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At least twenty-four hours before departure from Russia this permit should be presented and a passport of departure will be granted and ihe original passport returned. A fresh permit to remain in Russia must be obtained every six months."

Notice of Department of State, Aug. 1, 1901, For. Rel. 1901, 453.
As to the requirements of the Russian Government that foreign ecclesi.

astics desiring to enter Russia must have the special authorization
of the Ministry of the Interior, see Mr. Wurtz, chargé at St. Peters-
burg, to Mr. Blaine, Sec. of State, No. 72, Dec. 16, 1889, 40 MS. Desp.
from Russia. This dispatch related to the case of the Rer. Mr.
Wright, whose passport the Russian consul-general at Constantinople
refused to visé, in order that he might proceed through Russian
territory to Persia. The Russian foreign office, as Mr. Wurtz
reported, said that the authorization of the Ministry of the Interior
was "readily and promptly granted, and to all who have not made
themselves obnoxious by their attempts to proselyte from the ortho-
dox faith, or against whom nothing objectionable is known; the
authorization could in fact be telegraphed for from Teheran, Con-

stantinople, or elsewhere." See, however, For. Rel. 1895, I. 195, where it is stated that the Russian

Government in 1891 refused to permit an American missionary to pass through Siberia en route from China to the United States, on the ground that no ecclesiastics were allowed to go through Siberia; and where it is also stated that, on the same ground, Count Cassini, Russian minister at Peking, in 1895 declined to grant permission (which was, however, subsequently accorded at St. Petersburg) for certain American missionaries in China to seek temporary asylum in Russian territory if it became necessary for the protection of their lives.

“ Correspondence is on foot touching the practice of Russian consuls within the jurisdiction of the United States to interrogate citizens as to their race and religious faith, and upon ascertainment thereof to deny to Jews authentication of passports or legal documents for use in Russia. Inasmuch as such a proceeding imposes a disability, which in the case of succession to property in Russia may be found to infringe the treaty rights of our citizens, and which is an obnoxious invasion of our territorial jurisdiction, it has elicited fitting remonstrance, the result of which it is hoped will remove the cause of complaint."

President Cleveland, annual message, Dec. 2, 1895, For. Rel. 1895, I. xxxii.
See Jurisdiction, supra, $ 175.

April 21, 1904, the House of Representatives resolved “that the President be requested to renew negotiations with the governments of countries where discrimination is made between American citizens on the ground of religious faith or belief to secure by treaty or otherwise uniformity of treatment and protection to American citizens holding passports duly issued by the authorities of the United States, in order that all American citizens shall have equal freedom of travel and sojourn in those countries, without regard to race, creed, or religious faith." This resolution was communicated to the Russian Government, with an expression of a desire for the putting an end to the discriminations there prevailing “between different classes of American citizens on account of their religious faith."

Mr. Hay, Sec. of State, to Mr. McCormick, ambass. to Russia, No. 127,

July 1, 1904, For. Rel. 1904, 790.
See Mr. McCormick to Count Lamsdorff, Aug. 22, 1904, id. 791.
See, also, President Roosevelt, annual message, Dec. 6, 1904.

Feb. 12, 1889, the Turkish minister at Washington informed the Department of State that the passports of travelers resorting to Turkey must be viséed by an Ottoman consular officer. This notification was published by the Department through the press and otherwise (Consular Reports, No. 103, March 1889). The Ottoman regulations then in force were understood to be satisfied by a vise in the country of last departure before entering the Turkish dominions. The Department hesitated to publish, lest it might seem thereby to sanction, a later notification that all passports of American travellers for Turkey were required to be viséed by the Turkish consul-general at New York.

Mr. Blaine, Sec. of State, to Mavroyeni Bey, Turkish min., Feb. 18, 1890,

MS. Notes to Turkey, I. 520.

In 1888 the German Government made a regulation requiring all foreigners entering Alsace-Lorraine from France to have their passports viséed by the German embassy in Paris.

