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te * vs bis hive to-size: 1st Be prepossessing in the smoke of its altars, frant uns which he cacherad bezesa se and is Lix of the leper, and its catalogue of irur ses só summer.

iacerdicted neats. Another reader takes the eurs vrea do you belcse-tabeza. Exce to the Hebrews for his key, and finds fies ris! Do ya search e serietzs himself at onee in an interpreter's room, where trto ma ansca them! Do you eveä ed everythizg is vivid, si siseant, and spiritual. i jasa I you bring out some meaning, or in this law of the leper, as in a glass, he beholds il in za carry away some memoratie met his own natural face, and sees what manner of rmnetize jessce! Or do you do sieg a man he is, and what a hateful evil in God's 1s 119.ory ohe outions for Dereky, sykt sin is. Through the smoke of altars and wt as suas to ensure or poeder e seertotal restinea's he discerns the heavenly

! Des the Word of God dwell a bizi Priest ; and the forbidden meats carry * 1 iar ia the Fis's of a reszess din forward to Jopra, and remind him of that Her sr 11 -2 bocsess scitude of a scă ride wall of partition which Peter was the suami, ir i rãe wiaz ct od zeer ex' in to overleap. Or, an outside reader takes up iun irtinus, Tasured trucks would per. che song of Solomon, and is greatly captivated Tel.mar mmner red rus, and give you meat wish the Eastern giow and gorzeous imagery of 41 41 42 kJ5S not of !

these siered idyls; but a spiritually-minded Za mnat ve Teraz betire is a reader sees at once that a greater than Solomon du 11. 12.3212 - A learned and usera is here. On its aromotie bius he recognises the CMT25 sa me Episcie to che li ebrews beautil seps of his Savicur, and in its language Balo 26210 of my Vers' Wedzes recreozdeseosion he bears the voice of his test issue a Puiestrars, by taat bvir and owa Beiered. In the depths of itsrose and its lily, mare, a Gaze, lace pescer sech reader tirds a fountain sealed" of sacred

2 zrniers are a juntad en "a weil shut up" of hearenlysweetness. *! jan't ses espesian of the la properties as we cultivate a minute and surut KB is 25 are 't caly the mere lorea sesintance with the Word of God. Ura e mare teen has langer our thick wid de tirn, and our religion will be Lund me of the obscurest towers are spead and robust. The bee, which is gatherSut MMS, ns, and socle of the least fremg sroh azd sweetres from the blossom, mana ang si scripcare are not the least teeds meargument to persuade it that honey is

Sine izare a taeit prejadice bidden in the cells of dowers. And the man augal Le Brnik ot' Jeb. They feel as if is who is dus gathering comfort and support, ***2 fraersal enigode in the Bibie, and I20 sanesituatia aed spiritual vigour, from the *****. a. kas iš dust and asies were sfrizkied Word, uerus no rasonings to convince him that

** fazo. Amongst these Bivie-con-i heavenir wisdom is contained in the ScriptureA Por:ane was one who dwel all his days ou of truth; and such a man will not be easily 44, at find its sombre-looking text tuil of, beguiled of his stedfastness, whatever deceivers tas. matriction and evangelic comfort. In enter into the world. When near her death, antearsa he has left the product of his a singularly clear-thinking and pious student of yoannt sic; and every book in the Bible would the Bible wrote to a friend the following result wan nase its Caryi, if only the world could of her own experience : " You may remember ha the book,

my telling you that some years ago I declined Tret, quiin, there are certain plants which greatly, almost entirely (inwardly), from the 155;ura me efort to reach their penetralia, wars of God, and in my breast was an Infidelirst wisk amçie stores exceedingly requite a disbeliever in the truths of the Bible. When then There are such books in Scripture; the Lord brought me out of that dreadful state, barinn, 2.d perur.ate firswers in the garden of and established my faith in his Word, I deterhvernig minden, which need dexterity and mined to take that Word alone for my guide. Gr-LINE, to magot all their meaning. A care- I read nothing else for between three and four beste esasut might fancy that the trace of sweet- months, and the Lord helped me to pray over tant om i be quite edge was all the honey there; every word that I read. At that time, and that this true investigator knows better, and from that reading, all my religious opinions threrin the minreluctant opening pushes on to were formed, and I have not changed one of bisa. 166.ts ambrowia within. A careless reader them since. *** for inson to the outside of Leicus, and sees

* Memoir of Mary Jane Graham.

