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PRINTING BROUGHT TO ENGLAND BY CAXTON A.D. 1471.
to avail themselves of iis assistance in 250. Artificial Mushroom aid of butcher's bills. It is, indeed, Beds.-Mushrooms may be grown in much to be regretted that small plots of pots, boxes, or hampers. Each box may ground, in the immediate vicinity of the be three feet long, one and a half metropolis more especially, are too often broad, and seven inches in depth. Let frittered away into shrubberies and baby each box be half filled with horse-dung gardens, when they might more use- from the stables (the fresher the better, fully be employed in raising vegetables and if wet, to be dried for three or four for the family, during the week-day days before it is put into the boxes); residence in town, than wasting their the dung is to be well beat down in the sweetness on the smoky air in all the box. After the second or third day, if pride of lilac, hollyhock, and bachelor's any heat has arisen amongst the dung, buttons, to be merely smelled to by the break each spawn brick into three parts whole immigrating household on the day as equally as possible, then lay the of rest. With a little care and attention, pieces about four inches apart upon the a kitehen garden, though small, might surface of the dung in the box; here be rendered not only useful, but, in they are to lie for six days, when it fact, as ornamental as a modern grass will probably be found that the side of carpet; and the same expense incurred the spawn next to the dung has begun to make the ground a labyrinth of to run in the dung below; then add sweets, might suffice to render it agree-one and a half inch more of fresh dung able to the palate as well as to the olfac- on the top of the spawn in the box, and tory nerves, and that even without beat it down
as formerly. In the offending the most delicate optics. It course of a fortnight, when you find is only in accordance with our plan to that the spawn has run through the give the hint, and to record such novel dung, the box will be ready to receive points as may facilitate the proposed the mould on the top; this mould must arrangement. It is one objection to the be two and a half inches deep, well ad option of a kitchen garden in front of beat down, and the surface made quite the dwelling, or in sight of the family even. In the space of five or six weeks apartments, that its very nature makes the mushrooms will begin to come up; it rather an eyesore than otherwise at if then the mould seems dry, give a all seasons. This, however, is an objec- gentle watering with lukewarm water. tion that
be readily got over by a The box will continue to produce from little attention to neatness and good six weeks to two months, if duly order, whilst the plants themselves, if attended to by giving a little water judiciously attended to, and the bor. when dry, for they need neither light ders sown or planted with ranunculus, nor free air. If cut as button mushpolyanthus, mignonette, &c., in suc- rooms each box will yield from twentycession, will really be ornamental; but four to forty-eight pints, according to then, in cutting the plants for use, the the season and other circumstances. business must be done neatly—all use- They may be kept in dry dark cellars, or less leaves cleared from the ground, the any other places where the frost will roots no longer wanted taken up, and not reach them. And by preparing in the ravages of insects must be guarded succession of boxes, mushrooms may against by sedulous extirpation. It be had all the year through.---They will also be found a great improvement, may be grown without the dung, and where space will admit of it, to surround be of a finer flavour. Take a little the beds with neat espaliers, with fruit straw, and lay it carefully in the trees, or even gooseberry and currant bottom of the mushroom-box, about bushes, trained along them, instead of an inch thick, or rather more. Then these being suffered to grow in a state take some of the spawn bricks and of ragged wildness.
break them down-each brick into about
TOBACCO BROUGHT TO ENGLAND FROM VIRGINIA A.D. 1583.
ten pieces, and lay the fragments on which they may retire from the burnthe straw, as close to each other as they ing heat of the sun. If you have none will lie. Cover them up with mould in your garden, it will be quite worth three and a half inches deep, and well your while to search for them in your pressed down.
