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PHOSPHORUS WAS DISCOVERED IN 1677.
red, seven; bleedin' for bleeding; hawf for half; saumon for salmon.
155. DEVONSHIRE, CORNWALL, &c. -F-vind for find; fet for fetch; wid for with; zee for see; tudder for the other; drash, droo, for thrash, and through; gewse for goose; Toosday for Tuesday.
156. ESSEX, LONDON, &c.-V-wiew for view; vent for went; vite for white; ven for when; vot for what. &c.-Clom
157. HEREFORD, for climb; hove for heave; puck for pick; rep for reap; sled for sledge.
158. LEICESTERSHIRE, LINCOLNSHIRE, LANCASHIRE, &c.-Housen for houses; a-loyne for lane; mon for man; thik for this; brig for bridge; thack, pick, for thatch, pitch.
159. YORKSHIRE, &c.-Foyt for foot; foight for fight; o-noite, foil, coil, hoil, for note, foal, coal, hole; loyne for lane; o-nooin, gooise, fooil, tooil, for noon, goose, fool, tool; spwort, scworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, home; g-yet for gate.
160. THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES of provincial dialects will be found very amusing:
161. THE CORNWALL SCHOOLBOY. -An ould man found, one day, a young gentleman's portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar; he took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and said, "Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase some poor ould shoemaker or other have los en; tak'en, and put'en a top of the teaster of tha bed; he'll be glad to hab'en agin sum day, I dear say." The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es work as before. Mally than opened the portmantle, and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, "Jan, l'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to scool" (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He went but a very short time, and comed hoam one day and said, "Mally, I waint go to scool no more, 'caase the childer do be laffen at me; they can tell their letters, and I
caan't tell my A, B, C, and I wud rayther go to work agen." "Do as thee wool," ses Mally. Jan had not been out many days, afore the young gentle, man came by that lost the portmantle, and said, "Well, my ould man, did'ee see or hear tell o' sich a thing as a portmantle ?" "Portmantle, sar, was't that un, sumthing like thickey ?" (pointing to one behind es saddle). I vound one the t'other day zackly like that.' "Where es et ?" "Come along, carr'd'en and gov'en to my ould 'ooman, Mally; thee sha't av'en, nevr year.-Mally, where es that roul of lither I broft en tould thee to put en a top of the teaster of the bed, afore I go to scool." "Drat thee emperance," said the young gentleman; "thee ar: bewattled; that were afore I were born." So he druv'd off, and left all the threз hunderd pounds with Jan and Mally.
162. THE MIDDLESEX THIMBLERIGGER.-Now, then, my jolly sports. men, I've got more money than the parson of the parish. Those as don't play can't vin, and those as are here harn't there! I'd hold any on you, from a tanner to a sovereign, or ten, as you don't tell which thimble the pea is under." "It's there, sir." "I barr tellings." "I'll go it again." you don't see don't look at, and vat you do see don't tell. I'll hould you a soveren, sir, you don't tell me vitch thimble the pea is under." "Lay him, sir (in a whisper), it's under the middle 'un. I'll go you halves." "Lay him another; that's right." "I'm blow'd, but we've lost; who'd a thought it ?" Smack goes the flat's hat over his eyes; exit the confederates, with a loud laugh. 163. HINTS TO THOSE WHO HAVE PIANOFortes. Damp is very injurious to a pianoforte; it ought therefore to be placed in a dry place, and not exposed to draughts.
Keep your piano free from dust, and do not allow needles, pins, or bread to be placed upon it, especially if the key-board is exposed, as such articles are apt to get inside and produce a jarring or whizzing sound.
54 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF MAN'S BRAIN, 3 LBS.; WOMAN'S, 2 LBS. 11 oz.
Do not load the top of a piano with involve a closer application than our books, music, &c., as the tone is thereby readers generally could afford, and deadened, and the disagreeable noise would require much more space than alluded to in the last paragraph is often produced likewise.
Have your piano tuned about every two months; whether it is used or not, the strain is always upon it, and if it is not kept up to concert pitch it will not stand in tune when required, which it will do if attended to regularly.
An upright instrument sounds better if placed about two inches from the wall. When not in use keep the piano locked. To make the polish look nice, rub it with an old silk handkerchief, being careful first that you have dusted off any small particles, which otherwise are apt to scratch the surface.
Should any of the notes keep down when struck, it is a sure sign that there is damp somewhere, which has caused the small note upon which the key works to swell.
164. MEASTER GODDIN used to zay as how children costed a sight o' money to breng um up, and 'twas all very well whilst um was leetle, and zucked th' mother, but when um begind to zuck the vather, 'twas nation akkerd!
165. YORKSHIRE.-Men an' women is like so monny cards, played wi' be two oppoanents, Time an' Eternity: Time gets a gam' noo an' then, and hez t'pleasure o' keepin' his cards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better hand, an' proves, day be day, an' hoor be hoor, 'at he's winnin incalcalably fast.-"Hoo sweet, hoo varry sweet is life!" as t' flee said when he wur stuck i' treacle! 166. Persons bred in these localities, and in Ireland and Scotland, retain more or less of their provincialisms; and, therefore, when they move into other districts, they become conspicuous for the peculiarities of their speaking, In many cases they appear vulgar and uneducated, when they are not so. It is, therefore, very desirable for all persons to approach the recognized standard of correctness as nearly as possible.