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFORMATION.

3

THE PAULICIANS.

who had parted with everything for his supTHE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFOR- port in the course of his journey, save a copy MATION.

of the New Testament in Syriac, which he had carefully carried from the land of his capti. vity, at length reached an obscure town called

Mananalis, in the neighbourhood of Samosata, BY THE REV. THOMAS MʻCRIE, EDINBURGH.

and begged for lodging at the house of one " When examining the history of the eleventh named Constantine. This person, it would century," says Beausobre, an eminent ecclesias- appear, belonged to a colony which was protical historian of the last century, “I met with the scribed under the odious name of Manicheans; bloody execution of thirteen canons of Orleans, -a sect which arose very early in the Church, who were esteemed 'the noblest, the wisest, and and was chiefly distinguished by holding the the most virtuous of all the clergy of that city.' existence of two divinities, or supreme prinThese men were burnt under the pretext of ciples, a good and a bad the former of whom being Manicheans. Prosecuting my researches was the creator of all that was spiritual and into this new species of Manicheans, I dis good; the latter, the creator of matter and all covered that they came from Italy; that those evil. The Church of Rome has branded all who of Italy had come from Dalmatia; those of opposed her pretensions and superstitions in Dalmatia from Bulgaria ; those of Bulgaria these early ages with th:- epithet of Manicheans, from Thrace; and those of Thrace from Syria much in the same spirit as those who have and Armenia. Thus it appears,” he adds, " that separated from corrupt Churches with us have our Manicheans of France, Germany, and Italy, been stigmatized by such names as Puritans are neither more nor less than a branch of and Methodists. Be this as it may, the errors those who were called PAULICIANS. Further of Constantine's creed do not seem to have inquiries into the tenets of these people have entirely hardened his heart or blinded his unconvinced me that the accounts which we have derstanding. He received the poor deacon generally received of them are little better than into his house, and hospitably entertained him a tissue of fabrications.”

for several days. On his departure, the grate. It must be curious to examine the history of ful captive made his kind host a present of his a Church so very ancient, and which has passed highly-prized Syriac Testament, which was in through so many transmigrations. It must be two volumes--the one containing the four Gos. interesting to trace the apostolic connection pels, and the other the fourteen Epistles of between the Churches of Italy, the immediate Paul. To the study of these sacred books, precursors of the Reformed Church, and the hitherto locked up from him, Constantine diliPaulicians, who arose in the seventh century. gently applied himself; and the simple reading And the task deepens in interest when we find of the Word of God, without note or comment, reason to believe that this much maligned people led to such a revolution in his sentiments carried with them in all their wanderings from that he publicly burned all his Manichean east to west, from the plains of Armenia to the books, and became a zealous preacher of the Alps of Europe, the vital stream of evangelical Gospel. Numerous proselytes gathered around truth. It might be presumed, indeed, that the him; many Catholics were converted by him; principles which kept such masses together, he preached with success in the regions of which survived whole centuries of bloody per- Pontus and Cappadocia; and with the aid of

secution, and which flourished in soils so widely fellow-labourers who came to his assistance, a | different, must have been sounder at heart, large Church was speedily instituted, the mem

and more tenacious of life, than the vagaries bers of which, in token of their veneration for

of an heretical imagination. And, in point of the writings of Paul, assumed or received the | fact, the lights of history which are only begin- name of Paulicians.* Constantine himself,

ning to dawn on the monastic records of the from the same innocent ambition to revive the dark ages, have already discovered enough to memory of the first ages of Christianity, took convince us of the truth of Beausobre's state the name of Paul's friend-Sylvanus; while ment, so far as the Paulicians are concerned, some of the leading pastors with whom he was that they are "little better than a tissue of associated were named after Titus, Timothy, fabrications.It is but a slight sketch that and Tychicus; and six of their principal concan be here attempted of this interesting, but | gregations represented the Churches to which Little known and much neglected people. Paul had addressed liis Epistles.

