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therefore, are subjected to a slightly greater internal pressure than any other part of the boiler. This pressure tends to force the sides and end sheets of the fire. box inward, and those of the outer shell outward; while the tendency of the pressure above the crown-sheet is to bulge it downward. Sudden expansion and contraction of the fire-box sheets also subjects them to severe strain and for this reason the temperature of the fire-box should never be allowed to vary saddenly.

Fraternally yours,
J. S. MOKIBBIN, Div. 492.

Reply to Brothers Reed and Rich.

in of train line pressure, no leaks in in line, bringing the independent valve

running position? Some valves I have handled have done this. Some would not do it.

I understand that this E. T. brake equipment, or distributing valve, should take care of all brake cylinder leakage on engine. I believe there is a choke in brake pipe on the engine, provided so as distributing valve will feed air faster than it can get from brake cylinder on engine if hose should burst. I would like some information through the JOURNAL by R. H. Blackall on this question.

Second-I was in conversation lately with several engineers on disconnecting engines by examination.

The question arose: Is it always necessary to block crosshead when you have to take down main rod? A great many of the JOURNAL'S readers will think this a matter for each one himself to decide. Several examination forms or codes in books by able and efficient men claim no. Answer by one: “Where possible the piston should be placed at one end of the cylinder and the valve placed at same end of the chest so that the pressure will securely hold it in place.”

I was laughed at in not taking this answer. I claim that there is nothing to hold piston at one end of cylinder when throttle is shut, and in making a hot stop or striking cars on side track a little too hard with throttle shut, cylinder heads would be liable to get knocked out. I would like to hear what some other Brothers think of this question, not to show whether I am right or wrong, but for the benefit of all the JOURNAL'S read.

Fraternally yours,

T. COOPER, Div. 32.

BAINBRIDGE, GA., Feb. 9, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: In reply to Bro. Chas. Reed, Div. 182, I beg to say that No. 2 being a first-class passenger train, No. 15 a second-class freight train, and B a scheduled meeting point, No. 15 has no right to go until the arrival of No. 2. Should a second-class freight train pass on No. 2's time, it would, according to Standard Rules, be run as first No. 2, displaying signals for second No. 2. Therefore, No. 15 would have no right to go until arrival of second No. 2. I would like to hear from some other Brother in regard to this question.

In reply to Bro. A. J. Rich, Div. 210, will say that a boiler has more pressure. at the bottom of boiler leg than at the top of steam dome, because it has the weight of the water carried; besides, the steam pressure registered by the steam gauge.

Fraternally yours,
B. B. FUNDERBURK, Div. 210.

ers.

Question—Standard Rules.

Greatest Boiler Pressure.

INDIANAPOLIS, IND., Feb. 5, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: In reply to Bro. A. J. Rich, Div. 210, in the February JOURNAL, will say water legs are part of the water space of the boilers and, consequently, are subjected to a pressure equal to that of the steam plus that due to the head water in the boiler. The legs,

STOCKTON, CAL., Feb. 5, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: We have had a considerable discussion here in regard to the following train order and would like to have some of the Brothers' opinions on the subject through the columns of the JOURNAL.

A, terminal—B, blind siding–C, junction-D, station beyond junction on one of the branches.

No. 22 eastbound freight-No. 21 two

sections westbound freight and superior is more useful, as an example, to show up by direction.

one man in a million, who disregards a This is the order:

stop signal, than to expose a hundred “No. 22 has right over first No. 21 A to who merely take a questionable way of C, and over second No. 21 to D.”

reporting an irregularity in which no No. 22 cannot get farther than B, for vital issue can be made clear. It does No. 3 a passenger train. No. 3 comes indeed take much more time, care and along and on it is a flag for first No. 21. expense to find the one in a million; but, After first No. 21 arrives can No. 33 pro- on the other hand, the certificate of merit ceed against second No. 21 to D?