For. Rel. 1890, 316 ; Mr. Rives, Assist. Sec. of State, to Mr. Dirks, Jan. 14,

1889, 171, MS. Dom. Let. 319; Consular Reports, No. 94, June 1888, XXVI. 461.

Complaint having been made by William Trauver, an American citizen, of the refusal of the Austrian consul at Breila, Roumania, to visé his passport, the matter was brought to the attention of the Imperial and Royal Government, whose explanations were accepted as satisfactory. It appeared among other things that one of the reasons why the consul refused to visé the passport was that under the Imperial and Royal regulations the visé was required only in cases of Russian and Turkish passports, and this because of reciprocal agreement.

For. Rel. 1899, 52–60.

W., a citizen of the United States, bearing a passport from the Department of State, was expelled from Prussian territory in March 1894, on the ground that he was attempting to gain recruits for the Mormon sect, and was thus carrying on an agitation which was “not in harmony with the laws of the country.” At the time of his expulsion, the police authorities at Sorau made on his passport the following endorsement: “Expelled from Prussian territory by direction of the Royal Government president at Frankfort on the Oder, of March 27, 1894.” Of the expulsion no complaint was made; but, on the ground that the endorsement had "so impaired the value of the passport, not only in other parts of Germany, but everywhere else," that W. was compelled to take out a new one, Mr. Runyon, the ambassador of the United States at Berlin, requested the foreign office to

cause such directions to be given as to prevent in the future the making by any German official upon an American passport of any endorsement or statement except a visé." The foreign office replied: “ Though the order of expulsion must

be maintained, the procedure of the police authorities of Sorau , who have made a statement on the passport of Weiler,

can not be approved. Authority for Prussian officials to make statements of such a nature on passports of foreigners who have been expelled does not exist; the police authorities have acted of their own accord on this point The Royal Prussian minister of the interior has taken steps to prevent for the future the making of such unallowable statements on passports."

Baron Rotenhan, to Mr. Runyon, Dec. 3, 1895, For. Rel. 1895, I. 511, reply

ing to a note of Mr. Runyon of Sept. 2, 1895, id. 510.

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The United States having protested against the act of the Russian consul at Königsberg, in making on the passport of a naturalized American citizen the endorsement that "the visé of the passport is refused, in view of the fact that the bearer of it has been naturalized in the States of North America without the permission of the Government,” the passport being thus defaced and its usefulness impaired, the Russian Government replied that the necessary steps had been taken to prevent the recurrence of such cases in future.”

For. Rel. 1896, 517-519.

“ By article 76 of the Portuguese consular code the captains of ships are obliged to present at the consulates or vice-consulates at the moment of their departure for Portuguese ports the necessary documents, as also the passports of passengers. If these latter are foreigners their passports must be viséed at the consulates or viceconsulates, but it is not required that all the passports should be made out by the consuls or vice-consuls. The visés for foreign passports amount to about 80 cents,"

Viscount das Nogueiras, Portuguese min., to Mr. Bayard, Sec. of State,

May 15, 1887, For. Rel. 1887, 937, 9'S.

This was written in reply to a note of Mr. Bayard's of May 11, 1887, to

the Portuguese minister, calling attention to the statement of a firm
in Boston that passengers bound for the Azores were required by
the Portuguese vice-consul to provide themselves, before sailing, with

Portuguese passports, at a cost of $3.30 each.
See, also, Mr. Bayard, Sec. of State, to Mr. Lewis, min. to Portugal, No.

52, May 13, 1887, For. Rel. 1887, 935.

While the right of foreign governments to require passports is not disputed, yet with the exaction of heavy charges for visés may be a subject of international complaint.

Mr. Frelinghuysen, Sec. of State, to Mr. Foster, min. to Spain, March 12,

1884, MS. Inst. Spain, XIX. 504.

