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therefore, are subjected to a slightly greater internal pressure than any other part of the boiler. This pressure tends to force the sides and end sheets of the fire. box inward, and those of the outer shell outward; while the tendency of the pressure above the crown-sheet is to bulge it downward. Sudden expansion and contraction of the fire-box sheets also subjects them to severe strain and for this reason the temperature of the fire-box should never be allowed to vary suddenly.

Fraternally yours,
J. S. MCKIBBIN, Div. 492.

Reply to Brothers Reed and Rich.

in of train line pressure, no leaks in in line, bringing the independent valve running position? Some valves I have handled have done this. Some would not do it.

I understand that this E. T. brake equipment, or distributing valve, should take care of all brake cylinder leakage on engine. I believe there is a choke in brake pipe on the engine, provided so as distributing valve will feed air faster than it can get from brake cylinder on engine if hose should burst. I would like some information through the JOURNAL by R. H. Blackall on this question.

Second-I was in conversation lately with several engineers on disconnecting engines by examination. The question arose: Is it always necessary to block crosshead when you have to take down main rod? A great many of the JOURNAL'S readers will think this a matter for each one himself to decide. Several examination forms or codes in books by able and efficient men claim no. Answer by one: “Where possible the piston should be placed at one end of the cylinder and the valve placed at same end of the chest so that the pressure will securely hold it in place."

I was laughed at in not taking this answer. I claim that there is nothing to hold piston at one end of cylinder when throttle is shut, and in making a hot stop or striking cars on side track a little too hard with throttle shut, cylinder heads would be liable to get knocked out. I would like to hear what some other Brothers think of this question, not to show whether I am right or wrong, but for the benefit of all the JOURNAL'S read. ers.

Fraternally yours,

T. COOPER, Div. 32.

BAINBRIDGE, GA., Feb. 9. 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: In reply to Bro. Chas. Reed, Div. 182, I beg to say that No. 2 being a first-class passenger train, No. 15 a second-class freight train, and B a scheduled meeting point, No. 15 has no right to go until the arrival of No. 2. Should a second-class freight train pass on No. 2's time, it would, according to Standard Rules, be run as first No. 2, displaying signals for second No. 2. Therefore, No. 15 would have no right to go until arrival of second No. 2. I would like to hear from some other Brother in regard to this question.

In reply to Bro. A. J. Rich, Div. 210, will say that a boiler has more pressure. at the bottom of boiler leg than at the top of steam dome, because it has the weight of the water carried; besides, the steam pressure registered by the steam gauge.

Fraternally yours,
B. B. FUNDERBURK, Div. 210.


Question-Standard Rules.

Greatest Boiler Pressure.

INDIANAPOLIS, IND., Feb. 5. 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: In reply to Bro. A. J. Rich, Div. 210, in the February JOURNAL, will say water legs are part of the water space of the boilers and, consequently, are subjected to a pressure equal to that of the steam plus that due to the head water in the boiler. The legs,

STOCKTON, CAL., Feb. 5, 1907. EDITOR JOURNAL: We have had a considerable discussion here in regard to the following train order and would like to have some of the Brothers' opinions on the subject through the columns of the JOURNAL.

A, terminal-B, blind siding-C, junction-D, station beyond junction on one of the branches.

No. 22 eastbound freight-No. 21 two

sections westbound freight and superior is more useful, as an example, to show up by direction.

one man in a million, who disregards a This is the order:

stop signal, than to expose a hundred “No. 22 has right over first No. 21 A to who merely take a questionable way of C, and over second No. 21 to D.”

reporting an irregularity in which no No. 22 cannot get farther than B, for vital issue can be made clear. It does No. 3 a passenger train. No. 3 comes indeed take much more time, care and along and on it is a flag for first No. 21. expense to find the one in a million; but, After first No. 21 arrives can No. 33 pro- on the other hand, the certificate of merit ceed against second No. 21 to D?

