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our grocers, for the use of room and entertainments, and also some sensible dishes without charge. We railroad letters of advice and encouragement for people appreciate these courtesies from the benefit of poorer, smaller and younger our townsmen. We were so much elated Divisions, and wishing all a Happy New over our success that we will surely try Year.

Yours in F., L. & P. again at some future time.

M. CRISTE. SEC. Div. 285.

On Nov. 20, 1906, a new Division was

brought into existence at Brookfield, Mo., I was surprised on opening the JOURNAL

it being No. 386 and named Deloss this month to find only four short letters

Everett. from 383 Divisions. I think it shows a

Sister Chitty, of Galesburg, I)., was the great lack of interest in the space given

organizer. Preliminaries had all been Ten or twelve years ago our part of

arranged, and upon her arrival at 9 a. m. the JOURNAL was really interesting, for

meeting was called and the entire day our 22 columns were filled with news

was spent in organizing and giving infrom the different Divisions. Selections

structions in ritualistic work, adjourning are very good, but we all subscribe to

at the noon hour for dinner. more journals than the B. of L. E.

This Division starts with 42 charter JOURNAL, therefore get a chance to read

members, enthusiastic in their praise of other matter than that furnished by the

the work as shown to them by Sister B. of L. E. JOURNAL; if only the Sisters

Chitty. The Brothers of Div. 616, B. of will exert themselves and send in some

L. E., have shown great interest in the letters, because the entertainments and

new Division and turned out en masse to socials they have in the West and South

the banquet given in the evening to celewill interest those in the North and

brate the occasion. East and vice versa. It has been some

A splendid orchestra was in evidence, time since anything was heard from Div.

the hall was beautifully decorated and the 115. We are very quiet but not asleep.

table full of the good things of the season, We have had several dime socials which

with bouquets of pink carnations and were successes socially if not financially, chrysanthemums scattered here and there, and we chanced off a very pretty vase

making the scene one long to be rememwhich netted a nice sum for our treasury,

bered. and I am pleased to say was won by Mr.

Bro. L. H. Leapheart, of Div. 616, preJames Downs, C. E. of Capitol Div.

sided as master of ceremonies and more 160, he seemed very much pleased with it

than came up to our expectations in the when I gave it to him. On November 27

role assigned him. Many were the enwe celebrated the fifteenth anniversary

couraging talks given at this time, after of this Division by giving a dance which

which all adjourned to the I. O. O. F. was a success both socially and finan

hall, where the Sisters gave some of their cially. Some of our old-time friends said

drills for which they certainly deserve to they never had a better time, and others

be complimented, proving as it did their who did not attend, now regret it, as

capability of taking hold of the new work they could have indulged in a couple of

of the G. I. A. At midnight we left the (old-time) dances, from which they are

scene of the day's activity and retired now barred on account of not caring for

tired and sleepy but happy. SEC. 386. the giddy whirl of the waltz and twostep. We are slowly but surely increas- DIVISION 366 of Minneapolis, Minn., on ing in members, and the members we are the afternoon of Nov. 8 entertained the taking in we know will be loyal to our Brothers of Div. 357, B. of L. E., and the cause and staunch and true to our princi- Sisters of Div. 53, Div. 274, and their husples.

bands. The occasion being our first anHoping that Sister Divisions will con- niversary. A royal good time was had tribute an account of their socials and by all who were present,

that the Division may at some time be able to show its appreciation of them.

Wishing all Sister Divisions success I am, yours in F. L. and P.


G. I. A. Voluntary Relief Association.


A short session was held in the afternoon in which we initiated a candidate. After the meeting a banquet was served in the hall adjoining. The grand march, which was led by Brother Davis of Div. 357, and Sister Hammond, President of Div. 274, followed by the Brothers of 357 who escorted the Sisters of Div. 53 and 274 to the dining-hall.

The sapper consisted of all the delicacies of the season, which was prepared by the Sisters of Div. 366. The dining

was prettily decorated with the colors of our beloved order. The tables were arranged to form a letter E and were decorated with huge bunches of carnations. After doing justice to the excellent supper toasts were given by Brothers Davis and Ferguson of 357. Sister Morton of Div. 274, Past State Organizer, who organized Div. 366, told how proud she was of the work 366 had accomplished during the past year and congratulated us on our large treasury. Sister Seyfried, President of Div. 366, thanked the Brothers of Div. 357 for the kindness shown us in paying our hall rent for the past year. The rest of the evening was enjoyably spent in dancing.


