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stimulating food or drink which will injure her milk, and thus aggravate the period of teething. These cases are much increased by the parents giving the infant stimulating food whenever it cries from irritation attending this process of teething, and from this cause dentition may result in serious disease. If mothers were able to support infants upon the breast alone with good, wholesome milk, teething would in most children be a comparatively easy process.
HYGIENE IN OYNÆCOLOGY.
By Clara Hyde Gillard, M. D., Port Clinton, Ohio. Dunglison tells us that hygiente is the part of medicine whose object is the preservation of health ; it embraces a knowledge of healthy man, both in society and individually, as well as of the objects used and employed by him with their influence on his constitution and organs. Gynecology, he says, is the doctrine of the nature and diseases of women. You will agree with me that these two definitions to form a text sends one searching through his brain cells for material, for little is to be found in our medical books on preventive cures. The knowledge and recommendation of them certainly are not as remunerative to the physician as remedial cures, yet a satisfaction and gratification to him is to be obtained by recommending the influences which are required to bring health.
Food, clothing, pure air, sunshine and activity are as in child life primary necessities. Food.— The first food for infants' use has not been equaled by any other, and the poor have the advantage of one year's good start over the rich. The greatest enemy of the physical race is the woman who says, “I let my children have anything they want, and they never see a sick day." This may be true until growth stops and assimilation and metabolism are deranged. The same is true in adult life. Disease is due to deficiency of nutrition or vitality, food should be the basis of every treatment, as improper food leads to a low vitality. A well body must be a complete body, and food alone makes it so. Faith and liver pads can do nothing with an empty stomach, nor can prayer turn a pie-crust diet into flesh and blood. The blood cannot part with its value until it recures it.
Food includes whatever adds substance to the body to supply a new growth in place of that which is lost in daily waste. Food may consist of manythings, but above all in importance is oxygen. Oxygen is the first and most active element that can be taken into the system. No other matter can equal it in importance, whether it found in what we at, drink or breathe. Phosphorous, which is the physical source of all vitality, is essential to health, and is often lacking in the system because woman knows nothing of the elements required to produce health, it supplies vitality, brain, nerves and bone. The food in which the nitrates predominate supply the muscles with strength. The carbonates supply the heat and make fat. As this is not an age of relish, the use of candies, rich sauces, pastries and made dishes, all of which impart no strength, but destroy much of that obtained from other food, should be omitted.
Clothing should be equally distributed over the body. While it is a protection, it should never restrict motion. During the transition from girlhood to womanhood marked attention to clothing is necessary. To add additional weight to the skirts and to induce severe constriction at the waist by tight clothing is contrary to hygiene. The pelvic circulation is dependent upon the free movement of the diaphragm. Tight corsets induce costal respiration which is no more natural to women than it is to men; and high-heeled shoes tilt the pelvis and spine, thus irritating the pelvic nerves. Clothing should be varied to suit conditions. As the early morning temperature differs from that of the middle forenoon; as the latter differs from that of high noon; that from the middle afternoon; that from early evening, and that again from the night, and as conditions of dampness and dryness are ever changing, it is the part of good judgment to meet such variations with properly adapted clothing. It is not generally convenient to do so, however, but it is this question of convenience that has destroyed more lives and made more untimely graves than all else combined. If a woman is determined to neglect health, then methods, treatments and skill are to be discarded at the start, disease and invalidism have the right of way.
The feet should be well shod. It is well known that life is electrical, and that all vitality is subject to all the conditions of electricity. Good conductors cause its loss through escape. One of the best conductors is dampness, add to this cold-one of the principle causes of diseases of women and you will have the attraction of heat outwardly from within and a loss which will bring on dangerous conditions. Thick shoes are necessary, and they have been required in all ages by all grades of human life, the thicker the sole of the shoe the more it will protect the vitality. When this escapes, the life principles run so low that any assault upon it is sure to result in disease.
Pure air is one of the most essential elements of growth, development and health. Chlorosis is induced by impure air and inaction of the respiratory organs in early life, and since chlorotics are prone to degenerative diseases and cancer, the effects of impure air are often far-reaching in their evil influences. Respiration is an exact guage of health. It stands for the whole scope of life. When the child is born it must begin breathing at once or it cannot live; the lusty cry, all out of proportion to its size, is a necessary exercise. The practice is good for the lungs, if not excessive. Not until the last breath is taken, whether in a day or a year or a century, can life leave the body. As a woman breathes, so is her health. Perfect health is indicated by large, tense inhalations, followed by a brief second of holding and a slow exhalation. The deeper down in the lungs the action goes, the greater is the vitality. The practice of deep breathing is the best of all means of gaining better health and when coupled with other treatments given, is certain to bring about whatever cure is possible.
Respiration reflects the mental feeling. It is a well established law of nature that the moods, emotions or feelings of the mind are absolute masters of the body and of the health. How is it that worry kills ? The mind during the period of worry shuts off the action of breathing, This is readily seen and proved in every instance where one chooses to observe. The deeper down in the lungs the action goes the greater is the vitality. Vitality is a subtle force that defies all chemical analysis. It comes and goes by laws. It is a well known fact that the habits of breathing are exact measures of the vitality within the body, and this fact has been more over-looked and slighted than anything else in the course of study. A person in buoyant health inspires deeply, and in long, slow movements. A person who is weak respires in short, quick movements. An individual who is of a happy disposition has a style of breathing quite different from one who is gloomy and morose. Hope and expectancy employ methods that are akin to health, while sorrow and disappointment are expressed in a style of respiration that indicates sickness and disease. While it is true that health imparts the better forms of respiration as an involuntary action, it is also true that the imitation of these better forms tends quickly to arouse the same vitality that would make them natural and involuntary.