When the surface walks, and bring them home, taking appears dry, give a little tepid water, as care to handle them tenderly, for aldirected for the last way of raising though they have neither the will nor them; but this method 'needs about the power to injure you, a very little double the quantity of water that the rough treatment will injure them; no former does, owing to having no cucumber or melon frame should be moisture in the bottom, while the other without one or two.—Glenny's Gardenhas the dung. The mushrooms willing for Children. begin to start in a month or five weeks, 255. Slugs and Snails are great sometimes sooner,
sometimes later, enemies to every kind of garden plant, according to the heat of the place where whether flower or vegetable; they the boxes are situated. The spawn wander in the night to feed, and rebricks may be obtained from seedsmen, turn at daylight to their haunts : the or be collected from meadows.
shortest and surest direction is, 251. Dwarf Plants. – Take a early, catch them, and kill them.” If cutting of the plant you wish to dwarf you are an early riser, you may cut -say a myrtle, for instance and having them off from their day retreats, or you set it in a pot, wait until you are may lay cabbage leaves about the satisfied that it has taken root; then ground, especially on the beds which take a cutting from it, and place it in a they frequent. Every morning examine miniature flower pot, taking care to fill these leaves, and you will find a great it more than three parts with fine sand, many taking refuge beneath: if they the remainder with mould. Put it under plague you very much, search for their a glass on the chimney-piece, or in any retreat, which you can find by their warm place, and give it very small slimy track, and hunt there for them quantities of water.
day by day; lime and salt are very an252. To clear Rose Trees from noying to snails and slugs; a pinch of Blight. - Take sulphur and tobacco salt kills them, and they will not dust in equal quantities, and strew it touch fresh lime; it is a common pracover the trees of a morning when the tice to sprinkle lime over young crops, dew is on them. The insects will dis- and along the edges of beds, about rows appear in a few days. The trees should of peas and beans, lettuces and other then be syringed with a decoction of vegetables ; but when it has been on elder leaves.
the ground some days, or has been 253. To prevent Mildew on all moistened by rain, it loses its strength. sorts of Trees.—The best preventive 256. Trap for Snails.-Snails are against mildew is to keep the plant sub- particularly fond of bran ; if a little is ject to it occasionally syringed with a spread on the ground, and covered over decoction of elder leaves, which will with a few cabbage-leaves or tiles, they prevent the fungus growing on them. will congregate under them in great
254. Toads are among the best numbers, and by examining them every friends the gardener has; for they live morning, and destroying them, their almost exclusively on the most destruc- numbers will be materially decreased. tive kinds of vermin. Unsightly, there- 257. Grubs on orchard trees, and fore, though they may be, they should gooseberry and currant bushes, will on all accounts be encouraged; they sometimes be sufficiently numerous should never be touched nor molested to spoil a crop; but if a bonfire be in any way; on the contrary, places of made with dry sticks and weeds on the shelter should be made for them, to windward side of the orchard, so that
TELESCOPES INVENTED IN GERMAXY A.D. 1590.
the smoke may blow among the trees, I be surrounded by the oiled cotton or you will destroy thousands ; for the wool, or the insects will climb up them grubs have such an objection to smoke, to the blossoms and tender tops of the that very little of it makes them roll stems. themselves up and fall off: they must 262. To free Plants from Leafbe swept up afterwards.
Lice.—M. Braun, of Vienna, gives the 258. Caterpillars and Aphides. following as a cheap and easy mode of -A garden syringe or engine, with a cap effecting it :-Mix one ounce of flowers on the pipe full of very minute holes, of sulphur with one bushel of sawdust; will wash away these disagreeable visi- scatter this over the plants infected tors very quickly. You must bring with these insects, and they will soon the pipe close to the plant, and pump be freed, though a second applicatior hard, so as to have considerable force may possibly be necessary. on, and the plant, however badly infested, will soon be cleared, without re
263. A Moral. ceiving any injury. Every time that I HAD a little spot of ground, you use the syringe or garden engine,
Where blade nor blossom grew, you must immediately rake the earth | Though the bright sunshine all around under the trees, and kill the insects Life-giving radiance threw.
I mourned to see a spot so bare you have dislodged, or many will re
of leaves of healthful green, cover and climb up the stems of the And thought of bowers, and blussoms fuir, plants.
