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Instructions in Embroidery and Tapestry-Work. EMBROIDERY, properly speaking, in- flowers, fruit, and other devices on any cludes every sort of ornamental work material; and these may be divided done with a sewing needle of any kind; into white and coloured embroidery. but in its popular acceptation, it applies White embroidery, or embroidery on only to the ornamentation of any muslin, is used for a great variety of article by the eye, or from drawn or articles of ladies' dress. The simplest marked patterns-whatever may be is termed Broderie Anglaise. In this the material, or combination of mate- style, the pattern is formed of holes cut rials employed ; Berlin work, or can out of the muslin, and

sewed over with vas work, on the contrary, is the embroidery cotton. The great art in usual designation of all kinds of em- working broderie is to make the holes broidery on canvas, done by counting all of the same size, and to take the threads, and frequently by the aid of a stitches closely and regularly. painting on checked paper.

Satin stitch is a smooth raised work, Although these two different sorts of used for leaves, flowers, &c. It is done work are really equally entitled to the by first tracing the outlines accurately designation of embroidery, yet for the with soft cotton, then taking stitches sake of making our hints as intelligible from point to point of the part to be as possible, we will adopt the popular raised, so as to have the greatest thickterms, and confine our present remarks ness of cotton in the centre, and sewing to that sort of embroidery which is not it over, in stitches taken close together, executed by the stitch.

and completely across the part outEvery sort of material may be used lined. The veining of leaves is generfor embroidery. The most common are ally formed by taking the stitches from muslin, cambric, velvet, satin, cloth, the vein to the edge, first on one side and leather. The simplest style of and then on the other. The borders of embroidery is that termed Application, embroidered muslin collars, &c., are —that is, where the pattern is in one usually finished with buttonhole stitch, material, laid on another which forms worked either the width of an ordinary the ground. In this way muslin is buttonhole, or in long stitches, and worked on net, velvet is laid on cloth, raised like satin stitch. Eyelet holes or on another velvet, and so on, the are made by piercing round holes with edges being either sewed over, or orna- a stiletto, and sewing them round. mented with fancy cord, braid, gold There are many fancy stitches introthread, or any other appropriate mate- duced into muslin work, but these rial. Another very easy style of orna- require to be practically taught. mentation is that known as braiding. The kind of frame on which muslin Children's dresses are worked with | is most easily worked, consists of two narrow silk or worsted braid, the hoops of wood, about eight inches in latter being also used for ladies' aprons, diameter. One is rather smaller than flounces, &c. Gold and silver braid the other. On it the muslin is stretched, enter largely into various sorts of de- and the larger one being slipped over it, corative needlework, and the Victoria and fitting tightly, keeps the muslin in braid, which has something of the appear- its place. ance of satin stitch, is generally known. Satin and velvet are embroidered in

There is considerable art required to coloured silks, gold and silver bullion, achieve putting on braid evenly and pearls, &c. A very fashionable style is firmly. The stitches should be taken the work with ombré silks. across the braid, but not to either edge. The most delicate kinds of embroiThis makes it lie flat.

dery are worked with fine netting silk, But the most elaborate kinds of em. one strand of which is drawn out. This broidery are those which represent makes the silk appear softer and richer.


into use.


It requires considerable care to work used. There are, also, what are called well wiih ombré silks, to avoid incor- short and long shades; that is, in the rect shading. Nature should be fol- former the entire shades, from the lowed as closely as possible. Not only lightest to the lightest again, will ocmust the form be carefully preserved, cur within a short space, a yard or so; but the lights and shades must be dis- whereas, in long shades, the gradation posed in an artistic manner. For in- is much more gradually made. We stance: the point of a leaf is never the notice these apparently, trifling differdarkest part, nor should the lower ences in our “instructions,” that our leaves and flowers of a group of the readers may comprehend the importsame kind be light.

ance of obtaining precisely the proper The materials for tapestry-work and materials for each design. If we preembroidery may be classed under the scribe a certain article, it is because it names of wool, silk, chenille, and and no other will give the effect. Transbraid; beads, straw, and a variety of parent, white, or silver beads are usually other fancy materials, are also brought worked with white silk, but clear

A knowledge of the proper glass beads, threaded on cerise silk, mode of using them, and the varieties produce a peculiarly rich effect by of each which are made, is one of the coloured silk shining through the most useful things it is possible transparent glass. The silk used for the amateur needle-woman to must be extremely fine, as the beads become acquainted with. We will, vary much in size. A change of therefore, take them in their order. material, which might appear of no