In a general way woman's physical trouble commences by an allaround misplacement of every organ in her body. Let weakness come and the chest will drop, the lungs will drop, the neck will crane forward, the head will drop, the heart will drop, the diaphragm, stomach, liver and abdomen, each and all will drop. No wonder, then, that the pelvic organs drop down also. Weak and flabby muscles cannot maintain themselves, but when a tremendous load of other organs come tumbling down upon it, we are not surprised that it drops low, and as long as the habits of woman permits this error she must suffer. The muscles are irritated by a chronic strain upon them, the cavity is congested, the lining of the passages becomes inflamed, the ovaries are tormented, their tubes are distended, and a multitude of disorders, maladies and diseases set in, so many in fact that volumes have been written on this theme. Nevertheless, there is one fact that can be verified in the life of women by the adoption of hygienic activity-activity in connection with science and skill at her command and the proper elevation of the chest-frame-not the shoulders—which should be maintained in a fixed, full position up and forward, this makes room for the lungs. The mind can quickly get hold of the muscles by which the lungs and heart are suspended, and these can be made strong as they are contracted, until the organs are pulled up in place. It will be found that the heavy liver and all the abdominal contents that had been deadweights on the pelvic organs are now released and elevated. Nature steps in and begins her work of relief. She demands two things more to make perfect blood and body in all details, food and activity. The latter is to be recommended with the avoidance of gymnastics and similar practices. As muscular development to a high degree saps the lungs and overtaxes the heart, the vitality it takes from the nervous system impoverishes the brain, but walking, methodical calisthenics, Swedish movements and fencing are helpful. Fencing is said to be a grand exercise for the peritoneal floor, the motions of thrust and recovery are very strengthening to the pelvic ligaments and attachments, in fact many cases of flexions and versions have been cured thereby.
Hygienic physical culture exercises are necessary in order to strengthen the organic muscles throughout the body and thus hold them in place. This effort will soon pass into fixed habits and make the work of sustaining second nature. Continued massage is one of the most effective of all means of exercises, and does much toward establishing such conditions in the nutritive strength of the muscles as will restore the functions to their proper use. The secret of massage applied to the surface of the body is that it affects each and every particle of the body from surface to center. It is now well known that massage imparts to the body a wave-like motion which moves onward, affecting flesh, bone and muscle, and drawing life, nutrition and vitality into all the parts affected. Flesh vibration invites nutrition and eliminates waste. Waste includes diseased tissue, dead life, inflammation and everything in the body that should be out of it. Massage properly performed will remove fat, will throw into the circulation of the blood the surplus matter that we call waste. In inflammations, soreness and bruises medicines are slow, but massage scatters the injured matter to the blood to be carred off, and at the same time distributes new nutrition,so gently and evenly through the affected flesh that it speedily heals. It would take too much time to describe fully the changes and benefits produced in the tissues, fibres and blood vessels by the natural act of stretching. It reaches all the inner muscles, fibres and veins, and reaches every organ and thread of flesh however remote from the surface. It is claimed that nervous irritability is due to a certain physical excitement of the nerve fibres which terminate under the skin. As nervousness is an outflow of vitality the movements are directed so as to throw this escape back upon the centres. The special movements always proceed toward the heart.
A woman in reasonably good health is one whose functions are normal in every respect, nothing is excessive, nothing is suppressed. Although less strength is given her muscles she is man's superior in nerve force, in endurance, in keen intuition and in force of physical character, therefore she cannot afford to devote herself to leisure, for this means disease. The less she exercises, the more she will suffer whenever she attempts to obey the laws of her body. The more she is on her feet, the less she will have to endure the maladies known as women's diseases. Under therapeutic hygiene the importance of frequent pelvic examination should be emphasized, especially after thirty years of age. Woman, not as she is, but as she was intended to be, possesses the ultimate power through her temperament and native character of laying the foundation of a new race. By habit and custom she is more prone to disease than is man. Wherever she has adopted the mode of living prescribed for her by nature she is not only superior to man in her general health, but the illnesses due to her sex are lessened to such an extent that they do not appear to exist.
Woman has no right to be an invalid, and admitting that the woman of to-day is prostrated in nerves and is wrecked in her bodily health, we say that these are not of her heritage. Woman in out-ofdoor life does the hard work, the patient work, wherever her condition is degraded. This condition is seen in all tribal existence. Woman in out-door life in her slave state knows absolutely nothing of the pains of her sex, she is hardly conscious of inconvenience in her usual illness, never heard of the trouble we call prolapsus, and gives birth to a child so easily that in a few hours she is able to resume her work. This lesson for modern woman tells her plainly that she must become possessed of her fullness of physical life without the toil and drudgery and the slavery of the less favored tribal wife. Her health is almost universally bad because of her customs, her early training and her false ideas of life. If the statement were made that not one woman in