Secretary Div. 366.

CHICAGO, ILL., Jan. 1, 1907. To Division Insurance Secretaries, V. R. A.

You are hereby notified of the death of the following members, and for the payment of these claims you will collect 50 cents from each member carrying one certificate, and $1.00 from each one carrying two; providing, however, that no one be assessed on a certificate if the date of same was later than December 31, 1906.

ASSESSMENT No. 294. Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 20, 1906, of chronic gas. trilis, Sister Maria C. King, of Div. 38, aged 51 years. Carried one certificate, dated Nov. 15, 1893, payable to Eddie and Harry King, sons.

ASSESSMENT NO. 295. New York City, Nov. 12, 1906, of acute dilatation of heart, Sister Catherine Drake, of Div. 264, aged 51 years. Carried one certificate, dated March 7, 1903 payable to Albert Drake, husband.

ASSESSMENT No. 296. Newark, O., Nov. 21, 1906, of pneumonia, Sister Pauline Glassmeier, of Div. 41, aged 36 years. Carried one certificate, dated June 8, 1900, payable to John Glassmeier, husband.

ASSESSMENT NO. 297. Scranton, Pa., Nov. 27, 1906, of acute uræmia, Sister Emma Troch, of Div. 82, aged 51 years. Carried two certificates, dated June 18, 1901, pay. able to John P. Troch, husband.

ASSESSMENT No. 298. Columbus, O., Nov. 29, 1906, of general debility, Sister Olive Fowell, of Div. 52, aged 72 years. Carried two certificates, dated March 31, 1900, and July 3, 1900, payable to Herbert F. Kilgore and Jessie B. Fowell, grandson, and daughter-in-law.

ASSESSMENT No. 299. Chicago, Ill., Dec. 4, 1906, of hernia, Sister Kathryne Spike, of Div. 40, aged 51 years. Carried one certificate, dated May 25, 1899, payable to Kathryne E. Spike, daughter.

Members will pay their Insurance Secretaries on or before Jan. 31, 1907, or be marked delinquent; and in order to reinstate must pay a fine of 10 cents on each certificate besides the delinquency. Insurance Secretaries must remit to the General Secretary and Treasurer not later than Feb. 10, 1907, or stand delinquent until remittance is made.

Assessments Nos. 296, 297, 298 and 299 will be paid from the Assessment Fund.

Members who paid Assessments Nos. 278 and 279, 5,524 in the first class, and 2,346 in the second class.

MRS. GEO. WILSON, Pres. V. R. A.
MRS. JENNIE E. BOOMER, Sec'y and Treas.,

5333 Prairie Ave., Chicago, Ill.

PASSUMPSIC Div. 81, of Newport, Vt., is still alive and prospering. Although having a membership of about 35 the invitation is yet open for more, and the outlook for this coming year is certainly not a discouraging one.

On Nov. 14 it being initiation as well as our regular meeting we decided to arrange some plan for becoming better acquainted with each other and also replenish our treasury. It was agreed that whatever we did must be on a full stomach, especially if the Brothers were to be in it, so proceeded to make arrangements for a supper, which was well patronized, adding about $11 to our fund. The evening was pleasantly spent in games and social intercourse, and we departed for home feeling well repaid for our labor.

We desire to thank the Brothers for the many favors showu us in the past, hoping

. Technical


the cylinder pressure is increased slightly

for a given reduction, the action of the Contributions for this department must be re

brakes throughout the train is positive in ceived by the Editor on or before the 12th of the response to light or heavy reductions, and month to be in time for the succeeding issue. less time is required for a given amount of

brake pipe reduction to be made. Quick Service Triple Valve.