thus given to the 999,999 who did not fail Fraternally yours,

is correspondingly more valuable. If a D. O. MCKELLIPS, Div. 161. superintendent is really forced to make

much noise in administering “second Surprise Tests of Obedience to Train Rules degree" discipline he ought to find some

way to elude the reporters. The most “Surprise checking of enginemen,” says rational way to avoid unpleasant publicity the Railroad Gazette, “to be of the highest in this matter is to make surpise checking value, must show how well and faithfully of all kinds so common that the reporters they watch out for dangers and guard will not look upon it as a sensation to be against them. To test the men's obedience heralded. Moreover, this must appeal to to a rule where disobedience very likely the wise superintendent as the real need will not result in damage, as is reported to in the case, regardless of the newspapers. have been done on the Lake Shore last How is it that at any time on any road, week, is what might be called discipline a score or a dozen or a half dozen men in the second degree. It is useful in its commit the same error at the same place place, but it is not the most important on the same day? Such a condition thing, as regards the men, while as re- would seem to indicate a marked need of gards the public (when reported to the surprising somebody out of a rut, what. newspapers), it is distinctly harmful, for ever the nature of the rule violated, it leads people to think that the discipline whether of the first, second or third is worse than it is. This same criticism degree of importance.” applied in the case of the Chicago & [The above criticism from the Railroad Northwestern surprise checking at May- Gazette is unusually fair to the employees. fair, some months ago, which was herald- The average writer not conncted with ed abroad by the Chicago reporters. On railroad service undertakes to make these most roads an extinguished light is not matters as sensational as possible, as they specifically defined in the rules as a con- did in the Lake Shore case alluded to, dition requiring a full stop, and in case making it appear many times as bad as the engineman is able by moonlight or the facts warranted, very much to the his headlight to see the blade and to detriment of the reputation of engineers know that it is in the “proceed” position and the Lake Shore Railroad, a feature he has an excuse for not stopping; and, the officials evidently did not look for. under some rules, a fair defense. We are Surprise tests are evidently intended to not trying to excuse enginemen for dis- be secret affairs and not for such publicaregard of any rule, howsoever slight may tion as followed in the case alluded to. be the danger involved, but merely to There is, evidently, a general movement show that there are different kinds of to catch engineers violating some rule misconduct as regards observance of and, whatever may have been the pracsignals, and that if a superintendent is tice within or without the knowledge going to make shining examples of dis of the officials, every engineer should obedient enginemen he had better take realize that self-defense demands that cases concerning which there can be no every rule be strictly adhered to; then well founded differences of opinion. It there will be no surprise on the engi

neers in these tests. The officials who apply these tests should be surprised that there is no violation of the rules and that they must lay most of the wrecks to other causes.-EDITOR.]

Eye Tests.

insisting upon correcting an engineer's sight by glasses. The office tests are unnatural, and are made under unfamiliar surroundings, and the mer are therefor3 frequently advised to wear glasses when they do not need them in actnal work. The men have been accustomed to watching along a right of way for years and have become thoroughly familiar with every bit of track and with every signal along the road. Their mental capacity to see objects has been developed to a high degree and they know thoroughly every changed position and its meaning. Even their eyes are developed to recognize these objects quickly and without effort, the same as the eye of the oculist will recognize a foreign body in the cornea the instant he examines it, when an eye fully as good, or even better, in visual acuity would hesitate and perhaps would not see it at all.” In thus developing an authoritative medical opinion for the contention of locomotive engineers for field tests in case office tests develop doubt, Dr. Hawley seems to have done these men a considerable service.-Railway and Engineering Review.

