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All process of this court shall be in the name of the president of the United States, and shall be in like form and tested in the same manner as process of the supreme court.
BILL OF EXCEPTIONS.
The judges of the circuit and district courts shall not allow any bill of exceptions which shall contain the charge of the court at large to the jury in trials at common law, upon any general exception to the whole of such charge. But the party excepting shall be required to state distinctly the several matters of law in such charge to which he excepts; and those matters of law, and those only, shall be inserted in the bill of exceptions, and allowed by the court.
ASSIGNMENT OF ERRORS.
The plaintiff in error or appellant shall file with the clerk of the court below, with his petition for the writ of error or appeal, an assignment of errors, which shall set out separately and particularly each error asserted and intended to be urged. No writ of error or appeal shall be allowed until such assignment of errors shall have been filed. When the error alleged is to the admission or to the rejection of evidence, the assignment of errors shall quote the full substance of the evidence admitted or rejected. When the error alleged is to the charge of the court, the assignment of errors shall set out the part referred to totidem verbis, whether it be in instructions given or in instructions refused. Such assignment of errors shall form part of the transcript of the record, and be printed with it. When this is not done, counsel will not be heard, except at the request of the court; and errors not assigned according to this rule will be disregarded, but the court, at its option, may notice a plain error not assigned.
OBJECTIONS TO EVIDENCE IN THE RECORD.
In all cases of equity or admiralty jurisdiction, heard in this court, no objection shall be allowed to be taken to the admissibility of any deposition, deed, grant, exhibit, or translation, found in the record as evidence, unless objection was taken thereto in the court below and entered of record; but the same shall otherwise be deemed to have been admitted by consent.
SUPERSEDEAS AND COST BONDS.
1. Supersedeas bonds in the circuit and district courts must be taken, with good and sufficient security, that the plaintiff in error or appellant shall prosecute his writ or appeal to effect, and answer all damages and costs if he fail
to make his plea good. Such indemnity, where the judgment or decree is for the recovery of money not otherwise secured, must be for the whole amount of the judgment or decree, including just damages for delay, and costs and interest on the appeal; but, in all suits where the property in controversy necessarily follows the suit, as in real actions and replevin, and in suits on mortgages, or where the property is in the custody of the marshal under admiralty process, or where the proceeds thereof, or a bond for the value thereof, is in the custody of the court, indemnity in all such cases will be required only in an amount sufficient to secure the sum recovered for the use and detention of the property, and the costs of the suit and just damages for delay, and costs and interest on the appeal.
2. On all appeals from any interlocutory order or decree granting or continuing an injunction in a circuit or district court, the appellant shall, at the time of the allowance of said appeal, file with the clerk of such circuit or district court a bond to the opposite party, in such sum as such court shall direct, to answer all costs if he shall fail to sustain his appeal.
WRITS OF ERROR, APPEALS, RETURN, AND RECORD.
1. The clerk of the court to which any writ of error may be directed shall make a return of the same by transmitting a true copy of the record, bill of exceptions, assignment of errors, and all proceedings in the case, under his hand and the seal of the court.
2. In all cases brought to this court by writ of error or appeal to review any judgment or decree, the clerk of the court by which such judgment or decree was rendered shall annex to and transmit with the record a copy of the opinion or opinions filed in the case.
3. No case will be heard until a complete record, containing in itself, and not by reference, all the papers, exhibits, depositions, and other proceedings, which are necessary to the hearing in this court, shall be filed.
4. Whenever it shall be necessary or proper, in the opinion of the presiding judge in any circuit or district court, that original papers of any kind should be inspected in this court upon writ of error or appeal, such presiding judge may make such rule or order for the safe-keeping, transporting, and return of such original papers as to him may seem proper; and this court will receive and consider such original papers in connection with the transcript of the proceedings.
5. All appeals, writs of error, and citations must be made returnable not exceeding thirty days from the day of signing the citation, whether the return-day fall in vacation or in term-time, and be served before the returnday.
6. The record in cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction shall be made ur as provided in general admiralty rule No. 52 of the supreme court.
Whenever any record transmitted to this court upon a writ of error or appeal shall contain any document, paper, testimony, or other proceeding, in a
In the third circuit, after the word "directed," the following words are inserted: "Upon being paid or tendered his fees therefor."
foreign language, and the record does not also contain a translation of such document, paper, testimony, or other proceeding, made under the authority of the inferior court, or admitted to be correct, the record shall not be printed; but the case shall be reported to this court by the clerk, and the court will thereupon remand it back to the inferior court, in order that a translation may be there supplied and inserted in the record.
1. It shall be the duty of the plaintiff in error or appellant to docket the case, and file the record thereof with the clerk of this court, by or before the return-day, whether in vacation or in term-time. But, for good cause shown, the justice or judge who signed the citation, or any judge of this court, may enlarge the time by or before its expiration, the order of enlargement to be filed with the clerk of this court. If the plaintiff in error or appellant shall fail to comply with this rule, the defendant in error or appellee may have the cause docketed and dismissed, upon producing a certificate, whether in termtime or vacation, from the clerk of the court wherein the judgment or decree was rendered, stating the case, and certifying that such writ of error or appeal has been duly sued out or allowed. And in no case shall the plaintiff in error or appellant be entitled to docket the case and file the record after the same shall have been docketed and dismissed under this rule, unless by order of the court.
2. But the defendant in error or appellee may, at his option, docket the case and file a copy of the record with the clerk of this court; and, if the case is docketed and a copy of the record filed with the clerk of this court by the plaintiff in error or appellant within the period of time above limited and prescribed by this rule, or by the defendant in error or appellee at any time thereafter, the case shall stand for argument at the term.