I frequently had seen. 259. Butterflies and Moths, however pretty, are the worst enemies Some seeds of various kinds lay byone can have in a garden; a single
I knew not what they wereinsect of this kind may deposit eggs
But, rudely turning o'er the soil, enough to overrun a tree with cater
I strewed them thickly there; pillars, therefore they should be de- And day by day I watched them spring stroyed at any cost of trouble. The And hoped for many a lovely thing
From out the fertile earth, only moth that you must spare is the
Of beauty and of worth. common black and red one; the grubs of this feed exclusively on groundsel, But as I marked their leaves unfold and are therefore a valuable ally of the
As weeds before my view, gardener.
And saw how stubbornly and bold
The thorns and nettles grew260. Wasps destroy a good deal of
I sighed to think that I had done, fruit, but every pair of wasps killed in
Unwittingly, a thing spring saves the trouble and annoyance That, where a beauteous bower should thrive, of a swarm in autumn; it is necessary, But worthless weeds did bring. however, to be very careful in any attempt upon a wasp, for its sting is pain- And thus I mused: the things we do, ful and lasting. In case of being stung,
With little heed or ken, get the blue-bag from the laundry, and May prove of worthless growth, and strew
With thorns the paths of men ; rub it well into the wound as soon as
For little deeds, like little seeds, possible. Later in the season, it is cus- May flowers prove, or noxious weeds ! tomary to hang vessels of beer, or water and sugar, in the fruit-trees, to 264. Taking a House.—Before entice them to drown themselves. taking a house, be careful to calculate
261. To protect Dahlias from that the rent is not too high in proporEarwigs.- Dip a piece of wool or tion to your means; for remember that cotton in oil, and slightly tie it round the rent is a claim that must be paid the stalk, about a foot from the earth. with but little delay, and that the landThe stakes which you will put into the lord has greater power over your proground to support your plants must also perty than any other creditor.
EGGS BADLY BOILED ARE GOOD THINGS SPOILED.
269. If you are about to FurAMOUNT OF RENT which you can afford nish a House, do not spend all your to pay, be careful to select the best money, be it much or little. Do not house which can be obtained for that sum. let the beauty of this thing, and the And in making that selection let the fol- cheapness that, tempt you to buy lowing matters be carefully considered: unnecessary articles. Dr. Franklin's
266. FIRST—CAREFULLY REGARD maxim was a wise one—“Nothing is THE HEALTHFULNESS OF THE SITUA- cheap that we do not want.” Buy
Avoid the neighbourhood of merely enough to get along with at first. graveyards, and of factories giving forth It is only by experience that you can tell unhealthy vapours; avoid low and what will be the wants of your family, damp districts, the course of canals, and if you spend all your money, you will localities of reservoirs of water, gas find you have purchased many things works, &c.; make inquiries as to the you do not want, and have no means drainage of the neighbourhood, and left to get many things which you do inspect the drainage and water supply want. If you have enough, and more of the premises. A house standing on than enough, to get everything suitable an incline is likely to be better drained to your situation, do not think you than one standing upon the summit of a must spend it all, merely because you hill, or on a level below a hill. Endea- happen to have it. Begin humbly. As vour to obtain a position where the riches increase, it is easy and pleasant direct sunlight falls upon the house, for to increase in comforts; but it is always this is absolutely essential to health; painful and inconvenient to decrease. and give preference to a house the After all, these things are viewed in openings of which are sheltered from their proper light by the truly judicious the north and east winds.
and respectable. Neatness, tasteful267. SECOND-CONSIDER THE Dis- ness, and good sense may be shown in TANCE OF THE House from your place the management of a small household, of occupation : and also its relation to and the arrangement of a little furniprovision markets, and shops in the ture, as well as upon a larger scale; and neighbourhood.