The matter of oculistic tests of engine crews is becoming a bone of contention between managements and men. The most sensible medical point of view we have seen was expressed by Dr. C. W. Hawley, of Chicago, recently before the Iowa State Association of Railway Surgeons. Among other things he said: Often the failure of the engineer to read or see a signal is due, it is claimed, to his mental condition and not to defective vision. As a matter of fact the case may be that the eye of the engineer saw the signal, but the visual brain did not perceive it, and consequently the accident. We are all familiar with the fact that we may look directly at an object visually but not mentally. Therefore, before rendering a verdict against the eyes, the physical and mental condition of those responsible for the accident should be carefully looked into, and any outside disturbing elements must not be forgotten in making the investigation.” Dr. Hawley insists upon a conservative examination for railway men's eyes, but he also insists that "the minimum which an engineer shall be required to see shall be established by field tests, plus common

He suggests that this minimum should be somewhere between 20/40 and 20/60, a normal vision being represented by 20/20.” * "It would be criminal if an engineer with a vision of 20/60 failed to see a signal at the required distance. Many of the accidents which are held to be due to defective vision are not due to that cause. By reason of his training and experience an engineer is able to distinguish and to read a signal so much better and quicker than an ordinary individual that with a vision of 20/50 he would excel the novice with a vision of 20/20.

Examinations under working conditions should be made even before

Burlington's lostructions to Engineers.



DENT C., B. & Q. RY. CO. The Burlington Railroad has long enjoyed a high reputation as a passenger line because of the general condition of its roadbed, the character of its equipment and the usual punctuality of its trains, and in order to maintain this standard it has spent in recent years large sums of money for-heavier rail; more and better ballast; realignment of track for the purpose of obtaining easier curves and better grades; and the purchase of high class equipment provided with all desirable features which 'might tend to make the cars attractive to the passenger or better fitted for safe operation. Recently, new and more powerful locomotives have also been supplied for this branch of the service.

A very important fact in this connec

upon him.

tion, however, is frequently overlooked second of the scheduled departing time. by those responsible for the proper opera

KEEP EYE ON CONDUCTOR. tion of the trains. After the company Not infrequently I have observed that has done all the things above enumerated when the conductor gives the starting in order to provide safe and comfortable signal the engineer is not looking for it passage for its patrons, it remains with and a fraction of a minute, or perhaps the engineer pulling the individual train more, is lost on that account. This is to so handle it as to make the passenger's wrong, and it should be a matter of trip agreeable, or to render it altogether special pride with an engineer to be uncomfortable.

always ready to start not only the moMuch more is required of an engineer ment the signal is given, but before the hauling a passenger train than simply the signal is given, as a reminder to the conability to start it, maintain speed, and ductor that the starting of the train waits stop it at regular places.

The management believes that the engineers in charge A great deal also depends upon the of its passenger trains are in all respects manner in which the train is started. the equal of any similar number of engi. There is only one proper way, but an in. neers in the employ of any company, and numerable number of improper ways of it believes also that they are interested in starting a train. A passenger train, if the success and reputation of the Burling- provided with an engine sufficiently ton Company, and anxious to so perform strong to handle it, can ordinarily be their work as to give the very best results; started and should be started so easily and the purpose of this letter is to call at- that a passenger in the train would distention to the importance of this branch cover it was moving by sight rather than of the service, and to point out certain by feeling. That is to say, it should start ways in which they can assist materially so easily that a passenger would feel no in its improvement.

perceptible shock and his first knowledge An engineer in charge of a passenger that the train is under way should be by engine is usually a man of long experi- noticing that he is moving

over the ence, and ought also to be a man of good ground. This is a perfect standard and is judgment and well qualified to do the the one which an engineer should seek to work assigned him, otherwise he should accomplish. It is understood, of course, not be put in charge of a train carrying that at times and in places it will not be passengers. Assuming that he is such a possible to start a train as above deman, his first duty is to see that the scribed, but it is possible to start it in engine which he has to take out is as near that way probably ninety or more times as can be in proper condition to perform out of a hundred, and it should be the aim the work assigned it, and he should give of every engineer to come as near to that his personal attention to this matter. He standard as possible at all times. should know personally that the bearings