3. Upon the filing of the transcript of a record brought up by writ of error or appeal, the appearance of the counsel for the party docketing the case shall be entered.
The clerk shall enter upon a docket all cases brought to and pending in the court in their proper chronological order, and such docket shall be called at every term, or adjourned term; and if a case is called for hearing at two terms successively, and upon the call at the second term neither party is prepared to argue it, it will be dismissed at the cost of the plaintiff in error or appellant, unless sufficient cause is shown for further postponement.
No certiorari for diminution of the record will be hereafter 10 awarded in any case, unless a motion therefor shall be made in writing, and the facts on which the same is founded shall, if not admitted by the other party, be verified by
10 In the eighth circuit, the word "hereafter" is omitted.
affidavit. And all motions for such certiorari must be made at the first term of the entry of the case; otherwise the same will not be granted, unless upon special cause shown to the court, accounting satisfactorily for the delay.
DEATH OF A PARTY.
1. Whenever, pending a writ of error or appeal in this court, either party shall die, the proper representatives in the personalty or realty of the deceased party, according to the nature of the case, may voluntarily come in and be admitted parties to the suit, and thereupon the case shall be heard and determined as in other cases; and, if such representatives shall not voluntarily become parties, then the other party may suggest the death on the record, and thereupon, on motion, obtain an order that, unless such representatives shall become parties within sixty days, the party moving for such order, if defendant in error, shall be entitled to have the writ of error or appeal dismissed, and, if the party so moving shall be plaintiff in error, he shall be entitled to open the record, and, on hearing, have the judgment or decree reversed, if it be erroneous: provided, however, that a copy of every such order shall be personally served on said representatives at least thirty days before the expiration of such sixty days.
2. When the death of a party is suggested, and the representatives of the deceased do not appear within ten days after the expiration of such sixty days, and no measures are taken by the opposite party within that time to compel their appearance, the case shall abate.
3. When either party to a suit in a circuit or district court of the United States shall desire to prosecute a writ of error or appeal to this court from any final judgment or decree rendered in the circuit or district court, and, at the time of suing out such writ of error or appeal, the other party to the suit shall be dead, and have no proper representative within the jurisdiction of the court which rendered such final judgment or decree, so that the suit cannot be revived in that court, but shall have a proper representative in some state or territory of the United States, or in the District of Columbia, the party desiring such writ of error or appeal may procure the same, and may have proceedings on such judgment or decree superseded or stayed in the same manner as is now allowed by law in other cases, and shall thereupon proceed with such writ of error or appeal as in other cases. And, within thirty days after the filing of the record in this court, the plaintiff in error or appellant shall make a suggestion to the court, supported by affidavit, that the said party was dead when the writ of error or appeal was taken or sued out, and had no proper representative within the jurisdiction of the court which rendered such judgment or decree, so that the suit could not be revived in that court, and that said party had a proper representative in some state or territory of the United States, or in the District of Columbia, and stating therein the name and character of such representative, and the state or territory or district in which such representative resides; and, upon such suggestion, he may on motion obtain an order that, unless such representative shall make himself a party within ninety days, the plaintiff in error or appellant shall be entitled to open the record, and, on hearing, have the judgment or decree reversed if the same be erroneous: provided, however, that a proper citation reciting the ⚫ substance of such order shall be served upon such representative, either personally or by being left at his residence, at least thirty days before the expiration of such ninety days: provided, also, that in every such case, if the representative of the deceased party does not appear within ten days after the ex
piration of such ninety days, and the measures above provided to compel the appearance of such representative have not been taken within the time as above required, by the opposite party, the case shall abate: and provided, also, that the said representative may at any time, before or after said suggestion, come in and be made a party to the suit, and thereupon the case shall proceed, and be heard and determined as in other cases.
Whenever the plaintiff and defendant in a writ of error pending in this court, or the appellant and appellee in an appeal, shall, by their attorneys of record, sign and file with the clerk an agreement in writing directing the case to be dismissed, and specifying the terms on which it is to be dismissed, as to costs, and shall pay to the clerk any fees that may be due to him, it shall be the duty of the clerk to enter the case dismissed, and to give to either party requesting a copy of the agreement filed; but no mandate or other processshall issue without an order of the court.
1. All motions to the court shall be reduced to writing, and shall contain a brief statement of the facts and objects of the motion.
2. One hour on each side shall be allowed to the argument of a motion, and no more, without special leave of the court, granted before the argument begins.
3. No motion to dismiss, except on special assignment by the court, shall be heard, unless previous notice has been given to the adverse party, or the counsel or attorney of such party.
PARTIES NOT READY.
1. Where no counsel appears, and no brief has been filed for the plaintiff in error or appellant, when the case is called for trial, the defendant may have the plaintiff called, and the writ of error or appeal dismissed.
2. Where the defendant fails to appear when the case is called for trial, the court may proceed to hear an argument on the part of the plaintiff, and to give judgment according to the right of the case.
3. When a case is reached in the regular call of the docket, and there is no appearance for either party, the case shall be dismissed at the cost of the plaintiff.
The counsel for the plaintiff in error or appellant shall print and file with the clerk of the court, at least six days before the case is called for argument,
11 This rule reads as follows in the eighth circuit: "On the filing of the transcript in every case the clerk shall forthwith cause the same to be printed, and shall furnish three copies of the printed record to each party at least thirty days before the argument.