Never indulge thyself in luxuries that and idle words, and hasty words, and are not necessary. vi. Do all things spiteful words, and silly words, and with consideration : and when thy path empty words, and profane words, and to act right is most difficult, feel conboisterous words, and warlike words. fidence in that Power alone which is Kind words also produce their own able to assist thee, and exert thy own image on men's souls, and a beautiful powers as far as they go. image it is. They smooth, and quiet, 1961. The Female Temper.and comfort the hearer. They shame No trait of character is more agreeable him out of his sour, and morose, and in a female than the possession of a unkind feelings. We have not yet be- sweet temper. Home can never be gun to use kind words in such abund- | happy without it. It is like the flowers ance as they ought to be used. that spring up in our pathway, reviv1959. Gossiping. If you wish to ing and cheering us.

Let a man go cultivate a gossiping, meddling, cen- home at night, wearied and worn by sorious spirit in your children, be sure the toils of the day, and how soothing when they come home from church, a is a word dictated by a good disposition ! visit, or any other place where you do It is sunshine falling on his heart. not accompany them, to ply them with He is happy, and the cares of life are questions concerning what everybody forgotten. A sweet temper has a soothwore, how everybody looked, and what ing influence over the minds of a whole everybody said and did; and if you family. Where it is found in the wife find anything in this to censure, always and mother, you observe a kindness do it in their hearing. You may rest and love predominating over the natu


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