167. To CORRECT THESE ERRORS by systematic course of study would
we can devote to the subject. We will therefore give numerous Rules and Hints, in a concise and simple form, which will be of great assistance to inquirers. These Rules and Hints will be founded upon the authority of scholars, the usages of the bar, the pulpit, and the senate, and the authority of societies formed for the purpose of collecting and diffusing knowledge pertaining to the language of this country.
168. Rules and Hints for Correct Speaking.-1. Who and whom are used in relation to persons, and which in relation to things. But it was once common to say, "the man which." This should now be avoided. It is now usual to say, "Our Father who art in heaven," instead of "which art in heaven."
2. Whose is, however, sometimes applied to things as well as to persons. We may therefore say, "The country
whose inhabitants are free." [Grammarians differ in opinion upon this subject, but general usage justifies the rule.]
3. Thou is employed in solemn discourse, and you in common language. Ye (plural) is also used in serious addresses, and you in familiar language.
4. The uses of the word It are various, and very perplexing to the uneducated. It is not only used to imply persons, but things, and even ideas, and therefore, in speaking or writing, its assistance is constantly required. The perplexity respecting this word arises from the fact that in using it in the construction of a long sentence, sufficient care is not taken to insure that when it is employed it really points out or refers to the object intended. For instance, "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the market, and he was delayed so long that it was over before he arrived." Now what is to be understood by this sentence? Was the rain over? or the market? Either or both might be inferred from the con
MAN'S HEART BEATS 92,160 TIMES IN A DAY.
struction of the sentence, which, there is used as an interrogative, it does not fore, should be written thus :—" It was become whom ; as “Who do you speak raining when John set out in his cart to ?” “Who do you expect ?” to go to the market, and he was delayed is she married to ?” "Who is this re. so long that the market was over be- served for?” “Who was it made by ?" fore he arrived.”
Such sentences are found in the writings 5. Rule.-After writing a sentence of our best authors, and it would be always look through it, and see that presumptuous to consider them as un. wherever the word It is employed, it grammatical. If the word whom should refers to or carries the mind back to the be preferred, then it would be best to object which it is intended to point out. say, “For whom is this reserved ?” &c.
6. The general distinction between 22. Instead of “After which hour,” This and That is, this denotes an object say “ After that hour.” present or near, in time or place, that 23. Self should never be added to something which is absent.
his, their, mine, or thine. 7. These refers, in the same manner,
24. Each is used to denote every to present objects, while those refers to individual of a number. things that are remote.
25. Every denotes all the individuals 8. Who changes, under certain con- of a number. ditions, into whose and whom. But that 26. Either and or denote an alterand which always remain the same. native: “I will take either road, at 9. That may be applied to nouns or your pleasure ;
" "I will take this or subjects of all sorts; as, the girl that that.” went to school, the dog that bit me, the 27. Neither means not either; and ship that went to London, the opinion nor means not the other. that he entertains.
28. Either is sometimes used for 10. The misuse of these pronouns each—"Two thieves were crucified, on gives rise to more errors in speaking either side one." and writing than any other cause. 29. “Let each esteem others as good
11. When you wish to distinguish as themselves,” should be, “Let each between two or more persons, say, esteem others as good as himself.” " Which is the happy man ?”—not 30. “There are bodies each of which who—" Which of those ladies do you are so small,” should be, “each of admire ?"
which is so small.” 12. Instead of " Who do
you think 31. Do not use double superlatives, him to be ?”—Say, “Whom do you think such as most straightest, most highest, him to be ?"
most finest. 13. Whom should I see?
32. The term worser has gone out of 14. To whom do you speak ?
use; but lesser is still retained. 15. Who said so?
33. The use of such words as chiefest, 16. Who gave it to you ?
extremest, &c., has become obsolete, 17. Of whom did you procure them ? because they do not give any superior 18. Who was he?"
force to the meanings of the primary 19. Who do men say that I am ? words, chief, extreme, &c. 20. Whom do they represent me to
34. Such expressions as more im
possible, more indispensable, more uni21. In many instances in which who versal, more uncontrollable, more un
limited, &c., are objectionable, as they * Persons who wish to become well ac
really enfeeble the meaning which it is quainted with the principles of English Gram- the object of the speaker or writer to mar by an easy process, are recommended to strengthen. For instance, impossible procure “The Useful Grammar," price 3d., gains no strength by rendering it more published by Houlston and Wright.
impossible. This class of error is com
be ? *
THE HUMAN BODY HAS 240 BONES.
