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mottled soap.

2458. Washing Bed Furni- 2461. Washing:-(Supremacy of ture, &c.—Before putting into the Soapsuds over Lime.)

To save your water, see that you shake off as much linen and your labour,-pour on half a dust as possible, or you will greatly pound of soda two quarts of boiling increase your labour. Use no soda, or water, in an earthenware pan; take pearlash, or the articles will lose their half a pound of soap, shred fine; put it colour. Use soft water, not hot, but into a saucepan with two quarts of cold warm : have plenty of it. Rub with water; stand it on a fire till it boils ;

On wringing out the and when perfectly dissolved and boil. second liquor, dip each piece into cold ing, add it to the former. Mix it well, hard water for finishing. Shake out and let it stand till cold, when it will well, and dry quickly. If starch is have the appearance of a strong jelly. desired, it may be stirred into the Let your linen be soaked in water, the rinsing water.

seams and any other soiled part rubbed 2459. Washing with Lime.- in the usual way, and remain till the Half a pound of soap; half a pound of following morning. Get your copper soda ; quarter of a pound of quick-lime. ready, and add to the water about a pint Cut up the soap and dissolve it in basin full; when lukewarm put in your half a gallon of boiling water; pour linen, and allow it to boil for twenty half a gallon of boiling water over the minutes. Rinse it in the usual way, soda, and enough boiling water over and that is all which is necessary to the quick-lime to cover it. The lime get it clean, and to keep it in good must be quick and fresh; if quick, it colour. The above receipt is invaluable will bubble up when the hot water is to housekeepers. If you have not poured over it. Prepare each of these tried it, do so without delay. in separate vessels ; put the dissolved 2462. WHEN WATER IS HARD, and lime and soda together, and boil them will not readily unite with soap, it will for twenty minutes; then pour them always be proper to boil it before into a jar to settle.

use; which will be found sufficiently 2460. AFTER HAVING MADE THR efficacious, if the hardness depends PREPARATION, set aside the flannels solely upon the impregnation of lime. and coloured articles, as they must not Even exposure to the atmosphere will be washed in this way. They may be produce this effect in a great degree washed in the usual way while the upon spring water so impregnated, others are boiling. The night before, leaving it much fitter for lavatory purthe collars and wristbands of shirts, poses. In both cases the water ought the feet of stockings, &c., should be to be carefully poured off from the sedirubbed well with soap and set to soak. ment, as the neutralized lime, when In the morning pour ten gallons of freed from its extra quantity of carbonic water into the copper, and having acid, falls to the bottom by its own strained the mixture of lime and soda gravity. To economize the use of soap, well, taking great care not to disturb put any quantity of pearlash into a the settlings, put it, together with the large jar, covered from the dust, in a soap, into the water, and make the few days the alkali will become liquid, whole boil before putting in the clothes. which must be diluted in double its A plate should be placed at the bottom quantity of soft water, with an equal of the copper, to prevent the clothes quantity of new-slacked lime. Boil it from burning. Boil each lot of clothes half an hour, frequently stirring it; from half an hour to an hour, then adding as much more hot water, and rinse them well in cold blue water. drawing off the liquor, when the resiWhen dry they will be beautifully duum may be boiled afresh, and drained, white. The same water will do for until it ceases to feel acrid to the 1Lree lots. Wash the finer things first. tongue.



2463. SOAP AND LABOUR MAY BE 2469. Sweet Bags for Linen. SAVED by dissolving alum and chalk in - These may be composed of any bran water, in which the linen ought mixtures of the following articles :to be boiled, then well rinsed out, flowers, dried and pounded; powdered and exposed to the usual process of cloves, mace, nutmeg, cinnamon; leaves bleaching

-dried and pounded—of mint, balm, 2464. SOAP MAY BE DISPENSED dragon-wort, southernwood, groundWITH, or nearly so, in the getting up of ivy, laurel, hyssop, sweet marjoram, muslins and chintzes, which should al- origanum, rosemary; woods, such as ways be treated agreeably to the Oriental cassia, juniper, rhodium, sandal-wood, manner; that is, to wash them in plain and rosewood; roots of angelica, zedowater, and then boil them in congee, or ary, orris: all the fragrant balsams-. rice water: after which they ought not ambergris, musk, and civet. These latter to be submitted to the operation of the should be carefully used on linen. smoothing iron, but rubbed smooth with 2470. Rings which have stones in a polished stone.