AT UNIFORM SPEED. are properly oiled; that the engine is in After the train is started the engineer every way as fit as possible for the work should know how fast it is necessary to to be performed, and provided with the run it in order to make the required time, necessary equipment. He should also and he should endeavor to attain that know personally that the tender is filled speed as soon as possible and proper, ard with suitable coal and the tank filled with then run his train at a uniform speed water before starting the run. His engine (conditions permitting) until it is time to should be at the station in ample time to begin reducing speed in order to make make the train coupling, test the brakes, the proper stop. and give him sufficient opportunity to The practice of favoring the engine on see that everything is in good shape be- up grades, to the extent of losing time, fore starting, and he should, moreover, and regaining time so lost by running be ready to start the train on the very train at high speed on descending grades,

is wrong and is the cause of frequent criticism by passengers.

The rule given for starting a train should also be observed when stopping it -that is to say, a perfect stop would be one so made that the passenger should not know by feeling that the train has stopped, but he should discover the fact rather by sight as he looks out of the window. This would, of course, be a perfect stop, and while it is not always possible to make a perfect stop, it is possible to do so a very large percentage of the time, and it should be the aim of engineers to make the best stop possible at all times.

LOOK TO SAFETY FIRST. Another feature of great importance should be kept constantly in mind by the engineer handling a passenger train, and that is this: While we are anxious, of course, to have all trains run as nearly as possible on time, still this further thought should be kept in mind, that first consid. eration should at all times be given to the safety and comfort of passengers.

There is hardly any piece of main track on the Burlington line that will not ride smoothly at some certain rate of speed, and it may probably also be said that there is hardly any piece of track on the Burlington or any other railroad which would not ride improperly if run over at too high a rate of speed. Engineers who are constantly running over the same piece of road soon learn its characteristics and they should regulate the speed to suit the conditions.

The engineer who can make the required time at the lowest maximum rate of speed is the man who excels as a runner, and to accomplish this it is necessary to get the train quickly in motion after stops, maintain required speed to reach the next stop at the proper time, and do all that rests with him to do to reduce delay at stations to the lowest limit.

While, as above stated, it is desired that trains be run at a uniform speed as far as practicable, it is of course understood that there are times and places where speed should properly be reduced. For instance, during and after severe storms and in foggy weather, speed should properly be

reduced in places; and there are curves on some divisions around which a train would ride more smoothly if a slight application of the brakes were made. There are also obscure places which ought to be approached at reduced speed.

AVOD BLACK SMOKE. The engineer should understand just what ought to be done with reference to such cases as those above mentioned, keep. ing in mind all the time the fact that safety of operation is the thing first desired and above all others; next the comfort of the passenger, and next in order, but always subordinate-punctuality.

While not so important as the matters above mentioned, there are other things which can be done by the engineer, which if done will add to the comfort not only of the passengers but of the general pub. lic, and result in economy as well.

First, there is the question of black smoke, and its proper prevention. I feel confident in saying, with the average engine as it is ordinarily operated, with ordinary bituminous coal for fuel, that reasonable effort on the part of the men in charge (providing the engine is properly equipped and maintained) would result in preventing fully three-fourths of the black smoke which is usually made.

This would not only result in a very considerable saving to the company but would add greatly to the comfort of the passengers and the general public. In order to accomplish this it is of course necessary that the engine should be properly arranged in the first instance and maintained in good condition. It should be furnished with suitable coal properly prepared; it should be fired in a uniform and proper manner, and in order that the fireman may do his part of the work in an intelligent way, it is equally important that the engine be handled properly by the engineer. In other words, the fireman and engineer must cooperate to bring about the best results in this direction.

ESCAPING STEAM MEANS WASTE. One thing more: Passenger engines are frequently heard blowing off steam about terminals. Whenever steam escapes through a safety valve it indicates a

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