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waste, and on that account it ought to owns to-day nearly 30 per cent ($28,000,be reduced to the minimum; but it is not 000) of the stock of the Illinois Central; only wasteful but very annoying to peo- 37 per cent ($5,000,000) of the St. Joseph ple within hearing, and sometimes also and Grand Island road; that the Oregon results in frightening animals and causing Short Line (another Harriman company) accidents. It can be fairly stated that owns nearly 19 per cent ($39,540,000) of careful and proper attention to this mat- the stock of the Baltimore & Ohio; 372 ter, on the part of the engineer and fire- per cent ($3,690,000) of the stock of the man, will practically do away entirely Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; 8 per with this cause of complaint.

cent ($14,285,000) of the stock of the An engine should never be permitted New York Central; 414 per cent ($10,000,to blow off while standing at a station, 000) of the stock of Atchison, Topeka & and unless a train is stopped unexpectedly Santa Fe, and 2x2 per cent ($2,572,000) of (and that, too, for an unusual length of the stock of the Chicago & Northwestern. time) it is easily possible for the engineer The most startling feature of this disand fireman to so handle matters as to en- closure, however, is the fact that most of tirely prevent the blowing off of steam. these stocks, to the amount of $103,293,745

It is not necessary to specify in what in value, have been purchased since July 1, manner this can be done. It is suffi. 1906, or in a period of six months. Recient to say that we believe it can be membering that when Harriman and his done and we hope that our engineers will friends acquired possession of the Union give it the attention which we think it Pacific a dozen years ago it was a bankdeserves. The fact that engines are fre- rupt affair, that the Southern Pacific and quently heard blowing off at stations and the Oregon Short Line have since been between stations when running is not be- added to it, that it paid last year 10 per cause the thing cannot be prevented, but cent dividends and that to these roads rather due to the fact that the men on the and their vast holdings of other roads are engine have become accustomed to such to be added several important steamship noises and really do not give it the atten- companies and $30,000,000 of stock of the tion it deserves, and do not give it the Illinois Central held by Harriman and his careful consideration they would, per- colleagues individually, and we see such haps, if the matter had been brought a rapid advance in consolidation of rail. sufficiently before them. The violent use road lines as has never been duplicated in of the blower about stations is also ob- the history of the world.-Current Literjectionable and unnecessary, as a rule, ature (February). and should be avoided. We do not expect impossible things

Powerful New Locomotive. from men in charge of our locomotives;

The Pennsylvania's new H-H type of we recognize fully the conditions under

freight locomotive recently constructed at which the work of locomotive enginemen

the Altoona shops is a world-beater for is performed; but unless the service in

power, according to tests now being made. that line is maintained at the highest

On January 25 it drew a train of 65 steel attainable standard then we fail to that

cars and three locomotives from the lower extent in doing the things which our em

to the upper end of the Altoona yard, ployees as well as the pablic and patrons

which is a stiff grade all the way. After of the company have a right to expect.

the start was made the train was stopped -Railway World.

to permit a passenger train to enter the

Altoona station. It was thought the Consolidation of Railroads.

monster machine would not be able to It appears from the testimony of start the heavy train, but it did so with William Mahl, controller of the big com

To move 65 steel cars required panies in the Ilarriman system, that the three of the largest freight engines formerUnion Pacific (Harriman's) company ly used.Railway World.

ease.

Railroad News Gleanings

First Railroad Columbus to Cleveland.

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The difference in public sentiment in the early stages of railroad building when they were badly needed, and now, is graphically presented in the following historic story of the construction of the nucleus of what is now part of the Big 4, lately consolidated with the N. Y. C. System. Fifty-six years ago there was a great jollification and spontaneous welcome of these great developers of the country and its commerce. Now the change in sentiment is about as great as the change in the magnitude of these properties.-EDITOR.

