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THE FORUM.

3856-

VOL. XI.

NEW YORK:

THE FORUM PUBLISHING CO.

COPYRIGHT, 1890, 1891; BY THE FORUM PUBLISHING CO.

ELECTROTYPED AND PRINTED BY THE PUBLISHERS' PRINTING COMPANY 30 & 32 WEST 18TH STREET

NEW YORK

CONTENTS.

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Russia's Treatment of Jewish Subjects,

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The Nicaragua Canal,

Senator JOHN SHERMAN. 1

- Silver as a Circulating Medium,

GEORGE S. BOUTWELL. 10

Do We Hate England ?

Bishop A. CLEVELAND COXE. 19

The Shibboleth of “The People,"

W. S. LILLY. 29

Freedom of Religious Discussion,

Prof. MAX MULLER. 38

Formative Influences,

MARTHA J. LAMB. 50

A New Policy for the Public Schools,

JOHN BASCOM. 59

Our Bargain with the Inventor, .

PARK BENJAMIN, 67

Railways under Government Control,

W. M. ACWORTH. 79

The Ring and the Trust,

Rev. Dr. WILLIAM BARRY. 91

P. G. HUBERT, Jr. 103

What Can We Do for the poor?

Rev. Dr. W. S. RAINSFORD. 115

The Fate of the Election Bill, .

Senator George F. HOAR. 127

A Defective Census,

ROGER Q. MILLS. 137

Will Morality Survive Religion ?

Prof. GOLDWIN SMITH. 146

The Growth of Sentiency,

Major J. W. POWELL. 157

Madame de Staël,

W. E. H. LECKY. 168

Formative Influences,

Prof. SIMON NEWCOMB. 183

The Methods of Mind-readers,

Dr. CHARLES GATCHELL. 192

Trade-unionism and Utopia,

W. H. MALLOCK. 205

Railway Passenger Rates,

Prof. ARTHUR T. HADLEY, 215

The Flood Plains of Rivers,

W. J. MCGEE. 221

State Rights and Foreign Relations,

Ex-Sec'y T. F. BAYARD. 235

The Commonwealth of Australia, Sir RODERICK W. CAMERON, 250

The United States Census,

President FRANCIS A. WALKER. 258

Reciprocity-Why Southward Only?

ROGER Q. MILLS. 268

Spain a Democratic Nation,

EMILIO CASTELAR, 276

South-western Commerce and Gulf Harbors, Senator W.P. FRYE. 291

Changes of Orthodoxy in England, Rev. Dr. ALFRED MOMERIE, 302

The Transmission of Culture,

Prof. LESTER F. WARD. 312

Chemistry To-day and Its Problems, Prof. WILLIAM CROOKES. 320

The Bertillon System of Identification,

ALPHONSE BERTILLON. 330

Our Servility in Literature, .

Prof. THOMAS DAVIDSON. 342

Free Silver Coinage-Why Not?

EDWARD ATKINSON. 347

Von Moltke and Future Warfare,

Col. THEODORE A, DODGE, 353

Church and Creed,

Rev. Dr. CHARLES A, BRIGGS. 367

The Commonwealth of Australia,

Sir CHARLES W. DILKE. 379

VOL. XI.

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Immigration and the Tariff,

The Hon. WILLIAM MCADOO. 398

The Great Count of 1890,

President FRANCIS A. WALKER. 406

Our Chance for Commercial Supremacy,

. ULYSSES D. EDDY. 419

Silver, and the Need of More Money, . Senator W. M. STEWART. 429

Our International Copyright Law, :

HENRY HOLT. 438

A Rational System of Physical Training, President W. De W. HYDE. 446

The New North-west,

Senator JOSEPH N. DOLPH. 453

A Glance at Our Finances, .

JOEL COOK, 465

Western Lands and Mortgages,

Prof: J. W. GLEED, 468

Southern Financial Interests,

J. L. WILLIAMS. 471

Estimates of New Books,

474

The Emperor William II., .

Prof. F. HEINRICH GEFFCKEN. 481

The Colored Race in the United States, Pres. FRANCIS A. WALKER. 501

University Extension in America,

Prof. HERBERT B, ADAMS. 510

Operation of the Interstate Commerce Law, ALDACE F. WALKER, 524

Are Our Immigrants to Blame?

OSWALD OTTENDORFER. 541

The United States and Silver, Ex-Secy CHARLES S. FAIRCHILD. 550

Why We Need Cuba,

General THOMAS JORDAN. 559

Home Life in France,

PHILIP GILBERT HAMERTON. 568

The American Copyright Act,

F. R. DALDY, 578

The Need of an Elastic Currency, .

DAVID M. STONE. 589

National Bank Embezzlements,

J. SELWIN TAIT. 590

Estimates of New Books,

595

Russian Finance: A Bad Investment, Dr. F. HEINRICH GEFFCKEN. 601

The Persecution of the Jews,

ISAAC A. HOURWITCH. 611

Refuge for Russian Jews, .

BARON DE HIRSCH. 627

Immigration and Degradation, President FRANCIS A. WALKER. 634

The Chilian Struggle for Liberty,

RICARDO L. TRUMBULL. 645

Literature in the Market-place,

GEORGE E. WOODBERRY. 652

Profits of Fruit-culture in California, Ex-Gov. L. A. SHELDON. 662

Does Public Life Give Long Careers ?

EDWARD P. CLARK. 672

The Greathead Underground Electric Railway, SIMON STERNE. 683

A New Route to the North Pole, .

Dr. FRIDTJOF NANSEN, 693

Will Dr. Nansen Succeed ?

Gen. A. W. GREELY. 710

The Causes of Gold Exports,

. G. G. WILLIAMS. 717

VOL. XI.

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The Forum.

MARCH, 1891.

THE NICARAGUA CANAL.

No other measure of public policy now submitted to the people of the United States is of such wide-reaching importance as the proposed construction of the Nicaragua Canal, and it is the duty of the organs of public opinion to state the elements of the problem that it offers, so that their readers may intelligently judge whether the United States should aid in its execution, and, if so, to what extent and in what manner. Hitherto such questions as this have been hidden under the cloak of diplomacy; but now, by the action of the Senate in removing the injunction of secrecy from negotiations with foreign powers, this great measure is open to the inspection of the American people, and is submitted to their judgment.

By a treaty, signed on December 1, 1884, between the United States and the republic of Nicaragua, provision was made for the construction by the United States of an inter-oceanic canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific, across the territory of that republic. It was sent to the Senate on December 10, 1884, accompanied by a message from President Arthur recommending its ratification in strong and earnest language; but it was not formally acted upon prior to the inauguration of President Cleveland, on March 4, 1885. Mr. Cleveland, a few days thereafter, formally withdrew the treaty from the consideration of the Senate, and, in his

Copyright, 1890, by the Forum Publishing Company.

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