About the middle of the seventh century, a The leading tenets of the Paulicians were Christian deacon, who had escaped from cap- characterized by the purity and simplicity tivity in Syria, was returning homewards that might be expected from an association through Armenia. The exhausted traveller, which sprung from the fresh and immaculate • Lrtter of Mr Beausobre to Mr de la Motte. (Bibl. de

seed of the Word. Discarding the Gnosticism of l'Europe, vii., 145.) Beausobre is the author of a learned the school in which they had been educated, and #ork on Manicheism, and had prepared a history of the

ulicians, which he did not live to publish, and which, un- “ The name of Paulicians is derived by their enemies fortunately for the interests of historical truth. has never from some unknown tcacher; but I am confident that vet been given to the public. Memoires sur la Vie., &c., de they gloried in their affinity to the Apostle of the Gentiles." Beausobre; Hist. Critique de Mamichee, vol. ii.)

(Gibbon's Decline and Fall, X., 169.)

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room, where

other is warm in his hive to-night, amidst the little prepossessing in the smoke of its altars, fragrant stores which he gathered beneath the and its law of the leper, and its catalogue of bright beams of summer.

interdicted meats. Another reader takes the Reader, to which do you belong ?-the butter- Epistle to the Hebrews for his key, and finds flies or bees? Do you search the Scriptures, himself at once in an interprete or do you only skim them? Do you dwell on everything is vivid, significant, and spiritual. a passage till you bring out some meaning, or In that law of the leper, as in a glass, he beholds till you can earry away some memorable truth his own patural face, and sees what manner of or immediate lesson? or do you fit along on man he is, and what a hateful evil in God's heedless wing, only on the outlook for novelty, sight sin is. Through the smoke of altars and and too frivolous to explore or ponder the sacerdotal vestments he discerns the heavenly Scriptures? Does the Word of God dwell in High Priest ; and the forbidden meats carry you so richly that in the vigils of a restless him forward to Joppa, and remind him of that night, or in the bookless solitude of a sick middle wall of partition which Peter was the room, or in the winter of old age or exclusion first to overleap. Or, an outside reader takes up from ordinances, its treasured truths would per- the Song of Solomon, and is greatly captivated petuate summer round you, and give you meat with the Eastern glow and gorgeous imagery of to eat which the world knows not of ?

these sacred idyls; but a spiritually-minded At this moment we have lying before us a reader sees at once that a greater than Solomon thick and ancient tome, “ A learned and useful is here. On its aromotic hills he recognises the Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, beautiful steps of his Saviour, and in its language being the Substance of Thirty Years' Wednes- of tender condescension he hears the voice of his days' Lectures at Blackfriars, by that holy and own Beloved. In the depths of its rose and its lily, learned divine, William Gouge, late pastor such reader finds“ a fountain sealed” of sacred there;” and many of our readers are acquainted meaning,“ a well shut up" of heavenly sweetness. with Dr Owen's voluminous exposition of the In proportion as we cultivate a minute and same epistle. But they are not only the more loving acquaintance with the Word of God. doctrinal books which have been thus largely our faith will be firm, and our religion will be illustrated. Some of the obscurest flowers are sound and robust. The bee, which is gatherthe most mellifluous, and some of the least fre- ing strength and sweetness from the blossom, quented portions of Scripture are not the least needs no argument to persuade it that honey is productive. Some have a tacit prejudice hidden in the cells of fowers. And the man against the Book of Job. They feel as if it who is daily gathering comfort and support, were a funereal episode in the Bible, and look sanctification and spiritual vigour, from the drearily at it, as if dust and ashes were sprinkled Word, needs no reasonings to convince him that over all its pages. Amongst these Bible-con- heavenly wisdom is contained in the Scriptures ning Puritans was one who dwelt all his days on of truth; and such a man will not be easily Job, and found its sombre-looking text full of beguiled of his stedfastness, whatever deceivers sacred instruction and evangelic comfort. In enter into the world. When near her death, ten quartos he has left the product of his a singularly clear-thinking and pious student of pleasant toil; and every book in the Bible would the Bible wrote to a friend the following result bear to have its Caryl, if only the world could of her own experience : “You may remember bear the books.