OPENING OF THE OLD "BEE LINE.' On Feb. 18 the C., C., C. & St. L. (Big 4) will be 56 years old, but in these days of rush and hurry in railroad affairs not much time is given to sentiment, so the anniversary passed without ado. The event commends itself however as of great importance, as this road was the begin. ning of the great railroad development of the State of Ohio, which is probably surpassed by none except New York, where possibly the needs are greater.

The opening of the old railroad as far as Columbus, then known as the Cleve. land, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad (Bee Line), was one of the events of early times in this State. Public interest in it was keen, due to the fact that it was the climax of an effort extending over 15 years and engaging the attention and energy of the foremost men of Cleveland. The first charter was taken out in 1836, but as the demand was made that the line should be built in three years, or the grant lapse, this charter was forfeited, and gave place to another taken out on March 12, 1845. Connected with this venture were names familiar in Cleveland's history, such as John W. Allen, Leonard Case, Alfred Kelley, Philo Scoville, Richard Hilliard, Irad Kelley, Truman P. Handy, and Horatio N. Ward, while Newton Gunn, Stephen N. Sargent, Henry Hosmer, and David King of Medina, were also among the projectors. Mr. Allen was

made the first president of the railroad.

Men of sound judgment and broad minds saw great possibilities behind the new railroad, but were beset with vicissi. tudes from the outset. The money was not immediately available, and to procure it a commissioner, J. W. Woolsey, was sent to Cincinnati, to Columbus, and to the East, but he returned without funds. The board was inactive for a period of about six months, but in August, 1847, it met again and in the face of the difficul. ties gave out the announcement that the road must be and would be built. How this was to be done no one knew, but a rift in the clouds soon appeared.

Edmund Dwight came from Boston and suggested to the members the feasibility of employing an engineer well known in the East, that confidence might be placed in the enterprise so as to lead to the investment of the necessary capital. This was done, and John Childers of Massachusetts was chosen to fill the position. The meeting of the board was an important one, for it noted the enlistment in the project of Leonard Case and Alfred Kelley, both being chosen directors. Mr. Kelley was made the president of the company, and was also holding that office at the time the first train was run. The city raised $200,000 for the furtherance of the project, and private capital was invested in large sums.

Ground was broken for the new enterprise on September 30, 1848, and the contractors agreed that the line should be completed prior to November 1, 1850. The road was completed in a short time as far as Shelby, and a regular train service was put into effect from Cleveland to Shelby. The through line, however, was not completed until February 18, 1851, and this was a great occasion. A number of citizens of Columbus came over the line, which had been built for 31 miles out of that city, and a large delegation of Cleveland people, headed by William Case, mayor of Cleveland, went to that point from here. The two trains lined up on either side of the gap, while the people collected on the hillsides in the vicinity and saw the last rail laid. Mayor Case

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and President Kelley, of the railroad, The road has numerous other branches drove the last spike, while great shouts also, so that it might be said that the arose from the people, and the general “Big Four" system dominates the terridin was added to by the blowing of tory reaching south to the Ohio river whistles.

and as far west as St. Louis, with CleveThe same day the train which returned land as a starting point. to Columbus bore with it an invitation to The road has been presided over by the members of the House of Represen- such men as Alfred Kelley, J. H. Dertatives to ride upon the first train over ereux, Judge Stevenson Burke and M. E. the new railroad and participate in the Ingalls in the office of president, not to celebration of Washington's birthday in speak of other good men.

Its passenger Cleveland, which would be more elabor- affairs have been dominated by such ate than usual on account of the popular men as A. J. Smith, D. P. Martin, E. O. feeling over the completion of the line. McCormick and W. J. Lynch, all having This invitation was accepted aud on a share in making the property one of February 21 the first train started out of the most progressive railroad lines in exColumbus, carrying the House of Repre- istence today. It has been generally sentatives and many of the distinguished understood for several years that the citizens of Columbus and vicinity, to Vanderbilts have exercised some influCleveland. The train reached Cleveland ence over this road, the impression being at 5 o'clock in the afternoon and was that it amounted to one of control. It given a great ovation.