these qualities are always praised, and 268. HAVING CONSIDERED THESE always treated with respect and attenMATERIAL AND LEADING FEATURES, tion. The consideration which many examine the house in detail, carefully purchase by living beyond their income, looking into its state of repair ; notice and, of course, living upon others, is the windows that are broken ; whether not worth the trouble it costs. The the chimneys smoke; whether they glare there is about this false and wicked have been recently swept; whether the parade is deceptive; it does not, in paper on the walls is damaged, especi- fact, proeure a man valuable friends, or ally in the lower parts, and the corners, extensive influence. by the skirtings; whether the locks, 270. Carpets.-In buying carbolts, handles of doors, and window- pets, as in everything else, those of the fastenings are in proper condition; | best quality are cheapest in the end. make a list of the fixtures; ascertain As it is extremely desirable that they whether all rent and taxes have been should look as clean as possible, avoid paid by the previous tenant, and whether buying carpet that has any white in it. the person from whom you take the Even a very small portion of white house is the original landlord, or his interspersed through the pattern will in agent or tenant. And do not commit a short time give a dirty appearance to yourself by the signing of any agree- the whole; and certainly no carpet can ment until you are satisfied upon all be worse for use than one with a white these points, and see that all kas been ground. done which the landlord had undertaken. 271. A CARPET IN WHICH ALL THB
YOU MAY DEPEND THE DUSTMAN IS YOUR FRIEND.
COLOURS ARE LIGHT never has a clean, 279. IF YOU bright effect, from the want of dark tints HEARTH-Rug that exactly corresponds to contrast and set off the light ones. with the carpet, get one entirely dif
272. FOR A SIMILAR REASON, car- ferent; for å decided contrast looks pets whose colours are all of what artists better than a bad match. call middle tint (neither dark nor light),
280. WE HAVE SEEN VERY HANDcannot fail to look dull and dingy, even SOME HEARTH-Rugs with a rich, black when quite new.
velvet-looking ground, and the figure 273. THE CAPRICES OF FASHION at of shaded blue, or of various tints of times bring these ill-coloured carpets yellow and orange. into vogue; but in apartments where 281. No CARPET decidedly lightelegance is desirable, they always have coloured throughout looks effective on a bad effect.
the floor, or continues long clean. 274. FOR A CARPET TO BE REALLY 282. In Choosing Paper for a BEAUTIFUL and in good taste, there Room, avoid that which has a variety should be, as in a picture, a judicious of colours, or a large showy figure, as disposal of light and shadow, with a no furniture can appear to advantage gradation of very bright and of very with such. Large figured papering dark tints; some almost white, and makes a small room look smaller. others almost or quite black.
283. The best Covering for 275. THE MOST TRULY CHASTE, rich, a Kitchen Floor is a thick unand elegant carpets are those where the figured oil-cloth, of one colour. pattern is formed by one colour only, 284. Family Tool Chests.but arranged in every variety of shade. Much inconvenience and considerable For instance, we have seen a Brussels expense might be saved, if it were the carpet entirely red; the pattern formed general custom to keep in every house by shades or tints varying from the certain tools for the purpose of per: deepest crimson (almost a black), to forming at home what are called small the palest pink (almost a white). Also jobs, instead of being always obliged to one of green only, shaded from the send for a mechanic and pay him for darkest bottle-green, in some parts of executing little things that, in most the figure, to the lightest pea-green in cases, could be sufficiently, well done others. Another, in which there was by a man or boy belonging to the no colour but brown, in all its various family, if the proper instruments were gradations, some of the shades being at hand. nearly black, others of a light buff. Ali 285. THE COST OF THESE ARTICLES these carpets had much the look of rich is very trifling, and the advantages of cut velvet.
having them always in the house are far 276. The CURTAINS, Sofas, &c., beyond the expense. must be of corresponding colours, that 286. FOR INSTANCE, there should be the effect of the whole may be noble an axe, a hatchet, a saw (a large woodand elegant.
saw also, with a buck or stand, if wood 277. CARPETS of many gaudy colours is burned), a claw-hammer, a mallet, are much less in demand than formerly. two gimlets of different sizes, two Two colours only, with the dark and screw-drivers, a chisel, a small plane, light shades of each, will make a very one or two jack-knives, a pair of large handsome carpet.
scissors or shears, and a carpet fork or 278. A VERY Light BLUE GROUND, stretcher. with the figure of shaded crimson or 287. Also AN ASSORTMENT OF purple, looks extremely well; so does Nails of various sizes, from large spikes a salmon colour or buff ground, with down to small tacks, not forgetting a deep green figure; or a light yellow brass-headed neils, some larger and Around, with a shaded blue figure.