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The first steamboat successfully em- Trevithick's experiments in moving his ployed in passenger traffic was

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engines by adhesion seem to have been "Comet,” built by J. and C. Wood at forgotten. The question was finally Glasgow for Henry Bell in 1812. This settled by Headley's experiment made in boat began running between Glasgow October, 1813. On this occasion he had a and Helensburgh in August of the year car driven on smooth rails by men work. named. The engine that propelled the ing cranks; probably this was the first "Comet” is preserved in the South hand car. Headley was satisfied after Kensington Museum, but all traces of the this trial that smooth wheels on smooth boiler are lost. It was probably wagon rails were amply sufficient for all ordinary shaped, set in brick work, and under-fired. purposes of traction, and he took out a

In the early years of the eighteenth patent for his discovery which bears the century serions attention was being given date of March 13, 1813. Later several to the use of steam power, not only for locomotives were designed by and built the purpose of propelling boats but for for Mr. Headley, one of which was the moving carriages upon the wagon roads “Puffing Billy,” which after neary fifty and railways; but it was many years be- years of continuous work was in a good fore success attended either of these im- state of preservation. It can be seen in portant uses of steam power. Unsuccess- the South Kensington Museum, and is ful schemes that were formulated and regarded as one of the most valuable dropped by the inventors remained dor- relics of its kind in existence. mant until favorable circumstances The boiler of 'Puffing Billy" was made caused the thread of the inventions to be of wrought iron with internal return picked up again. Bell, the first to prac- flue, the working pressure being 50 tically prove the use of steam power for pounds per square inch. The grate propelling boats, was induced to make surface was about six square feet, the the trial with the view of carrying pas- total heating surface 77 feet. sengers from Glasgow to Helensburgh, where he had hotels and baths. Blenkin- Block Signals Required in Massachusetts. sop, Blacket and Headley wished to carry coal from the collieries to the docks The Railroad Commission of Massachu. where it could be shipped by boats. This setts acting under the law has issued a desire to move coal is what actually led circular setting forth its purpose to reto the development of the locomotive. quire block signals throughout the state.

Previous to the year 1812 traveling “The ultimate end to be secured is the engines by Trevithick and others con- installation of some approved form of tained the germs of the modern locomo- block signals upon all steam railroad lines tive, but were only in a measure success- within the state. ful. They were all consigned to the "The order in which block signals scrap heap, with the exception of two or should in the future be installed must have three models. The history of the de- reference to both amount of traffic and velopment of the locomotive gives credit physical conditions. Of first importance for the first successful work to an engine is the equipment of lines of railroad emmade in 1812 by Fenton, Murray and bracing two or more tracks, or presenting Wood of Leeds, for Blenkinsop, to work the conditions of a single track carrying on the Middleton colliery tramway near a large amount of traffic and involving Leeds. This engine was built to work heavy grades and sharp curves. upon a "rail rack.” At the time the “Companies are requested to submit to engine was built it was not supposed the board an explanation of such action as possible that the weight of the locomo- has been taken in either actually equipping tive would cause adhesion sufficient to these lines or in making arrangement for do work upon smooth rails. The 'rack their future equipment with block signals rail” proved very unsatisfactory.

since January 1,1906,”-Railway Gazette.

Commends the Electrical Articles, Etc.

BOSTON, MASS., Jan. 14, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: The Brothers on the New Haven system are very much interested at this time in the articles on electricity which are running in the JOURNAL. We feel that this question is a vital one and are making every effort in preparing ourselves to meet the situation when it comes our way.

The Plymouth division has had a small branch of seven miles equipped for the past twelve years and the installation on the

creased at such enormous strides that the limit has very nearly been reached and Boston papers circulate the rumor that the B. & A. division of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. will soon purchase the old Park Square Station of the Boston & Providence Railroad.

If such a step should be taken it would mean a vast benefit to the traveling public, as there are at present 848 trains run week-days and 202 trains Sundays in this station. The total movements during each 24 hours, including regular trains, drafts to and from storage tracks and

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BOSTON SOUTH STATION YARDS, LOOKING TOWARD THE STATION TERMINAL OF THE N. Y., N. H. & H,

AND B. & A. RYS.-Courtesy Bro. C. E. Drew, Div. 312. New York division will go into operation light engines, number 1,664, not includthis month. The Providence, Warren & ing freight transfers; the busiest hour of Bristol branch has been operated success- the day being from 5 to 6 p. m., in fully for the past six years, as well as which 98 regular trains are moved in and two short lines in Connecticut, and there out, not including drafts and light enis no doubt that the business will be ex- gines, all being done on eight main tended in the near future.

