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1875, it was his joy to give a dearly-loved son, now united in marriage with Miss Gough, the first lady missionary of the C.E.Z.M.S. in China.

Abler pens will have much to tell of Canon Hoare's work for the Church at large. How earnestly he contended for "the faith which was once delivered to the saints," and his loyal devotion to what he loved to call "the grand old Church of England," are well known. His was a trumpet which gave forth no uncertain sound, and week by week the great doctrines of the Atonement, of Substitution, and of Justification by Faith were clearly and unflinchingly proclaimed.

His love for and sympathy with "the dear young people" of his congregation were one very marked feature of his ministry. Happy memories cling around the weekly children's Bible-class which he took till his illness in 1873, and also round the Confirmation classes, through which many of the members passed to the ladies' Bible-class. At these classes, questions were given out to be studied during the interval, and were taken up in detail the following week, when point after point would be brought out, difficulties cleared away, and the spiritual lesson of the passage pressed home.

Words can give but a poor idea of the wide-spread influence of Canon Hoare's holy life, his wonderful missionary spirit, his large heart, his wise and prayerful counsel, his abounding love, his genial and inspiring presence, his untiring energy, and his wealth of sympathy alike in joy and sorrow.

How long Canon Hoare was a subscriber to the Zenana Mission we do not know. It was in 1872 that an impetus was given to the Association at Tunbridge Wells by goods being sent down from the London depôt and a sale of work organised. Canon Hoare gave the loan of his parochial schools, opened the sale with prayer, and afterwards came in and out to see how all " were getting on." So encouraging was the result that a local committee was formed of the ladies who had been stall-holders, and Canon Hoare shortly after became President of the Association. The work went steadily forward; the ladies' committee met regularly every month for prayer and consultation, while all matters of importance were laid before the President of the Association, and his help and counsel were never sought in vain.

Canon Hoare had been at first anxious lest an annual sale of work for the Zenana Society should injure the collections at the C.M.S. Anniversary, which immediately followed it; but as year after year went by and the amounts raised for both Societies steadily increased, all such fear died away. Whenever possible, he himself took the little opening service at the sale, and the

few words then spoken cast their hallowing influence over the proceedings of the two days.* At the Annual Meeting of the Association he almost invariably presided, and he rejoiced as one and another of his congregation went out to swell the ranks of Zenana workers, and so fresh interest at home was aroused.

When the year 1880 brought a crisis in the history of the Zenana Mission, Canon Hoare was made acquainted with all the facts of the case, and his advice sought: his was no hasty decision, but once formed it was definite and final, and the Tunbridge Wells Association, with the exception of a single member of the committee, gave in its adhesion to the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. From that time the cause advanced rapidly, and Canon Hoare himself became more and more closely associated with it, taking his seat on the Society's Council of Reference. In the autumn of 1886, he gave the farewell address to the band of outgoing missionaries, while in May, 1889, very shortly before the serious illness from which he never fully recovered, he took the chair at the Annual Meeting in Princes Hall, Piccadilly, and many will remember his expression of hearty appreciation of the principles and practice of the C.E.Z.M.S. as he said, "From the very bottom of my heart, I thank God for the Zenana Society."

This great standard-bearer of the truth has been taken from us, but his work, his words, his influence remain-they cannot die.

"Oh, faithful servant to a faithful Lord,
Not with a grudging heart we let thee go
To hear from His own mouth thy full reward
that crowns thy work below."

N. D.

To this account of Canon Hoare, written with special reference to the C.E.Z.M.S., we add a few words from the special memoir in the Record of July 13th, which is of world-wide interest :

"On St. Peter's Day when the Sunday-school Teachers' Association met as usual in his garden, he saw them for a few minutes, and then from his room sent out this touching message: 'Earthly pastors pass away, but remember Him of whom it is said, "He, because He abideth for ever, hath His priesthood unchangeable." This was his last public testimony, and surely it was a fitting sequel to his life's ministry! His strength then failed rapidly. On Thursday and Friday in last week, two friends had the privi

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* An account of the last sale, when Canon Hoare was present, was given in the present Volume, June, p. 369.

lege of reading and praying with him for the last time. The books he most cared to have read to him, besides the Scriptures, were the Life of Simeon and the Life of Scott. Friday, it was noticed that he was much weaker. Congestion of the right lung had set in, and his absent sons were summoned. Replying to some inquiry he said, 'I am at perfect rest on every point,' and he bade them all good-night. At 3.30 a.m. his watchful attendant noticed that he had ceased to breathe-gently, tenderly, and lovingly the Saviour had called him Home."

The Todas.


HESE "munds," or villages, are generally situated on the grassy slope of a hill, near a fringing copse of trees. They show great taste in selecting their sites, and many of their "munds" look pretty and picturesque, and would delight the heart of many an English painter. A good Toda “mund" would make a picture which would be the lion of the day at the Royal Academy. So, would-be Royal Academicians, take the hint! Each "mund" contains a small number of huts and a "sacred dairy," which will be described in connexion with their religious customs.