thas given to the 999,999 who did not fail Fraternally yours,

is correspondingly more valuable. If a D. O. MCKELLIPS, Div. 161. superintendent is really forced to make

much noise in administering “second Surprise Tests of Obedience to Train Rules degree" discipline he ought to find some

way to elude the reporters. The most "Surprise checking of enginemen," says rational way to avoid unpleasant publicity the Railroad Gazette, "to be of the highest in this matter is to make surpise checking value, must show how well and faithfully of all kinds so common that the reporters they watch out for dangers and guard will not look upon it as a sensation to be against them. To test the men's obedience heralded. Moreover, this must appeal to to a rule where disobedience very likely the wise superintendent as the real need will not result in damage, as is reported to in the case, regardless of the newspapers. have been done on the Lake Shore last How is it that at any time on any road, week, is what might be called discipline a score or a dozen or a half dozen men in the second degree. It is useful in its commit the same error at the same place place, but it is not the most important on the same day? Such a condition thing, as regards the men, while as re- would seem to indicate a marked need of gards the public (when reported to the surprising somebody out of a rut, what newspapers), it is distinctly harmful, for ever the nature of the rule violated, it leads people to think that the discipline whether of the first second or third is worse than it is. This same criticism degree of importance." applied in the case of the Chicago & [The above criticism from the Railroad Northwestern surprise checking at May- Gazette is unusually fair to the employees. fair, some months ago, which was herald- The average writer not conncted with ed abroad by the Chicago reporters. On railroad service undertakes to make these most roads an extinguished light is not matters as sensational as possible, as they specifically defined in the rules as a con- did in the Lake Shore case alluded to, dition requiring a full stop, and in case making it appear many times as bad as the engineman is able by moonlight or the facts warranted, very much to the his headlight to see the blade and to detriment of the reputation of engineers know that it is in the "proceed” position and the Lake Shore Railroad, a feature he has an excuse for not stopping; and, the officials evidently did not look for. under some rules, a fair defense. We are Surprise tests are evidently intended to not trying to excuse enginemen for dis- be secret affairs and not for such publicaregard of any rule, howsoever slight may tion as followed in the case alluded to. be the danger involved, but merely to There is, evidently, a general movement show that there are different kinds of to catch engineers violating some rule misconduct as regards observance of and, whatever may have been the pracsignals, and that if a superintendent is tice within or without the knowledge going to make shining examples of dis- of the officials, every engineer should obedient enginemen he had better take realize that self-defense demands that cases concerning which there can be no every rule be strictly adhered to; then well founded differences of opinion. It there will be no surprise on the engi.

neers in these tests. The officials who apply these tests should be surprised that there is no violation of the rules and that they must lay most of the wrecks to other causes.-EDITOR.]

Eye Tests.

insisting upon correcting an engineer's sight by glasses. The office tests are unnatural, and are made under unfamiliar surroundings, and the mer are therefor frequently advised to wear glasses when they do not need them in actnal work. The men have been accustomed to watching along a right of way for years and have become thoroughly familiar withi every bit of track and with every signal along the road. Their mental capacity to see objects has been developed to a high degree and they know thoroughly every changed position and its meaning. Even their eyes are developed to recognize these objects quickly and without effort, the same as the eye of the oculist will recognize a foreign body in the cornea the instant he examines it, when an eye fully as good, or even better, in visual acuity would hesitate and perhaps would not see it at all.” In thus developing an authoritative medical opinion for the contention of locomotive engineers for field tests in case office tests develop doubt, Dr. Hawley seems to have done these men a considerable service.-Railway and Engineering Review.