has not been, however, until recently The air was cold and keen, but this did that the New York Central Railroad has not prevent a great crowd of people purchased the controlling interest by assembling to see the train. As it came buying up the preferred stock amounting sweeping down from the bluff into the to $12,000,000. With this transaction the valley thousands of throats bid it road passes into the hands of one of the welcome, and the hoarse belching of the greatest systems of railroads in existence cannon and the blaring of trumpets today.-Cleveland Leader. played no small part in the celebration, while bands of music struck up here and

The Tehuantepec Railway. there lively strains. It was truly a gala day in Cleveland. The following day, In January the Tehuantepec Railroad Washington's birthday, was more so. It which crosses Mexico at the narrowest was taken up with parades, ceremonies, part of that republic, and which brings speeches and banquets.

the Atlantic and the Pacific into close The after development and the present touch by rail, was opened to through trafstatus of this road are better known than fic. This great work has been conducted was the humble origin. The cognomen so quietly that the world has heard but which was given the road, “the Bee little about it. The ports of CoatzacoalLine,” is a well-known one to people who cos on the Gulf of Mexico and of Salina are at all familiar with railroad affairs, Cruz on the Pacific will immediately inand the name that was later given it, the crease in importance. Each town has “Big Four,” is a national term, more been a bustling spot for many years, even generally known, in fact, than the previous to the beginning of the construcregistered name of the road. All know tion of the railway across Tehuantepec how the line has expanded, taking in the isthmus, but the formal opening of that route to Cincinatti, then building a road to through traffic on January 1 will branch to Bellefontaine and later being largely increase their activities as shipjoined with a road reaching to India- ping points. napolis, then absorbing properties that As the Tehuantepec route is several gave it an outlet to St. Louis, then to hundreds of miles north of the isthmus of Chicago, and last of all to Louisville. Panama, the railway at the latter point

cars

will immediately feel the competition chine that was put in use, and the city which Mexico's new transcontinental of Baltimore came to be known as the road will offer. Even the Panama canal, cradle of the American locomotive. No when completed, will find this Mexican other make has ever found its way to the road a rival of some consequence. The motive power possessions of the Baltiroad is 192 miles in length, and can be more & Ohio. This fixed rule of sticktraversed in five or six hours by the sched- ing to the domestic product was justified ules which have been arranged. Neces- by the experience of other pioneer roads sarily it will compete from the outset in occasional trials of foreign engines. with the big transcontinental roads in the The American locomotive was born in United States and Canada, which are 3000 Baltimore, and Ross Winans worked out miles long, or more. The overland freight the plan which has since "been followed, charges by Mexico's new line will be though he of course started with the small, and thus for many sorts of traffic somewhat crude products of Cooper's and between the two big oceans this route will Davis's genius. have advantages.

The railway postal service was born But the work on the construction of the on the Washington branch, and there, Panama canal will not be retarded by the too, the eight-wheel passenger coach beTehuantepec line. That course will be came the standard. Ross Winans deshorter to the Pacific from New York, signed and built the first eight-wheel car New Orleans and the rest of the ports on in the world. Even in those early days the North Atlantic and the Gulf than will refreshment were not unknown, the Panama route, but as it will require though they bore little resemblance to transshipment at each end it will be more the “dining car in the rear," to which costly. Panama will thus have advan- the hungry traveler is now directed. tages over it which will count heavily in When the Washington branch was opened the coming time. Nevertheless, the open- the road declared the first American railing of the new line of communication be- road dividend. At this time the Balti. tween the two big oceans by way of the more & Ohio had more miles of conTehuantepec isthmus will be an event of tinuous track in operation than any other great consequence to the United States railroad in the world. The hard struggle and to the rest of the world's maritime of Morse to gain the co-operation of powers, and will attract wide attention.- Congress and the Baltimore & Ohio in St. Louis Globe-Democrat.

carrying out his plan for a telegraph line

is known to everybody.--Express Gazette. Early Railroading.