them should always be taken off the 2465. The Economy which must finger when the hands are washed, or result from these processes renders their they will become discoloured. consideration important to every family, 2471. Adulterations. Much in addition to which, we must state has been written upon the subject of that the improvements in philosophy adulteration. Dr. Hassall published a extend to the laundry as well as to the series of papers in the Lancet; these wash-house.

brought about a parliamentary inquiry; 2466. Gum Arabic Starch.- the inquiry ended in demonstrating that Procure two ounces of fine white gum nearly everything we eat and drink is arabic, and pound it to powder. Next adulterated-in many cases with ingreput it into a pitcher, and pour on it a dients very prejudicial to human health. pint or more of boiling water, according Somebody has written a little book to to the degree of strength you desire, inform people “ How to Detect Aduland then, having covered it, let it set terations in our Daily Food and Drink,” all night.

In the morning, pour it and there is room for some one to write carefully from the dregs into a clean a key to the said little book, entitled bottle, cork it, and keep it for use. A“ How to understand the instructions in tablespoonful of gum water stirred into How to Detect Adulteration in our a pint of starch that has been made in the Daily Food and Drink'”—for although usual manner will give to lawns (either the advertisement of the book says that white or printed) a look of newness it gives instructions for the employment to which nothing else can restore them of " simple means ” of detection, the after washing. It is also good (much means suggested are in most diluted) for thin white muslin and highly impracticable, and in some inbobbinet.

stances dangerous. Thus the housewife 2467. Mildew out of Linen.- who sets about the discovery of some Rub the linen well with soap; then supposed evil may, by an error or acciscrape some fine chalk, and rub it also dent—the upsetting of a bottle of sulon the linen. Lay it on the grass. phuric acid, or the explosion of a reAs it dries, wet it a little, and the ceiver of gas —do herself more injury mildew will come out with a second in an hour than she would suffer from application.

adulteration in a lifetime. 2468. To render Linen, &c., 2472. IMPRACTICABLE MODES OF Incombustible.—All linen, cotton, DETECTION,— The writer alluded to muslins, &c., &c., when dipped in a states that, to discover the adulterations solution of tungstate of soda or common in arrowroot, you are to “mix it with alum, will become incombustible. twice its weight of concentrated muri

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atic acid." To discover adulterations 2473. How TO

ADULin flour, you are to “take of the sus- TERATION, pected flour about 350 grains, and the FRAUDULENT TRADESPEOPLE. - We same quantity of fine sand, and two and are not about to advise the housewife a half fluid ounces of water; triturate to set up a chemical laboratory, nor to in a mortar the sand and flour for five put her husband to the expense of a minutes; then gradually add a little of compound achromatic microscope. Our the water, so as to dilute it evenly, and instructions will neither burn holes in form a homogeneous paste; throw the her dress, stain her mahogany table, whole upon a filter, and take about one blacken her nails, make smarting chaps ounce of the clear liquid, place it in a in her hands, nor fill her with monomatest-glass, and add the same quantity of niacal fears that she is being ossified by an aqueous solution of iodine.” The bone-dust, or that in a little while she author remarks that this method is will be crystallized all over, like an tedious, and far from satisfactory. So alum-basket. Our apparatus is as folwe think. He then gives another :- lows:“If chalk be suspected, place a tea

A hand flour-mill, which will cost spoonful of flour in a wineglass, with

£5 00 a little water, and add a few drops of

A pestle and mortar muriatic acid. If chalk be present, a A coffee-mill brisk effervescence will ensue, owing to

A pepper and spice-mill the escape of carbonic acid (it should be

A meat-cutting machine carbonic acid gas). Lime may be Scales and weights detected in a similar way—using oxalate Imperial measures of ammonia instead of muriatic acid. The lime will form an insoluble precipitate, which is oxalate of lime!" Then, This seems a good deal of money, and to detect the presence of bone dust, you anything but a “simple” means of ara told to burn a portion of the sus- meeting a great evil. But we have not pected flour, and “if a portion of the yet completed our instructions. ash dissolved in water give, with nitrate 2474. FORMATION OF “ FAMILY of silver, an abundant precipitate, CIRCLES.”—The mill is the most expenphosphate of lime is present. The test sive item in this table of expenditure, of oxalate of ammonia may be used to and what we propose is this:-"Family detect lime in the ash, as already ad- Circles” should be called for the purvised for its detection in flour!” This pose of mitigating the evils complained is the character of by far the greater of.