The matter of oculistic tests of engine crews is becoming a bone of contention between managements and men. The most sensible medical point of view we have seen was expressed by Dr. C. W. Hawley, of Chicago, recently before the Iowa State Association of Railway Surgeons. Among other things he

said: “Often the failure of the engineer to read or see a signal is due, it is claimed, to his mental condition and not to defective vision. As a matter of fact the case may be that the eye of the engineer saw the signal, but the visual brain did not perceive it, and consequently the accident. We are all familiar with the fact that we may look directly at an object visually but not mentally. Therefore, before rendering a verdict against the eyes, the physical and mental condition of those responsible for the aocident should be carefully looked into, and any outside disturbing elements must not be forgotten in making the investigation.” Dr. Hawley insists upon a conservative examination for railway men's eyes, but he also insists that "the minimum which an engineer shall be required to see shall be established by field tests, plus common sense. He suggests that this minimum should be somewhere between 20/40 and 20/60, a normal vision being represented by 20/20." * * * "It would be criminal if an engineer with a vision of 20/60 failed to see a signal at the required distance. Many of the accidents which are held to be due to defective vision are not due to that cause. By reason of his training and experience an engineer is able to distinguish and to read a signal so much better and quicker than an ordinary individual that with a vision of 20/50 he would excel the novice with a vision of 20/20 Examinations under working conditions should be made even before

Burlington's lostructions to Engineers.

BY DANIEL WILLARD, SECOND VICE-PRESI

DENT C., B. & Q. RY. CO. The Burlington Railroad has long enjoyed a high reputation as a passenger line because of the general condition of its roadbed, the character of its equip. ment and the usual punctuality of its trains, and in order to maintain this standard it has spent in recent years large sums of money for-heavier rail; more and better ballast; realignment of track for the purpose of obtaining easier curves and better grades; and the purchase of high class equipment provided with all desirable features which might tend to make the cars attractive to the passenger or better fitted for safe operation. Recently, new and more powerful locomotives have also been supplied for this branch of the service.

A very important fact in this connecsecond of the scheduled departing time.

KEEP EYE ON CONDUCTOR. Not infrequently I have observed that when the conductor gives the starting signal the engineer is not looking for it and a fraction of a minute, or perhaps more, is lost on that account. This is wrong, and it should be a matter of special pride with an engineer to be always ready to start not only the moment the signal is given, but before the signal is given, as a reminder to the conductor that the starting of the train waits

upon him.

tion, however, is frequently overlooked by those responsible for the proper operation of the trains. After the company has done all the things above enumerated in order to provide safe and comfortable passage for its patrons, it remains with the engineer pulling the individual train to so handle it as to make the passenger's trip agreeable, or to render it altogether uncomfortable.

Much more is required of an engineer hauling a passenger train than simply the ability to start it, maintain speed, and stop it at regular places.

The management believes that the engineers in charge of its passenger trains are in all respects the equal of any similar number of engineers in the employ of any company,

and it believes also that they are interested in the success and reputation of the Burlington Company, and anxious to so perform their work as to give the very best results; and the purpose of this letter is to call attention to the importance of this branch of the service, and to point ont certain ways in which they can assist materially in its improvement.

An engineer in charge of a passenger engine is usually a man of long experience, and ought also to be a man of good judgment and well qualified to do the work assigned him, otherwise he should not be put in charge of a train carrying passengers. Assuming that he is such a man, his first duty is to see that the engine which he has to take out is as near as can be in proper condition to perform the work assigued it, and he should give his personal attention to this matter. He should know personally that the bearings are properly oiled; that the engine is in every way as fit as possible for the work to be performed, and provided with the necessary equipment. He should also know personally that the tender is filled with suitable coal and the tank filled with water before starting the run. His engine should be at the station in ample time to make the train coupling, test the brakes, and give him sufficient opportunity to see that everything is in good shape before starting, and he should, moreover, be ready to start the train on the very

A great deal also depends apon the manner in which the train is started. There is only one proper way, but an in. numerable number of improper ways of starting a train. A passenger train, if provided with an engine sufficiently strong to handle it, can ordinarily be started and should be started so easily that a passenger in the train would discover it was moving by sight rather than by feeling. That is to say, it should start so easily that a passenger would feel no perceptible shock and his first knowledge that the train is under way should be by noticing that he is moving over the ground. This is a perfect standard and is the one which an engineer should seek to accomplish. It is understood, of course, that at times and in places it will not be possible to start a train as above described, but it is possible to start it in that way probably ninety or more times out of a hundred, and it should be the aim of every engineer to come as near to that standard as possible at all times.

