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both adulterated with inferior grain, sulphuric acid, cream of tartar, alum, husks of seeds, and even dust of a carbonate of potash, oyster shells, hartsvariety of descriptions. Having your horn shavings, fabia amara, or nux vopepper-mill, purchase the seed whole, mica, and beans for fining. Beer which and grind for yourself. You will then is quickly“heady," and rapidly intoxiobtain the pure article at a moderate cating, may be regarded as drugged. cost.

The large brewers supply the purest 2500. OATMEAL is adulterated with beer. The publicans adulterate it after barley flour and the husks of barley. they receive supplies from the brewers. A pint of pure oatmeal will weigh 2504. Rum is adulterated with heavier than a pint of the adulterated. water, and sharpened with cayenne

2501. PICKLES AND PRESERVES.- pepper. Let it stand in a decanter, and These are found to be adulterated with if a cloudy precipitate is found at the various compounds; but the greatest bottom, that is a sign of adulteration. evil lies in the fact that they are fre- 2505. SAUSAGES. -The most offen. quently impregnated with copper. To sive of all adulterations are found in detect this, put some of the pickle, these savory morsels. Horseflesh, discut small, into a phial with two or eased animals, and odds and ends of three drachms of liquid ammonia, every description appear in the tempting diluted with one half the quantity of guise of “sausages.” To escape this water. Shake the phial, when, if the evil, make your own sausages by the minutest portion of copper be present, aid of the sausage machine, which the liquid will assume a fine blue may be purchased for 30s., and will colour. In the case of preserves, the enable you to add many savory morsels copper probably proceeds from the use to the attraction of your table. The of copper pans in making the pre- same machine may be used for CHOPserves; but with regard to pickles, cop- PING VEGETABLES, which it will do per is employed to improve their colour, to such perfection that they will perand sulphuric acid to strengthen bad fectly dissolve in soups and stews, and vinegar. The best way is to avoid pur- afford most delicious mado-dishes. And chasing the pickles sold in clear glass in this, as in the grinding of wheat, bottles, and presenting a most tempting you will soon save the cost of the appearance. Take your own jar, or machine. jars, and you will find that you will get 2506. SNUFF is adulterated with pure articles at little more than it would the chromate of potash, chromate of cost you to make pickles at home. We lead, various earths and colours, red presume that in all large towns the lead, carbonate of ammonia, lime, powpickle merchants adopt the same plan dered glass or silex, and powdered orris of selling pickles by the quart or gal- root. lon to those who may visit their estab- 2507. Sugar is commonly adul. lishments; and also that preserves (for terated with fine sand, sawdust, &c. those who do not make their own) may Dissolve some of the sugar in a long, be obtained under equal advantages. narrow ale-glass, and stir it until all the

2502. POTTED MEATS AND Fish are soluble parts have been thoroughly disadulterated with inferior substances, and solved. Then allow it to stand for some coloured with bole armenian and Vene- hours. Sand will sink to the bottom, tian red.

while sawdust will rise to the surface. 2503. PORTER AND ALE are adul- Both the sand and the sawdust will be terated with cocculus indicus, tobacco, found to be very fine, but their pregrains of paradise, capsicum, ginger, sence will be sufficiently indicated. quassia, wormwood, calamus root, car- Loaf sugar is generally purer than raway and coriander seeds, orange pow-moist sugar. der, liquorice, honey, sulphate of iron, 2508. TEA is adulterated with



leaves of the sycamore, horse-chest- pickles artificially raised to a bright nut, and plum; with lye tea, which is green. made up of tea-dust, sand, and gum, iii. Avoid bright-red peppers, spices, to give it consistency; also with leaves and sauces. of the beech, bastard plane, elm, poplar, iv. Purchase spirits and beer of large willow, fancy oak, hawthorn, and sloe. dealers and brewers. It is coloured with blacklead, rose pink,