The number of huts varies from three to seven. On approaching a Toda "mund" the first object which strikes the eye is a little straggling herd of buffaloes grazing on the outskirts of the village. Then the houses (ânse they call them) hove in sight. Each is surrounded by a low wall with a sort of aperture for ingress and egress. Outside the hut is a raised pial, or seat, where most of the chattering and gossiping is done. The hut, or rather the upper part of it, is circular or cylindrical in shape, rather like a big barrel standing on a flat side. In front is a small circular aperture, standing about three feet high from the ground; through this hole-door you must enter the abode in the ignominious position called "all-fours." Arrived inside, you find a raised pial, or platform, on either side, the one serving as a kitchen, and the other as a bedroom for the elder members of the family. On the floor-level, at the other end, the children, &c., sleep at night. All looks very snug and neat. The vessels

and utensils, clean and bright, hang each in its appointed place. A primitive little lamp stands on a small projection in the side of the hut. And indeed there is quite an appearance of "home" about the interior. Civilisation, with its luxuries and appliances, makes us forget how little is really necessary for the support of life, and even for its enjoyment!

(a) Marriage.-I have alluded to the subject of polyandry. This degrading custom has been a regular Toda institution, though now happily it is becoming more rare every year.

Several brothers, or cousins, would "go shares" in the same wife: only the eldest brother marries, but she is held common to all, as all share the same hut. Their marriage customs are very simple. The bride is brought to the house of her future husband or husbands. The husband then places first the right and then the left foot on her head, which is inclined for the purpose. She is forthwith ordered to fetch water for cooking and is installed mistress (or slave!) of the house. The husband and wife spend their few days of honeymoon in a hut with closed doors, food being handed in at stated times by friends: a good opportunity, we may suppose, of discovering each other's disposition! Fancy a honeymoon in prison! This terrible practice of polyandry opens to us to what a level human nature can sink when alienated from the life of God.

(b) Occupation.—The Todas are a lazy race. Their one occupation in life is to tend their herds of buffaloes. Levying a tribute on their Badaga neighbours, they are provided with a competence in a very easy fashion. You will always find them either lounging about doing nothing, or tending their buffaloes.

It seems a thousand pities that men with such a fine physique should be so idle. One of them was once confined to gaol for misdemeanour. The Government authorities tried in vain to exact the usual "hard labour" out of him. A Toda do "hard labour"! Why, he didn't know how to work! He had never worked in all his life! The governor of the gaol was obliged at last to get out of the difficulty by making the Toda an overseer over the other prisoners! He didn't mind being an overseer! He could lounge about and do that!

(c) Food. Their staple articles of food are the products of the buffalo (milk, butter-milk, ghee, &c.) and cereal grains, such as rice, millet, &c. It will be seen that they are practically vegetarians, and it has been thought by many that they are exclusively so. But this is not quite true,

for they have a kind of annual ceremony in the woods at which a young
male calf is killed, roasted over a sacred fire, and eaten by the males, no
women being allowed to be present. Still it remains true that in their
domestic arrangements they are strict vegetarians. They have two meals
in the day—in the morning about nine, and in the evening about seven.
The women, of course, do all the cooking, and, according to the general
custom of India, they take their meals apart from the men.
It goes
without saying that their fingers serve for cutlery. It is said that they
begin their meals with a sort of "grace," i.e. that they take up food in
their fingers and mutter ("Swamy, Swamy!" Lord, Lord!) before falling
to the viands.

All this points to a very primitive mode of life, and shows us the state of civilisation of those who are far removed from courts and cities.

(d) Their Dress.-The males wear a long rough cloth, called a pöthkuli. One end of this is placed on the left shoulder and side. The cloth is then passed right round the body and the end is allowed to hang gracefully from the left shoulder. The breadth of the cloth is such that the whole body is thus easily enveloped, right down to the feet. They ornament their clothes with rough needlework, and also with red and blue ornamented lines and curves, while a pocket stitched on to one side (inner) is a receptacle for all kinds of Toda dainties! One man brought his new cloth to us to have red lines and curves marked in it with red ink. It was amusing to watch the critical way in which he superintended the operation of marking. The women wear a similar long cloth, but invest their body with it in a different style, which makes them look even taller than they are; being worn very long and very straight. They also wear very heavy armlets-I have one which weighs about a pound, but they are sometimes much heavier. A nice little ornament for a lady's tender arm! The Todas seem to regard washing as a superfluous luxury, and the consequence can be better imagined than described.

(e) Their Funerals.—The Todas are famous for their funerals. When a man is supposed to be sick unto death, he is decked out in his best clothes and ornaments, and so prepared for the end. His friends give him a little buffalo-milk as the last kindness and farewell rite. After death the corpse is dressed in a new mantle, the pockets of which contain food, such as grain, sugar, &c., supposed to be his support by the way during his passage to Amnâr, the Toda Paradise. Away to the west of Ootacamund is a peak which stands out conspicuously from the range of



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