AT UNIFORM SPEED. After the train is started the engineer should know how fast it is necessary to run it in order to make the required time, and he should endeavor to attain that speed as soon as possible and proper, ard then run his train at & uniform speed (conditions permitting) until it is time to begin reducing speed in order to make the proper stop.

The practice of favoring the engine on up grades, to the extent of losing time, and regaining time so lost by running train at high speed on descending grades,

is wrong and is the cause of frequent reduced in places; and there are curves criticism by passengers.

on some divisions around which a train The rule given for starting a train would ride more smoothly if a slight apshould also be observed when stopping it plication of the brakes were made. There —that is to say, a perfect stop would be are also obscure places which ought to be one so made that the passenger should not approached at reduced speed. know by feeling that the train has

AVOID BLACK SMOKE. stopped, but he should discover the fact

The engineer should understand just rather by sight as he looks out of the

what ought to be done with reference to window. This would, of course, be a per- such cases as those above mentioned, keep. fect stop, and while it is not always possi

ing in mind all the time the fact that safety ble to make a perfect stop, it is possible to

of operation is the thing first desired and do so a very large percentage of the time,

above all others; next the comfort of the and it should be the aim of engineers to

passenger, and next in order, but always make the best stop possible at all times. subordinate-punctuality. LOOK TO SAFETY FIRST.

While not so important as the matters Another feature of great importance

above mentioned, there are other things should be kept constantly in mind by the which can be done by the engineer, which engineer handling a passenger train, and if done will add to the comfort not only that is this: While we are anxious, of of the passengers but of the general pubcourse, to have all trains run as nearly as lic, and result in economy as well. possible on time, still this further thought First, there is the question of black should be kept in mind, that first consid- smoke, and its proper prevention. I feel eration should at all times be given to the

confident in saying, with the average safety and comfort of passengers.

engine as it is ordinarily operated, with There is hardly any piece of main track ordinary bituminous coal for fuel, that on the Burlington line that will not ride reasonable effort on the part of the men smoothly at some certain rate of speed,

in charge (providing the engine is propand it may probably also be said that erly equipped and maintained) would rethere is hardly any piece of track on the sult in preventing fully three-fourths of Burlington or any other railroad which the black smoke which is usually made. would not ride improperly if run over at

This would not only result in a very too high a rate of speed. Engineers who

considerable saving to the company but are constantly running over the same would add greatly to the comfort of the piece of road soon learn its characteristics passengers and the general public. In and they should regulate the speed to order to accomplish this it is of course suit the conditions.

necessary that the engine should be propThe engineer who can make the re- erly arranged in the first instance and quired time at the lowest maximum rate maintained in good condition. It should of speed is the man who excels as a run- be furnished with suitable coal properly ner, and to accomplish this it is necessary prepared; it should be fired in a uniform to get the train quickly in motion after and proper manner, and in order that the stops, maintain required speed to reach fireman may do his part of the work in the next stop at the proper time, and do

an intelligent way, it is equally imporall that rests with him to do to reduce de- tant that the engine be handled properly lay at stations to the lowest limit. by the engineer. In other words, the fire.

While, as above stated, it is desired that man and engineer must cooperate to bring trains be run at a uniform speed as far as

about the best results in this direction. practicable, it is of course understood that ESCAPING STEAM MEANS WASTE. there are times and places where speed One thing more: Passenger engines are should properly be reduced. For instance, frequently heard blowing off steam about during and after severe storms and in terminals. Whenever steam escapes foggy weather, speed should properly be through a safety valve it indicates a

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