The positive action referred to makes it possible to apply all brakes on an 80 and

sometimes a 100-car train with a brake There seem to be a great many ques- pipe reduction of 5 lbs., whereas, with the tions in the minds of different ones as to old triple, a positive action of all the what can be accomplished by the use of brakes does not always result with a 5-lb. the new triple valve manufactured by reduction on a train of but 50 cars. Not the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. only can all brakes be applied with light While this is known as the "quick service reductions, but the braking power develtriple valve," on account of the local oped throughout the train is practically venting of brake pipe pressure on each the same, in contradistinction to the old car from the brake pipe to the cylinder, standard valve with which all of the brakes both in service and emergency applica- are not applied by a light brake pipe retions, it also embodies what is known as duction and with which a greater brakthe Retarded Release and Retarded Re- ing power results on the cars at the front charge features. The quick service fea- of the train. The general understanding ture makes it possible in response to a that when using the old triple valve, service application to start the application these valves do not respond to a light re. of the brakes on the end of a long train in duction. This may be the case in some half the time that is now taken when cars instances, but it is more likely that the are equipped with the old style of triple valves move but, owing to the slowness of valve. The feature which makes this the reduction, the tendency is for air from possible is known as a quick-service fea- the auxiliary reservoir to flow slowly into ture, which consists in venting brake pipe the brake cylinder and escape to the pressure through a very small port from atmosphere through the leakage groove, the brake pipe into the brake cylinder, this which is exposed until the piston has pressure acting to slightly augment the traveled a certain portion of stroke. pressure resulting from that in the auxil- Owing to the quicker and more positive iary reservoir flowing to the brake cylin- action of the new valve, it is needless to der. As soon as the first triple assumes state that the length of stops that can be service position this reduction takes place, accomplished with new valves is materiwith the result that this secondary reduc- ally lessened, as compared with what can tion helps to hasten the reduction of brake be done by using the old standard valve. pipe pressure being made with the brake With the new ones a 5 to 6-lb. reduction valve. This results in a quick response will bring a train to rest in approximately from the triple valve on the following the same distance as will a 20-lb. reduccar, this in turn on the succeeding one, tion, using the old valves. This stateand so on throughout the train, similar to ment refers to an 80 car train of empty the action, with which all are familiar, in cars, running at a speed of 20 miles per the emergency application of the brake hour. This being the case, it can readily with the present quick action triple. The be seen that the improved brake is not result is that the effect of pipe friction is only much more efficient as to its stopping practically done away with, while at the power, but there is an economy of air consame time the quick-service triple valves sumption and an increased factor for aid the brake valve in making any re- safety that is all important in considering quired reduction. It will thus be seen the conditions which have to be met in that pipe friction is reduced to a minimum, freight train handling.

In grade service it is customary, in re- long freight train. Owing to the practical charging, to permit the brake valve handle elimination of this undesired overcharge to remain in release position as long a at the head end of the train, the brakes time as possible in order to accomplish a do not re-apply at the front, as just derecharge. The result is that the auxilia- scribed in connection with the old triple ries at the front of the train are somewhat valves. The result is that the auxiliary overcharged. When the brake valve reservoirs throughout the train are rehandle is returned to running position air charged to practically the same pressnre, cannot feed into the brake pipe until this and all brakes respond to a light or heavy pressure is below that for which the feed reduction, as the case may be, when the valve is adjusted to open. Due to the brake valve handle is placed in service rear reservoirs not being charged with a position. The effect is that in grade work pressure equal to those at the front of the the heating of the wheels must necessari. train, the former still continue to take air ly be more uniform, and the element of from the brake pipe, and this results in a danger from overheating wheels is at reduction at the front of the train, which least greatly reduced when using the new causes an application of the brakes on cars valves as compared with the old. It is where the reservoirs have become over- conceded that the use of an air brake recharged. The usual custom is to allow sults in a more uniform heating of the the brake valve handle to remain in run- wheels than where a train is controlled ning position sufficiently long to permit of by hand brakes; the improved valve is an the application referred to, at which time added step in the direction of still further the brake valve handle is again placed in reducing the uneven heating. release position momentarily to release The Retarded Release feature permits the brakes which have re-applied. The of the brakes being released at the rear of result is that more work is being done on the train, if desired, before those at the the wheels of the cars at the front of the front. This action causes the slack to train, thus tending to overheat same, run in from the rear and bunch instead and the second release referred to results of, as at present, running out from the in a waste of air and more labor for the head end with a strong tendency to propump. If, instead of returning the brake duce jerks that often result in break-invalve handle to running position, as de- twos and probable damage and delay. scribed, the valve handle were placed in The Retarded Release is controlled by the service position and a light service reduc- spring already referred to, which spring tion made, the brakes at the front of the it is also necessary to compress to obtain train only would respond, with the result the Retarded Recharge as well. It will that these brakes would do considerably thus be seen that whatever the Retarded more than their portion of the work until Release is had the Retarded Recharge such time as another reduction were made will be obtained as well. These actions sufficient to reduce the brake pipe pres- will, as previously explained, result in the sure below that of the auxiliary reservoirs slack bunching rather than stretching throughout the train.