Plans are

tracks. maturing for the installation of electric Div. 312, we are proud to say, is grow. power in the South Terminal Station of ing and hardly a Sunday comes but what Boston and, thinking that a few views of one or more candidates appear for initiathat locality might be of interest to the tion. Brothers, I inclose them.

Our new schedr:le went into effect on The business of this station has in- the New Haven system Saturday, Dec.

29, 1906, and the engineers seem very cramp or pain is a good excuse to lay off. much pleased with the results accom- How much the company loses by such plished by our general committee; and, system as pooling of engines we will not while we would like to see a short work- stop to figure out, but we would be glad day, we feel that it is sure to come later, to hear from some good Brother for and although legislation on those lines whose ancestor it can be claimed does not may be desirable, we would much rather spring from that indifferent individual see it accomplished by the efforts of the in the shade of the palm tree. What can B. of L. E. C. E. DREW, Div. 312. be done to better the condition which

now, it is claimed by the company, canPooled Engines and Tramp Box Car. not be prevented? Suppose we take a

trip with a northbound through freight, EDITOR JOURNAL: Who said pooling and also keep an eye on just one box car. of engines is a good thing? Show me Extra 1346 leaves a terminal Dec. 18. that man, and I will picture you an in. On leaving terminal the conductor tells

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BOSTON SOUTH STATION, LOOKING OUT FROM THE STATION TERMINAL N. Y., X. H. & 8. AND BOSTON

& ALBANY RAILWAYS.-Courtesy Bro. C. E. Drew, member Div. 312. dividual whose ancestor sat in the shade the engineer to stop at Deadwood to set of the palm trees awaiting the doom of off an empty box car. On arriving at the city—a Jonah. The writer has spent Deadwood extra 1346 stops; not a move the best part of his life as an engineer in is made until the conductor gets up from both passenger and freight service, with the rear, having to walk sixty car lengths, both systems known as pool and regular about 2,950 feet, over ditches and stumps, engines. Twenty years of constant cross ties and other obstructions. Twenty service has convinced the writer that minutes are lost. We find empties and next to losing one of his family is the loads mixed up from head-end to rear. misfortune of having to get his engine A special car is generally given in the inplaced in the pool. The writer never has struction. By the time it is located and been so unfortunate as to lose much time set out 20 minutes more is lost. Extra on account of sickness, but when pooling 1346 is moving again to stop at Holy End of engines comes around almost any little and here repeat what was done at Dead.

" Mr.

wood. We will now leave extra 1346 for after him with information that he is a while and return to box car 8076 which wanted in the trainmaster's office. Half was set out at Deadwood.

awake, he drags himself out of bed, gets Throngh freights do not stop to place himself together and, raking his deadened empties, so box car 8076 must be placed brain over trying to find where he might by the local next day so shipper can load have overlooked his hands, he almost his lumber. This local is late—so late it tumbles in the office. has lost the turn-table rights and is run- “ The trainmaster is out of town. You ning extra. The agent is not on duty come back tomorrow at 9 a. m.," is the this time of night and the overworked tender-hearted information he gets from local crew fails to place this car. Two the chief clerk (a future trainmaster). days and still not loaded. The train- Held out of the service, I suppose?" master finds this car is not loaded; being asked the conductor. pressed for cars, gets on his uppers and It looks so," replied the future trainwires agent: “Why is this car not master. The next day we find the trainloaded? If parties do not load this car at master at his office and our conductor once extra south will pick this car up in reports promptly at 9 a. m. a. m." No answer-and next we find

-- you were conductor box car 8076 going back south to be on extra 1346 December 18th. You deplaced at Meddlesome by extra 3346, a layed every train on the whole system. through freight with a full train of 1,800 I want you to explain why you made such tons. Meddlesome is a spur and no agent.

poor time.” On December 24 conductor of local gets Instead of showing his train book, instructions to pick up box car 8076 at which shows the delays and work done, Meddlesome, get billings at Deadwood. this is his excuse: This local is late again and no agent to “ I could not get the engineer to move make out bill. The box car now loaded fast. The engine did not seem to handle is set out.

the sixty cars while switching out empty December 25 extra north gets instruc- cars between Early and Late, and when I tions to pick up without fail 8076 at asked the engineer why he was so slow, Deadwood. Just eight days to get loaded. he asked me if I wanted to put in drawWho was to blame? Extra 4461 north head and chain up cars. If so, he would arrived at her terminal December 27 with do his best to start before the air released box car 8076 in the train, making seven- and see if we would move faster.” teen hours overtime on a division of 165 “ Your excuse is a poor one.