my telling you that some years ago I declined Then, again, there are certain plants which greatly, almost entirely (inwardly), from the require some effort to reach their penetralia, ways of God, and in my breast was an Infidelbut whose ample stores exceedingly requite a disbeliever in the truths of the Bible. When the toil. There are such books in Scripture; the Lord brought me out of that dreadful state, labiate and personate flowers in the garden of and established my faith in his Word, I deter. heavenly wisdom, which need dexterity and mined to take that Word alone for my guide. diligence to master all their meaning. A care. I read nothing else for between three and four less comer might fancy that the trace of sweet- months, and the Lord helped me to pray over ness on the outer edge was all the honey there; every word that I read. At that time, and but the true investigator knows better, and from that reading, all my religious opinions through the unreluctant opening pushes on to were formed, and I have not changed one of the molten ambrosia within. A careless reader them since." alights on the outside of Leviticus, and sees

* Memoir of Mary Jane Graham.

11 *

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFORMATION,

3

who had parted with everything for his supTHE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFOR-port in the course of his journey, save a copy MATION.

of the New Testament in Syriac, which he had

carefully carried from the land of his captiTHE PAULICIANS.

vity, at length reached an obscure town called

Mananalis, in the neighbourhood of Samosata, BY THE REV. THOMAS MÓCRIE, EDINBURGH.

and begged for lodging at the house of one " When examining the history of the eleventh named Constantine. This person, it would century,” says Beausobre, an eminent ecclesias- appear, belonged to a colony which was protical historian of the last century, “I met with the scribed under the odious name of Manicheans; bloody execution of thirteen canons of Orleans, ---a sect which arose very early in the Church, who were esteemed 'the noblest, the wisest, and and was chiefly distinguished by holding the the most virtuous of all the clergy of that city.' existence of two divinities, or supreme prinThese men were burnt under the pretext of ciples, a good and a bad--the former of whom being Manicheans. Prosecuting my researches was the creator of all that was spiritual and into this new species of Manicheans, I dis good; the latter, the creator of matter and all covered that they came from Italy; that those evil. The Church of Rome has branded all who of Italy had come from Dalmatia; those of opposed her pretensious and superstitions in Dalmatia from Bulgaria ; those of Bulgaria these early ages with the epithet of Manicheans, from Thrace; and those of Thrace from Syria much in the same spirit as those who have and Armenia. Thus it appears,” he adds," that separated from corrupt Churches with us have our Manicheans of France, Germany, and Italy, been stigmatized by such names as Puritans are neither more nor less thau a branch of and Methodists. Be this as it

may,

the errors those who were called PAULICIANS. Further of Constantine's creed do not seem to have inquiries into the tenets of these people have entirely hardened his heart or blinded his unconvinced me that the accounts which we have derstanding. He received the poor deacon generally received of them are little better than into his house, and hospitably entertained him a tissue of fabrications."*