Wool.-German wool (or Berlin wool, consequence whatever, would as it is commonly called) is the most pletely spoil the effect of the design. beautiful material manufactured for A new material has been recently canvas-work. The vast variety of introduced, termed Crystal wool. It shades, the exquisite tints produced, looks very brilliant and pretty, but is the softness and evenness of the fabric, not well adapted for long wear. are beyond all praise. We speak of FLEECY Wool is the sort of wool Berlin wool as it ought to be ; for no used for polkas and other large articles. article is more frequently of inferior No material has been more improved of quality. From damp, or bad packing, late, both in texture and dye. Some of or many other causes, it is frequently the tints are quite as brilliant as those crushed and injured, and in that state we so much admire in Berlin wool. It is not fit to be used for good work. is made in 4, 6, 8, and 12 threads, and Berlin wool is supposed to be all dyed, is much cheaper than German wool. as well as made, abroad; at present It does very well for grounding large a large proportion is entirely produced pieces of tapestry. in our own country, which is little, if SHETLAND Wool is very fine and at all, inferior to the foreign. Berlin soft, but it is not much used. wool' is made only in two sizes, 4- SILKS.—Netting silk is so generally thread and 8-thread; unless the latter known that it requires no description. is specified in receipts, the other is It is made in various sizes, and, of always implied. Berlin wools are course, the selection of a wrong size either dyed in one colour, or in shades often spoils the dimensions of a piece of of the same colour, or (very rarely) in work. Three size are in general use, shades of several colours. Technically, but there are extra fine and coarse. a silk or wool dyed in shades of the FILOSELLE is a silk much used for same colour, going gradually from light crochet-work, and for grounding canto dark, and from dark to light again, vas. Its make has been greatly imis termed an ombré, or shaded wool or proved of late years, - indeed, some silk, whereas chiné is the term em- kinds work with almost the richness of ployed when there are several colours filoss, at one quarter the expense; it is





to the outer stitches; and if there are lin-stitch, because the Gobelin tapestry any small spaces in the pattern, where is worked in it. It is not suited for the ground should be seen, they may coarse canvas; and, in working from a be worked in wool of the colour of the Berlin pattern, two stitches must be ground.

counted as one square. Should a piece of work be a little GERMAN-STITCH is worked diagonally, drawn when taken out of the frame, and consists of the first part of a crossdamp the back well with a clean stitch, and a tent-stitch alternately sponge, and stretch it again in the worked. frame in the opposite direction. When- IRISH-STITCH is worked parallel with ever Berlin-work is done on any solid the selvages of the canvas. None of the thick material, as cloth, velvet,' &c., a stitches cross the threads in the width. needle should be used with an eye suffi- In the first row, take the thread alciently large to form a passage for this ternately over four and two threads; wool. This prevents the latter from in all future rows take the stitches, over being crushed and impoverished as it four threads;—which, as they risepasses through.

first from the long and then from the It only remains for us to describe the short stitch, will produce the same different stitches used in tapestry-work. appearance in others. There are only five kinds, -- Cross- With regard to wools, they should STITCH,

TENT - STITCH, TAPESTRY- never be wound, as the least handling STITCH, GERMAN-STITCH, and Irish- crushes the pile and spoils them.

Chenille “needs still more careful CROSS-STITCH is generally known. handling. The needle is brought up in one pole To stiffen large pieces of work, wet of the canvas and down on another, the wrong side thoroughly with a two threads higher and more to the sponge and dry it rapidly before a fire right. The slanting thread is then (the wet side nearest the fire), before crossed in the opposite direction. Some removing it from the frame. workers do a line of half stitches, and We have said but little of the introthen cross them; but this plan is apt to duction of beads in canvas work. They spoil the smooth even surface which have the double merit of being at once the work should present. A cross-brilliant and durable. The Germans, stitch covers two threads in each direc- are, however, so tenacious of the tion.

monopoly, it is quite a favour to obTENT-STITCH occupies one-fourth the tain from them the varieties of shades space of cross-stitch. It is taken from and colours. They are, however, one hole to the next above, and on the scarcely less numerous than those of right hand side of it.

wool. We ourselves, as a great favour, TAPESTRY-STITCH crosses two threads have obtained all the colours made in of the canvas in the length, and one in seed-beads, a number considerably ex. the width. It is sometimes called Gobe- ceeding 300.



Materials.-A square of common black or white net; 2 oz. of apricot-coloured Berlin wool;

1 oz. of rich blue ditto; and two hanks of large steel beads. TAPISSERIE D’AUXERRE is the term ap- colours; and, occasionally, beads are plied to a new and very pretty sort of intermingled with the wool, as in the work with Berlin wool and net. The design now before us. pattern is formed by darning the net It will he remembered that all the in various forms, and with different ordinary kinds of net have meshes or

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