out. The reservoirs at the front of the With the new triple valve the action train will be recharged more slowly, and just described does not result owing to the more air will be available with which to Retarded Recharge feature of the valve. recharge those on the rear more quickly. This feature consists in an arrangement Engineers handling long freight trains of ports such that the feed to the auxiliary in grade work make a reduction of brakereservoir is partially closed whenever the pipe pressure, and it is often a number of pressure in the brake pipe exceeds that in seconds after the reduction has been the auxiliary reservoir an amount suffi- made before the sensation is produced cient to compress the Retarded Release which tells them that the retarding spring, which spring it is possible to com- power of the brakes is manifesting itself. press on approximately the first 30 cars of a This interval of time is frequently such


that a second reduction will be made so would stop the train in about 900 feet. closely following the first that more From this it will be seen that very much braking power will finally be developed less distance is required in which to make than is actually required. This will stops with the new triple valve, and there necessitate a premature release to prevent is no question but what the superior adreducing the speed to an undesirable vantages as to stopping power with this amount. This is much less likely to valve will result in greatly reducing the happen with the new triple, with which number of times when it will be necesthe response is obtained much

sary to use the emergency application, quickly and with which we can expect to particularly with trains of empty cars. do much more accurate work and with Owing to the quicker action of the im. less skill on the part of the operator. proved valve, the question has been

Tests which have already been made raised as to the possibility of their prohave demonstrated that, without doubt, ducing shocks in trains when operated in it will be possible to control greater ton- conjunction with the slower acting nage with the improved than with the old triple valve now in service. This point style of triple valve. This is in part due to was very thoroughly tested out under the quicker action and more positive re- actual road conditions before this valve sponse of the valves following brake-pipe was put upon the market, and since that reductions, but is due more particularly to time it has been subjected to tests under the fact that the braking power through- severe conditions by different roads, and out the train is not only more uniform, has been completely successful in acting but the average pressure is higher in re- to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. sponse to a given reduction. This being While the action of the valve is very the case, it will not be necessary to make much quicker than the old valve, its the reductions as heavy as formerly, speed of application is such as to produce which means that less time will be re- no objectionable results whatever. Betquired in which to accomplish a recharge. ter results can be obtained with the The less the time necessary in which to new valve, as to the positive applirecharge, the less will be the necessity for cation and equal cylinder pressure, with reducing the speed to as low a point as the new valve on 100-car trains than with the old triple valve, and the result could be obtained with the old valve on will be a more uniform speed in grade 50-car trains; aside from this advantage work.

it has additional ones as well. In tests that have been made with the The most severe shocks which result new triple valve on an 80-car train it was from emergency applications are those obfound that at a speed of 20 miles an hour tained in trains of mixed empty and a 5 pound reduction would bring the train loaded cars or on trains composed ento rest in 750 feet, a 10 pound in 610 feet, tirely of empty cars. With trains in 15 pounds, 600 feet, 20 pounds, 600 feet. which the cars are all loaded no trouble From this it will seen that the stops ac- whatever is experienced. If a valve is complished on this empty train with a furnished with which stops can be made 10, 15 and 20 pound reduction were prac. in comparatively short distances by the tically the same, whereas it required 750 use of the service application it is hardly feet, or 150 feet greater distance, in necessary to state that the occasion for which to bring the train to rest in response using the emergency application will be to a 5 pound reduction. These stops are greatly reduced. accomplished in a very much less distance than can be done with a train equipped

Boilers. with the old-style valve, with which about 1,500 or 1,600 feet is required to

J. W. READING. stop the same train in response to a 5 As long as steam is used we will have pound reduction, whereas 20 pounds boilers of various kinds. To convert the

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