I'll put miles. This car arrived at Chicago Janu- you back flagging." ary 29, just one month and twelve days. The real trouble, as the writer knows

Now, let us go back and catch up with things to be, would indicate that justice extra 1346. Let us read her running be done if the trainmaster should have orders:

been set back to his clerkship. Engine 1346 will run extra Early to Maybe, brothers, if the Interstate Com. Late. Will meet extra 4867 south at merce Commission would ask men in Broomhandle. Will meet extra 5021 at daily battle they would find out why there Pills, and bas right over 593 to Daylight.” is a shortage of box cars and why it is ne.

Extra 4867 reports delayed at Broom- cessary to pool engines. handle by extra 1346 50 minutes. Extra The best men we have at the head of 5021 reports 58 minutes delay at Pills for our railroad systems seem to be up against extra 1346. No. 593 reports one hour and a stump. Searching investigation is what twenty minutes at Daylight for extra we need. The pooling system, as the 1346. On arriving at terminal extra 1346 shortage of cars, may be solved; and, made nine hours overtime, 165 mile divi- with both problems solved, our next comsion. Conductor asks for ten hours rest mittee may get the 121, miles per hour. at 4 a. m. At 8 a. m. the caller comes

WE KNOW NOTHING.

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Engineers Losing Their Reputations.

you figure between water and steam all the time. While you are doing it think how you are going to do things so as to get an occasional compliment to mix with the kicks. Fraternally yours,

Thos. A. SAILOR, Div. 24.

CENTRALIA, ILL., Oct. 14, 1906. EDITOR JOURNAL: I want to say a few words to engineers pulling long trains and heavy tonnage put on them today. Do you know, your reputation as an engineer is being criticised by everybody-superintendent, trainmaster, assistant trainmaster, dispatchers, master mechanic, engine house foreman and machinist.

The conductor kicks because he waved his arms off giving signals 92 cars away in the shadow of the train, wanting to slack ahead to block up a low drawbar, because you pulled out three drawbars trying to start 3,100 tons. He and two trainmen get out with you forever because they had to pull three chains that would weigh one-quarter ton one mile. The trainman gives the engineer a bad eye because he does not run away with the train a mile long. Trainmaster is pretty sore because you had that air pump failure. The pump had just been given new valves, but that was not the trouble. The trouble was no packing rings on pistons to air ends. Two or three messages pass between engineer and dispatcher about conditions, and another official states it is a clear case of bull-headedness, and the engineer gets on the bad list again in the eye of the trainmaster.

Assistant trainmaster condemns you a for not doing some other way from the way you do. If you offer a suggestion you are bull-headed and have a bad temper and everything unbecoming an engineer.

Engine house foreman or the engine inspector finds a defect and had to hold the engine in; defect not reported or that reported shows cylinder packing blowing. Off comes the head, packing 0. K. Engineer doesn't know his business. So you are a failure in the eyes of many around you. Why? Because the locomotive has grown and train so extended you can hardly see the end of the train farthest from you, and it is difficult to see signals perfectly doing work. Yet you are required to discharge a duty without a fault. The work is much harder because of the increased power and tonnage, and it makes

Difference in Opinion on Standard Rules.

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., Jan. 25, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: While reading in our JOURNAL the several discussions from our Brothers on time-table rules, all pertaining to be standard rules, I notice so much difference in opinions and understanding of the same rules. I would like . someone to explain why there should be such a difference of opinions. I am run. ning under what are supposed to be standard rules. Rule No. 4 on my timetable reads as follows:

“Each time-table from the moment it takes effect supersedes the preceding timetable. Trains of the preceding time-table thereapon lose both right and class and can thereafter proceed only by train order. Trains of the new time-table shall not run on any division or district until due to start from their initial point on that division or district after the timetable takes effect."

In reply to the question of Bro. C. R., Div. 182, on page 61, January JOURNAL, will say that No. 15 had no right to go until positive that she had met No. 2, regardless of what trains might come along there on No. 2's time. A train running on another train's time does not make it the train you are expected to meet.

Fraternally yours,

CONVALESCENT.

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E. T. Brake Valve— Blocking Crosshead.

AURORA, ILL., Feb. I, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: I have two ques. tions: First-With E. T. brake valve, both independent and automatic valves working, after applying the automatio brake and reducing train line pressure 25 pounds, grade work, I wish to release my brake on engine only, with independent valve. Will the brake apply again without making a further reduc

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