for several days. On his departure, the grate. It must be curious to examine the history of ful captive made his kind host a present of his a Church so very ancient, and which has passed higlıly-prized Syriac Testament, which was in through so many transmigrations. It must be two volumes--the one containing the four Gos. interesting to trace the apostolic connection pels, and the other the fourteen Epistles of between the Churches of Italy, the immediate Paul. To the study of these sacred books, precursors of the Reformed Church, and the hitherto locked up from him, Constantine diliPaulicians, who arose in the seventh century. gently applied himself; and the simple reading And the task deepens in interest when we find of the Word of God, without note or comment, reason to believe that this much maligned people led to such a revolution in his sentiments carried with them in all their wanderings from that he publicly burned all his Manichean east to west, from the plains of Armenia to the books, and became a zealous preacher of the Alps of Europe, the vital stream of evangelical Gospel. Numerous proselytes gatliered around truth. It might be presumed, indeed, that the hiin; many Catholics were converted by him; principles which kept such masses together, he preached with success in the regions of which survived whole centuries of bloody per- Pontus and Cappadocia; and with the aid of secution, and which flourished in soils so widely fellow-labourers who came to his assistance, a different, must have been sounder at beart, large Church was speedily instituted, the memand more tenacious of life, than the vagaries bers of which, in token of their veneration for of an heretical imagination. And, in point of the writings of Paul, assumed or received the fact, the lights of history which are only begin- name of Paulicians.* Constantine himself, ning to dawn on the monastic records of the from the same innocent ambition to revive the dark ages, have already discovered enough to memory of the first ages of Christianity, took convince us of the truth of Beausobre's state- the name of Paul's friend-Sylvanus; while ment, so far as the Paulicians are concerned, some of the leading pastors with whom he was that they are "little better than a tissue of associated were named after Titus, Timothy, fabrications.” It is but a slight sketch that and Tychicus; and six of their principal concan be here attempted of this interesting, but gregations represented the Churches to which little known and much neglected people. Paul had addressed liis Epistles.

About the middle of the seventh century, a The leading tenets of the Paulicians were Christian deacon, who had escaped from cap- characterized by the purity and simplicity tivity in Syria, was returning homewards that might be expected from an association through Armenia. The exhausted traveller, which sprung from the fresh and immaculate

• Letter of Mr Beausobre to Mr de la Motte. (Bibl. de seed of the Word. Discarding the Gnosticism of l'Europe, vii., 145.) Beausobre is the author of a learned the school in which they had been educated, and work on Manicheism, and had prepared a history of the Paulicians, which he did not live to publish, and which, un- “The name of Paulicians is derived by their enemies fortunately for the interests of historical truth. has never from some unknown teacher ; but I am confident that vet been given to the public. Memoires sur la Vie., &c., de they gloried in their affinity to the Apostle of the Genti es.' Bejusobre; Hist. Critique de Manichee, vol. i.)

(Gibbon's Decline and Fall, X., 169.)