“ In respect of the Spanish consular visé attached to a passport (in itself very onerous), it is noticeable that double the charge is made for the authentication of the passports of travelers from the United States than is imposed in the case of the optional visé of the passport of a traveler going to Cuba from Europe, and providing himself with that means of establishing his identity and right to courteous treatment. And still another discrimination appears, for certain foreigners, Germans in particular, going from our ports to Cuba, are favored by the collection of a lower fee for the visé of the Spanish consuls in the United States than American citizens are compelled to pay for the same service. Unreasonable and only applicable to a part of the foreign travel with Cuba, the passport system there is thus made an engine of an unfriendly discrimination."

Mr. Bayard, Sec. of State, to Mr. Muruaga, Span, min., May 19, 1886, MS.

Notes to Spain. X. 420.
See, also, Mr. Bayard, Sec. of State, to Mr. Foster, min. to Spain, No. 336,

May (i, 1885, For. Rel. 188.5, 711 ; Mr. Foster to Mr. Bayard, No. 334,
June :20, 1885, id. 720; Mr. Bayard to Mr. Foster,' No. 390, Aug. 21,
1885, id. 731.

The Spanish minister, in an interview on June 11, stated that his government would“ relieve citizens of the United States of the present unequal and discriminating charge of $1 for the consular visé, as against the $2 fee for the visé of German and other passports."

Mr. Bayard. Sec. of State, to Mr. ('urry, min. to Spain, June 14, 1886, MS,

Inst. Spain, XX. 230.

June 10, 1887, the Spanish minister stated that he had instructed Spanish consuls in the United States to furnish a visé to American citizens going to Cuba at a cost of $1.

Mr. Muruagil, Spain. min. to Mr. Bayard, Sec. of State, June 10, 1887, For.

Rel. 1887, 1030, 1031,

3. FALSE USE,

$ 527.

A passport fraudulently obtained will be treated by the Department of State as a nullity.

Mr. Marcy, Sec. of State, to Mr. Jackson, Jan. 10, 1854, MS. Inst. Austria,

I. 89.
As to the procedure on impeachment of a passport by a foreign govern-

ment, see supra, $ 525.

Where a passport is gravely impeached, it should be supported, in order to be efficacious, by an adequate certificate of naturalization.

Mr. Frelinghuysen, Sec. of State, to Mr. Cramer, March 26, 1883, MS.

Inst. Switz. II. 173.

By article 977, of the Russian Penal Code," whoever falsely transfers his passport to another, that the latter may live under its protection or that the latter may pass the frontier, and also whoever passes from one place to another by means of such a modified or falsified passport, is subject to imprisonment from two to four months or to arrest from (3) three weeks to (3) three months."

Mr. Smith, min. to Russia, to Mr. Blaine, Sec. of State, No. 20, July 3,

1890, 41 MS. Desp. from Russia.

The Turkish passport regulations, as well as the Ottoman Penal Code (art. 155), provide for the punishment of persons who obtain passports under a false name, or aid as witnesses in the procurement of such a document.

Mr. Frelinghuysen, Sec. of State, to Mr. Wallace, min. to Turkey, No.

193, May 20, 1884, MS. Inst. Turkey, IV. 138.

“Should a case of disputed identity be presented raising doubt as to whether the actual possessor of the passport issued to Friedrich Hillebrandt is the person therein mentioned, a case of fraudulent impersonation of the rightful owner of a genuine passport would arise, which this Government would be happy to assist in investigating through its legation in Austria-Hungary and in regard to which it would adopt such course as the facts developed would warrant.

“It is submitted, however, that your note of the 1st instant does not present such a case for consideration, and seems to admit of no other response than that already made, namely, that the passport No. 3897, issued to Frederick Hillebrandt, is what it purports to be, a genuine certification of the citizenship of the person to whom it was lawfully issued.”

Mr. Uhl, Act. Sec. of State, to Mr. Hengelmüller, Aust.-Ilung. min., May 22,

1895, MS. Notes to Aust. Leg. IX. 217.

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