The Locomotive Engineer. The Baltimore Sun prints an interesting sketch of the early days of the Washing- Officials who operate the fast trains reton branch of the Baltimore & Ohio, cently put on between New York City which it rightly describes as a great and the West are just now facing a probhistoric railway. Surprise has been ex lem in philosophy which on paper looks pressed that the Baltimore & Ohio, in something like this: spite of favorable reports concerning the “How many ironclad rules can the development of steam motive power human mind keep within instant recall if abroad, should have resorted to horse death is the penalty for forgetting?” power when opening its first division, from The answer is supposed to lie someBaltimore to Ellicott City, in May, 1830. where in the code of rules and signals As a matter of fact, however, experi- which the officials have devised for the ments with the steam engine in England operation of these fast trains. These at that time were not satisfactory. When rules, of which there are about 700 for the Baltimore & Ohio did adopt the loco- each 125 miles between New York City motive, it was the American-made ma- and Chicago, were made for the safety of the public, but the public may well look Whether the engine-bell rings at 400 askance when it learns that one man must highway crossings. remember 700 of them, and that a slip on By day the switch and signal lights are any one rule may mean a shocking loss of replaced by signal boards and blocks,” human life.

the color or direction of which must be These 700 rules are the average for each read as literally as the lamps. The engidivision of the chief railroad lines run- neer who notes 699 of these signs from his ning west from New York. Each set cab window and misses the 700th has covers the work of one engineer, who taken, in racetrack language, a “700 to 1 drives his train until another engineer, shot" with a trainload of human lives. with a fresh set of rules, and presumably The public has good reason to ask a fresh memory, relieves him. In other whether the safety limit has not been words, eight men, the average number of reached with both speed and rules. There locomotive engineers who drive a fast must be a point where the locomotive is train between New York and Chicago, so large and its speed so great, that one must keep constantly in mind nearly 6,000 human mind cannot safely control it, no different rules, in order that patrons of matter how few the levers are. A ninetythese trains may travel without risking ton passenger locomotive going at seventy their lives. What this means to the pub- miles an hour and operated by one man lic, in twenty-four hours' ride on one of "inside” it, is as much a psychological these trains, can be judged from the freak as a 250-pound human athlete would following list of what an engineer on a be if turned loose with the brain of a certain 100-mile run has to watch while three-year-old body.-Harper's Weekly. his locomotive is going at sixty miles an hour:

Loyalty of the Rank and File. Five hundred cross-over" switchlights to learn whether they are red or Addressing the Association of Transporwhite. Fifteen “interlocking " switch- tation and Car Accounting Officers at its lights to learn whether they are red, last meeting, T. J. Freeman, counsel for white or green. Seven “non-interlocking” the Texas & Pacific, said: switchlights to know whether they are "I want to speak now, if you will pardon red green. Semaphore arms at me, of the man who works in the rank twenty-five way stations for possible red and file. Not the transportation superinlights. Four hundred highway crossings tendent, but the engineers, conductors, to know whether they are “clear." Lo- train crews and yard men. One of the comotives of a dozen trains approaching most valuable assets that any railway on parallel tracks, for red or white lights. officer can have is the love, affection and Telegraph operators at twenty-five way loyalty of the men who work under him. stations, who may be waiting near the It is an asset you can call upon in times track with orders. For a red flag at any of emergency. It is an asset that pays conceivable point in the 100 miles, dis- tenfold when you call on it. Whenever played as a danger signal. Whether you treat that class of men fairly, you one or two torpedoes are exploded at any will find that they respond to it. In other point in the 100 miles, signifying “cau- words, the element of humanity runs tion" or "stop." Whether his clearance stronger through that class of men than card is good for each of twenty-five way any other in the world. I never see a stations. Whether there is enough water train service man but what I feel like in the engine boiler. Whether there is raising my hat to him. It is a service enough water in the engine tender. that takes men to fill; men with souls; Whether there is enough coal in the en- men with feeling; men with sentiment. gine tender. Whether the steam pressure In actual train service, and I have inis being kept up. Whether the fireman is vestigated to the extent of about fifteen obeying another long set of rules. years back, I find that one man in about

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