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28 chambers, 30 in. column, 42 ft. high, weighing 10 tons, and 1,800 gal. sheet steel still, weighing 242 tons. Can be built for $2,300 to $2,500.00. Capacity 50 gal. Benzol per hour.
be obtained in crystals on cooling the liquid.
Obermiller (Berl. Ber., 1907, 3623) has studied in detail the action of Sulphuric Acid on Phenols.
For the sulfonation of Phenol, see Kekule (Ber., 1869, 2, 330) and Obermiller (Ber., 1908, 41, 696).
Phenol, like the Alcohols, is capable of forming Ethers (Anisole) and Esters (Phenylacetate).
Phenol dissolves in 15 parts of water at 20° C. and very readily in Alcohol, Ether, Glycerin, Carbon Disulphide and Glacial Acetic Acid. At 84° C. Phenol is miscible in all proportions with water. (Green, Organic Coloring Matters, 1908).
The per cent. of water in Carbolic Acid, according to Vulpius (Wagner-Fischers, Jahresber., 1884, 494) can be tested by adding Olive Oil.
Carbolic Acid free from water can be mixed with many volumes of Olive Oil without becoming turbid. The more water the Carbolic contains, the less Olive Oil it will take.
Carbolic Acid containing 10% of water will give a clear solution when mixed with four volumes of Olive Oil, but will become strongly turbid with five volumes.
1% of water in Phenol can be recognized by shaking the Phenol with its own volume of Chloroform or Ether, in which case it will produce a milky liquid.
The quantity of water in Phenol can also be determined by the increase in volume of a concentrated solution of Calcium Chloride.
Phenol containing from 7% of water upwards becomes liquid.
Alexeieff gives a table of solubilities of Phenol in water and water in Phenol.
Adrieenz (Ber., 1873, 443) gives a table of the volumes of Phenol.
Hamberg (Ber., 1871, 751) gives the solubility of Phenol.
Seidell (Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances, 1911) gives tables of solubilities of Phenol in Water, Paraffine, Benzol, Acetone, Aqueous Tartaric Acid, Amyl Alcohol, Aqueous Potassium Sulphate, Toluene, m-Xylene, and Carbon Tetrachloride.
For solubility in water see Alexejew (Wied., Ann., 28, 305, 1886), Schreinemaker (Z. physik, Ch., 33, 79, 1900), Rothmund (Z. physik. Ch., 26, 474, 1898), Vaubel (Jour. fur praktische chemie. Leipzig (2), 52, 73, 1895).
For solubility in Amyl Alcohol see Herz and Fischer (Ber., 37, 4747, 1904).
For solubility in Benzol, Vaubel (Jour. fur praktische chemie. Leipzig (2), 67, 476, 1903), Schweissinger (Pharm. Ztg., 1884, 1885), Rothmund and Wilsmore (Z. fur physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, 40, 623, 1902).
For solubility in Toluene and Xylene, Herz and Fischer (Ber., 38, 1143, 1905).
For solubility in Carbon tetrachloride, Vaubel (Jour. fur praktische chemie. Leipzig (2), 67, 476, 1903).
Schreinmaker gives the solubilities of Phenol in Acetone, and in Tartaric Acid aqueous solutions.
Schweissinger (Pharm. Zeit., 1885, 259) shows the solubility of Phenol in Petroleum-spirit at different temperatures. At 43° C. one volume of the former dissolving in one volume of the latter.
The solubility in Paraffine Oil is about the same.
This property of Phenol is utilized in the manufacture of loose crystals.
The history, manufacture, application and examination of Carbolic Acid are monographically treated by H. Koehler in his Carbolsaure and Carbolsaureparate, Berlin, 1891.
Synthetic Phenol is in every way the same as the regular Phenol, except that it is apt to be the purer product of the two.
There can be no Cresols present in synthetic Phenol.
MELTING AND BOILING POINTS OF PHENOL.
Lunge (Coal Tar and Ammonia, 1909) gives the melting point as 43° C., boiling point 183° C. and Sp. Gr. 1.084 at 0° C.
Martin (Dyestuff and Coal Tar Products, 1915) states that commercial Phenol should melt at 39° to 40° C. and boil at 183° to 186° C.
Green (Organic Coloring Matters, 1908) gives the melting point as 41° C., boiling point 188° C., Sp. Gr. at 40° C. 1.05433 for pure Phenol, and that the commercial product melts at 30° and boils at 183° C.
Cain and Thorpe (Synthetic Dyestuffs, 1913) give the melting point at 42° C., boiling point 181.5°, and 30° C. as the melting point of commercial samples.
Wahl and Atack (Organic Dyestuffs, 1914) gives the melting point as 42° C. and boiling point 182° C.
Perkin and Kipping (Organic Chemistry, Part II) give the melting point as 42° C. and the boiling point as 183° C.
Richter (Organic Chemistry, 1911, Vol. II) gives the melting point at 43° C., boiling point 183° C. and the Sp. Gr. at 0° as 1.084.
Bernthsen (Organic Chemistry, 1912) gives the melting point as 42° C. and boiling point as 181° C.
Choay (Comptes. rend., CXVIII, 1211) determined the melting point of absolutely pure Phenol as 42.5° C. or 43° C., and the boiling point as 178.5° C., and ordinary "pure” Phenol as fusing at 35.5° C. and boiling at 188° C.
The German Pharmacopoeia requires a fusing point of 40° to 42° C.
The solidifying point is fixed by some authorities at 39° to 41° C.
Eger (Pharm. Zeit., 1903, 210; Chem. Zeit., Rep., 1903, 86) claims that the purest Phenol solidifies at 40.9° C., and its fusing point at most is only 0.1° higher.
In damp air Phenol absorbs water, and its fusing point is lowered by the formation of a hydrate C, H, OH, O containing 16.07% of water and fusing at 17.2° C. (Allen, Analyst, III, 319). The hydrate begins to lose water at 100° C., and thus gradually arrives at the B. P. of anhydrous Phenol.
Phenol fusing at 42° C. is less deliquescent than that melting at 35° C.
Kraemer and Spilker have given a method for determining the solidifying point of Phenol.
It is seen from the foregoing that the authorities vary greatly as to the true melting and boiling points of Phenol. This is due largely to the impurities that are present in the most of the regular Carbolic Acid that has not been made synthetically.
The three Cresols are present to a greater or less extent in the most of commercial Phenol.
o-Cresol has a melting point of 30° C., boiling point of 191° C. and Sp. Gr. 1.043.
m-Cresol has a melting point of 4° C., boiling point 203° C., and Sp. Gr. 1.035.
p-Cresol has a melting point of 36° C., boiling point 2020 C., and Sp. Gr. 1.034.
The melting points of the Cresols are seen to be much below that of Phenol, and their presence then is indicated in the low melting point of commercial Phenol.
The boiling points of the Cresols are much higher than Phenol, again being responsible for the variations in the boiling point of Phenol.
Capacity 321 gal., weight 7,000 lbs., outside diameter 5 ft., height over all 6 ft. 8 in. Can be built for $550.00 including pattern work.
Eight sheets of detail drawings and names of manufacturers who have submitted bids are furnished.
The same kettle with 4 way yoke support for agitator drive, same price.
Or either style of kettle with valve outlet in bottom, instead of syphon discharge, same price.
Price of either set of these drawings, $100.00.