deriving their knowledge immediately, though ledged fact, that they disowned, with horror, imperfectly, from the Fount of Inspiration, their the whole system of Manicheism; and we may creed was distinguished rather by its freedom simply state it as our. conviction, without enfrom error, than by its fulness of truth. It is easy tering here into the grounds on which it rests, for a Protestant to recognise in the list of their that the Paulicians did no more than insist on errors, given by Phocius and Peter Siculus, at their being judged by the writings of the New once their historians and their accusers, some Testament, to which they owed their first of the leading points of the Protest of the Re- illumination in the truth, in preference to those formation. “ Against the gradual innovations of the Old, and more especially the Levitical law, of discipline and doctrine,” says Gibbon, who to which their opponents were constantly in the has been singularly favourable to the Pauli- habit of appealing, and to an attempted revival cians, the more, perhaps, because they were of the ceremonies of which many of the abuses hardly acknowledged as Christians," they were of the Church may be traced.* as thoroughly guarded by habit and aversion Twenty-seven years did the faithful and feras by the silence of St Paul and the evan- vent Constantine-Sylvanus labour in his vocagelisis. The objects which had been trans- tion, when the number of his followers having formed by the magic of superstition, appeared at length roused the jealousy of the emperor, a in the eyes of the Paulicians in their genuine body of soldiers, under the command of one and naked colours. An image made without Simeon, was despatched, with orders to smite the hands was the common workmanship of a mor- shepherd and scatter the flock. Simeon, in tal artist, to whose skill alone the wood and order to execute his commission in the most canvass must be indebted for their merit or emphatic way, placed Constantine in the midst value. The miraculous relics were a heap of of a circle of his disciples, and, as the price of bones and ashes; the true vivifying cross was a their pardon, commanded them to stone their piece of sound or rotten timber; the body and heretical leader to death. The Paulicians lifted blood of Christ, a loaf of bread and a cup of the stones, but instead of aiming them at their wine, the gifts of nature and the syınbols of devoted pastor, flung them simultaneously begrace. The mother of God was degraded from hind their backs. One of their number, howher celestial honours and immaculate virginity; ever, called Justus, emulous, we should say, of and the saints and angels were no longer so- the fame of Judas, though, in the estimation licited to exercise the laborious office of me- of the Popish historians, rivalling the prowess diation in heaven, and ministry upon carth. of the youthful David in slaying Goliath, aimed In the practice, or at least in the theory of the his stone at the lead of Constantine, and killed sacraments, the Paulicians were inclined to him on the spot. And thus fell the brave and abolish all visible objects of worship; and the pious Sylvanus, as he loved to call himself, in a words of the Gospel were, in their judgment, the way which must have recalled to his own mind baptism and communion of the faithful."* It the memory of the first martyr of the age which is sufficiently plain that it was the study of he sought to revive. But, as if to complete the Inspired Truth, and not any tendency to Mani- resemblance, the death of the martyr was folcheisın, which taught them to spurn so much of lowed by the conversion of the persecutor. the fiction and mummery of their time; and we Struck with the constancy displayed by Sylcan easily understand what is meant by that vanus, and the devotedness of his followers, who “ despite of the cross," and " disrespect for the resolved rather to die than recant, Simeon, who Virgin," of which their enemies bitterly accuse had acted the part of Saul of Tarsus, returned them. At the same time, these accusers are to Constantinople an altered man. Shutting compelled to acknowledge that the Paulicians himself up in his own house, he devoted three " held the doctrines of the Trinity, and of years to a close study of the Scriptures, and Christ's incarnation and Godhead.”+ And when other books; after which, without apprizing any we add, that they appealed to the Scriptures as of his friends, he returned to the place of Conthe only standard of faith and practice, and stantine’s martyrdom, made a profession of his boldly contended for the unlimited use of the faith in the Gospel which he had once sought Sacred Oracles, we have surely stated enough to to destroy, and was accepted by the Paulicians show that they could not be so deeply infected as the successor of the man whom he had put with error as has been generally supposed to death, under the assumed name of Titus. The most serious charge against them is, that The accession of Simeon to the ranks of the they rejected the Scriptures of the Old Testa. Paulicians was the signal for kindling anew the ment; but this can be easily explained. That fires of persecution. Very soon, through the it could not be on the same principle which led agency, it appears, of the detestable Justus, the Manicheans to reject the ancient Scriptures, they were betrayed into the hands of their enenamely, on its characteristic hypothesis that they mies; and the emperor, collecting them towere the revelations of the devil, or the author gether, devoutly burned them all, pastor and of matter, is very obvious from the acknow people, upon one enormous funeral-pile. One * Decline and Fall, x.. 173.

* Those who wish to see this subject treated at greater † Petr. Sic. Hist., p. 31; Faber's Vallenses. p. 37; Weis. length, may corsult Milner's Hist of the Church, vol. ii. man, Intr. Hist. Eccl., 101, where the account of Sicuius is p. 493, &c.; Faber's Vallenses, p. 31, &c.; Vaughan's Lite

of Wycliffe, vol. i., p. 116, &c.

giveni cutire.

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