« Circle” have its mill number of these “simple” instructions; —let it be kept at a place convenient and, to crown the whole, to enable you to all. By such means a capital of 10s., to detect adulteration in bottled, cured, subscribed by each member, would be and potted anchovies, with their heads sufficient; a little company would be decapitated, and their entrails removed, formed, upon a better principle than you are favoured with Mr. Yarrell's that of "limited liability,” since, the pen-and-ink portrait of the fish when capital being paid up, there would be no in a living, or, at least, a fresh and whole liability at all. What would be the recondition! Among other adulterations sult' Why, that people would obtain we therefore discover the adulteration of pure bread, pure coffee, pure condibooks, by the introduction of matter to ments, and other things, at a cost of give an appearance of learning to their full twenty-five per cent. under that pages, and of no possible use to the which they now pay for spurious and buyer, who is compelled to pay sixpence health-destroying mixtures. for what he ought to obtain at one-sixth 2475. OTHER EVILS of that cost.

“ ADULTERATIONS.”—The butcher can

Let every





quantity of water, in an earthen vessel. would be a great waste of time to find Place it over a slow fire for three hours. them out, since all cayenne is largely Scoop up the pap, and let the water adulterated. Therefore, make your stand. When perfectly settled, pour own, or-don't use any. off the water, and a chalky sediment 2488. Chicory.—This is the dried will be found to cover the bottom of the and roasted root of a plant allied to the vessel. Heartburn, immediately after dandelion, and it is found by almost cating bread, is a sign of its impurity. unanimous testimony to be an agreePut some flour upon a table, and blow able flavourer of coffee. Dr. Hassall it gently with the breath. If little denounces the use of chicory, but with heaps remain upon the table, resisting no sufficient reason. He states it to the action of the breath, and differing be “diuretic and aperient”-qualities manifestly from the indications given which we declare to be in its favour, by other portions when blown upon, for it is the prevailing defect of our the substance thus remaining is impure. food that it is too astringent and heatPotato flour, and indeed all white flours ing, and the fact that chicory finds are heavier than pure wheat. Bake a such general approbation we believe small quantity of the suspected flour, rests in the very qualities which Dr. until it is of a full brown. Then rub Hassall condemns. We know a respectit in your hands, or on a table, when able grocer who, before legislation took white particles will be seer if chalk or the matter up from conscientious plaster of Paris be present.

motives ceased to mix chicory with 2485. PURE WHEATEN FLOUR is coffee : the immediate effect was the remarkable for its cohesiveness. If falling off of his coffee trade, his squeezed, it will adhere; it is also very customers declaring that his coffee was light, and may be blown into a cloud not so good as previously; and he was with the lightest breath. It was stated compelled again to mix chicory with in the Parliamentary Report, that it, to meet their taste. Chicory is foung earthy matters are not admixed with to be “adulterated” with carrois, flour. This means, that Dr. Hassall parsnips, and mangold-wurzel. In Dr. had not discovered any. A man was Hassail's papers the names of those fined at Leeds, not long ago, for adul- roots are italicized, as though some terating flour with plaster of Paris. He dreadful disclosure lay therein. But had carried adulteration to such an as these roots are all of them highly excess, that it was discovered through nutritious and agreeable, instead of the illness of families who had partaken detracting from the claims of chicory, of bread made from flour supplied by the facts stated rather elevate “chicory him.

in our estimation, and point to the pro2486. BUTTER is made heavy by bability that the roots mentioned possess water, which may generally be seen qualities hitherto imperfectly ascertained, exuding from bad samples; these and worthy of further examination and should be rejected by the purchaser. development. Our remarks are not

2487. CAYENNE PEPPER. Having merely of conjecture, they are founded your own pestle and mortar, make it upon observation and analysis. according to the following instruc- 2489. CHOCOLATE AND Cocoa.--The tions :- Let a quantity be made at adulterations of these articles pointed one time for the “Family Circle.” out by Dr. Hassall are not of a serious The cayenne of commerce is adulte- nature, being confined to flour, starch, rated with brickdust, red wood dust, potato farina, sago meal, wheat flour, cochineal, vermillion, and red lead. tapioca starch, maranta and other The latter two are highly injurious, arrowroots, tous-les-mois, and animal and the former ones not very salutary fats; but as the latter are employed in As to the means of detecting these, it the roasting of all farinaceous grains,

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