V. Avoid coloured confections,—espeDutch pink, vegetable red and yellow cially those that are green, blue, or red. dyes, arsenite of copper, chromate and vi. Weigh and measure your purbichromate of potash. Green teas are chases when they are brought home. more adulterated than black. They You will thus not only secure your just are coloured with Prussian blue, tur- amount, but will arrive at a knowledge meric, Chinese yellow, &c., flavoured of the proper weights of pure articles, with sulphate of iron, catechu gum, la and be assisted in the rejection of the veno beno, and Chinese botanical pow- spurious. der. · Tea leaves that have been once 2513. Bread contains eighty nuused are collected, “doctored,” and tritious parts in 100; meal, thirty-four again sold as fresh tea. Obtain some in 100; French beans, ninety-two in genuine leaves of tea, moisten them, 100; common beans, eighty-nine in and lay them out with gum upon 100; peas, ninety-three in 100; lenpaper. Press them between the leaves tils, ninety-four in 100; cabbages and of books until dry. When you sus- turnips, the most aqueous of all the pect a sample of tea, damp and unroll vegetables compared, produce only the leaves, and gum and dry them as eight pounds of solid matter in 100 the genuine ones, you will then be pounds; carrots and spinach produce able, by comparison, to detect the ad- fourteen in the same quantity, whilst mixture.

100 pounds of potatoes contain twenty2509. Tobacco is adulterated with five pounds of dry substance. From a rhubarb, potato, coltsfoot, dock leaves, general estimate it results, that one sawdust, malt combings, and medi- pound of good bread is equal to two cinals. The leaves may be unrolled pounds and a half or three pounds of and compared, as recommended in the potatoes; that seventy-five pounds of case of tea.

bread and thirty of meat may be sub2510. WINES are adulterated with stituted for 300 pounds of potatoes. the juice of elderberries, gooseberries, The other substances bear the following hop, champagne, cider, the juices of proportions; four parts of cabbage to various fruits, known as British wines, one of potatoes; three parts of turnips and coloured by means of logwood, to one of potatoes; two parts of carrots burnt sugar, and other ingredients. and spinach to one of potatoes; and

2511. The Result of these in- about three parts and a half of potatoes quiries proves that a majority of articles to one of rice, lentils, beans, French sold are adulterated. But it is also beans, and dry peas. proved that a majority of the sub- 2514. Use of Fruit. Instead stances used for adulterations are not of standing in any fear of a generous positively injurious, though they are consumption of ripe fruits, we regard fraudulently substituted for the genu-them as conducive to health. We have ine article.

no patience in reading the endless rules 2512. THE FOLLOWING ARE HINTS to be observed in this particular dewhich, if acted upon, will turn these partment of physical comfort. No one discoveries to practical account:- ever lived longer or freer from disease,

i. Grind your own wheat, and make by discarding the fruits of the land in your bread at home.

which he finds a home. On the conii. Avoid green pickles ; that is, trary, they are necessary to the pre




very Not above


0 0 3

servation of health, and are therefore 2517. Bills of Exchange and designed to make their appearance at Promissory Notes. the very time when the condition of the

INLAND BILL OF EXCHANGE, Draft, body, operated upon by deteriorating

or Order for the payment to the causes not always understood, requires bearer, or to order, at any time, their renovating influences.

otherwise than on demand, of any Duty: 2515. Blackberries

sum of money,

£ 8. d.

£50 0 1 beneficial in cases of dysentery.

Above £5 and not above

0 0 2 berries are healthful eating. Tea made

10 of the roots and leaves is good; and

5000 6

75 0 0 9 syrup made from the berries excellent.


100 0 1 0 2516. “Morning's Milk,'


2000 2 0 says an eminent German philosopher,


3000 30 300

4000 4 0 “commonly yields some hundredths


5000 5 0 more cream than the evening's at the

7500 7 6 same temperature. That milked at noon


10000 10 0 furnishes the least; it would therefore


1500 0 15 0 1500

2000 1 0 0 be of advantage, in making butter, &c.,


3000 1 10 0 to employ the morning's milk, and keep



2 0 0 the evening's for domestic use."

4000 and upwards

2 50

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2518. A Table of the Number of Days, from any Day of any

one Month to the same Day of any other Month.

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214 184 153 123 92 61 31


304 273 245

31 365 335 61 30 365


334 | 303 275 244 214 183 153 122 91

USE OF THE ABOVE TABLE. What is the number of days from 10th October to 10th July? Look in the upper line for October, let your eye descend down that column till you come opposite to July, and you will find 273 days, the exact number of days required. Again, Required the number of days from 16th February to the 14th August ?

181 days.
Under February,

and opposite to August, is
From which subtract the difference between 14 and 16

2 days.
The exact number of days required is

179 days. N.B.-In Leap Year, if the last day of February comes between, add one day for the day over to the number in the Table.

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