48. Instead of "You are taller than ine," say "You are taller than I."
49. Instead of " I ain't," or "I arn't," say "I am not."
50. Instead of "Whether I be present or no," say "Whether I be present or not."
51. For "Not that I know on," say "Not that I know."
52. Instead of "Was I to do so," say "Were I to do so."
53. Instead of "I would do the samo if I was him," say "I would do the same if I were he.'
54. Instead of "I had as lief go myself," say "I would as soon go my. self," or "I would rather.”
55. It is better to say "Bred and born," than "Born and bred." 56. It is better to say "Six weeks ago," than "Six weeks back." 57. It is better to say "Since which time," than "Since when."
58. It is better to say "I repeated it," than "I said so over again."
59. It is better to say "A physician," or "A surgeon (according to his degree), than "A medical man.'
60. Instead of "He was too young to have suffered much," say "He was too young to suffer much.'
61. Instead of "Less friends," say
62. Instead of "A quantity of people," say "A number of people." 63. Instead of "He and they we know," say "Him and them."
64. Instead of "As far as I can see," "So far as I can see.' 65. Instead of "If I am not mis taken," say "If I mistake not."
35. Here, there, and where, originally denoting place, may now, by common consent, be used to denote other meanings; such as, "There I agree with you, "Where we differ," "We find pain where we expected pleasure," "Here you mistake me."
36. Hence, whence, and thence, denoting departure, &c., may be used without the word from. The idea of from is included in the word whence -therefore it is unnecessary to say, "From whence."
37. Hither, thither, and whither, denoting to a place, have generally been superseded by here, there, and where. But there is no good reason why they should not be employed. If, however, they are used, it is unnecessary to add the word to, because that is implied"Whither are you going?" "Where are you going?" Each of these sentences is complete. To say, "Where are you going to ?" is redundant.
38. Two negatives destroy each other, and produce an affirmative. "Nor did he not observe them," conveys the idea that he did observe them.
39. But negative assertions are allow-"Fewer friends." Less refers to quanable. "His manners are not unpolite," which implies that his manners are, in some degree, marked by politeness.
40. Instead of "I had rather walk," say "I would rather walk."
41. Instead of "I had better go," say "It were better that I should go."
42. Instead of "I doubt not but I shall be able to go," say “I doubt not that I shall be able to go."
43. Instead of "Let you and I," say "Let you and me."
44. Instead of "I am not so tall as him," say "I am not so tall as he."
66. Instead of "You are mistaken," say "You mistake."
67. Instead of "What beautiful tea!' say "What good tea!"
68. Instead of "What a nice pros
45. When asked "Who is there ?"pect!" say "What a beautiful prospect!"
do not answer "Me," but "I."
46. Instead of "For you and I,” say "For you and me." 47. Instead of " said."
Says I," say "I
69. Instead of "A new pair of gloves," say "A pair of new gloves.”
70. Instead of saying "He belongs to the house," say "The house belongs to him."
77. Instead of "I expected to have found him," say "I expected to find him."
78. Instead of "Shay," say "Chaise." 79. Instead of "He is a very rising person," say "He is rising rapidly."
80. Instead of "Who learns you music ?" say "Who teaches you music?" 81. Instead of "I never sing whenever I can help it," say "I never sing when I can help it."
82. Instead of "Before I do that I must first ask leave," say "Before I do that I must ask leave."
83. Instead of "To get over the difficulty," say "To overcome the diffioulty.'
84. The phrase "get over" is in many cases misapplied, as, to "get over a person," to "get over a week," to "get over an opposition."
85. Instead of saying "The observation of the rule," say "The observance of the rule."
95. But you may say "A married couple,” or, “A married pair,” or, “A couple of fowls," &c., in any case where one of each sex is to be understood.
96. Instead of "They are united together in the bonds of matrimony," say "They are united in matrimony,' or, "They are married.”
97. Instead of "We travel slow," say "We travel slowly."
98. Instead of "He plunged down into the river," say "He plunged into the river."
99. Instead of "He jumped from off of the scaffolding," say "He jumped off from the scaffolding.'
100. Instead of "He came the last of all," say "He came the last."
101. Instead of "universal," with reference to things that have any limit, say "general;" "generally approved," instead of "universally approved; generally beloved," instead of "universally beloved."
102. Instead of "They ruined one another," say "They ruined each other." 103. Instead of "If in case I succeed," say "If I succeed."
104. Instead of "A large enough room," say A room large enough." 105. Instead of "This villa to let," say "This villa to be let."
86. Instead of "A man of eighty years of age," say "A man eighty years old."
106. Instead of "I am slight in com87. Instead of "Here lays his ho-parison to you," say "I am slight in noured head," say "Here lies his ho- comparison with you."
88. Instead of "He died from negligence," say "He died through neglect," or "in consequence of neglect."
89. Instead of "Apples are plenty," say "Apples are plentiful."
90. Instead of "The latter end of
107. Instead of "I went for to see him," say "I went to see him."
108. Instead of "The cake is all cat up," say "The cake is all eaten."
109. Instead of "It is bad at the
best," say "It is very bad."
110. Instead of "Handsome is as
the year," say "The end, or the close of handsome does," say "Handsome is
who handsome does."