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shared beyond most in its sorrows; and his, too, and that in no stinted measure, had been its ravishing

EXTRACTS FROM FRANCIS QUARLES. delights—the joy known only to those who find the narrow way. The city of Destruction was to him no imaginary place. Many days and nights, full of The arrow-smitten hart, deep wounded, flies dreadful apprehensions, had he passed within its To th’ springs, with water in his weeping eyes : walls. His eye had marked the black clouds, edged Heav'n is thy spring; if Satan's fiery dart with red, which lower continually upon it; and his Pierce thy faint sides, do so, my wounded heart. ear had caught the distant mutterings of that furious tempest which is destined one day to break above it.

COMFORT. He could tell in truth that it is no easy matter to My soul, cheer up! what if the night be long? | find the strait gate, but a blessed thing to be safe Heav'n finds an ear when sinners find a tongue; within it. He had stooped and groaned beneath Thy tears are morning show'rs: Heav'n bids me

1 his great burden; but when it rolled down from

say, his back, he had leaped for very joy. He had When Peter's cock begins to crow, 'tis day. tasted sweet sleep in the “chamber called peace," and awaked to see the morning breaking in the east. He had wrestled not only against flesh and blood, but My heart !—but wherefore do I call thee so? against powers and principalities. He had walked I have renounc'd my int'rest long ago: in darkness, and had no light; and trusted in the When thou wert false and fleshly, I was thine; name of the Lord. He had had trial of cruel mock- Mine wert thou never, till thou wert not mine. ings; nay, moreover, of bonds and imprisonments, in the town of Vanity Fair. Many, many days had he languished in the dungeons of Doubting Castle; but, Canst thou be sick, and such a doctor by? plucking the key of promise from his bosom, he had Thou canst not live, unless thy doctor die : seen the iron gates of that dismal place fly open, and Strange kind of grief, that finds no med'cine good taking heart, he bad gone forth to solace and invigo- To 'suage her pains, but the physician's blood! rate himself in the clear air, and by the pure springs of the Delectable Hills. Thus ever as he went on

THE SINNER'S MIRTII. he began to enjoy more of that which he knew he What ails the fool, to laugh ? Does something should enjoy in full at the end of his journey. At please last he left the Valley of the Shadow of Death and His vain conceit? Or is't a mere disease ? the towers of Doubting Castle far behind; and being Fool, giggle on, and waste thy wanton breathnow on the borders of the better country, his path Thy morning laughter breeds an ev'ning death. began to shine more and more with the reflection of the splendours of that city to which he was drawing

THE SINXER'S CARE FOR HIS BODY. nigh, and his heart to be ravished by the melodies What need that house be daub'd with flesh and which came floating towards him—the distant echo

blood ? of the songs of those with whom he knew he should

Hang'd round with silks and gold ? repair'd with dwell for ever.

food ? This, we are satisfied, is the true key to the “ Pil

Cost idly spent! That cost doth but prolong grim's Progress"-Bunyan's own life. No one need

Thy thraldom. Fool, thou mak'st thy jail too wonder why this work is so immeasurably superior

strong. to every other work of the kind; why it awakens in every bosom an interest so deep and enduring; why there is such life in its pictures, such power in its

THE INQUISITION. imagery, and so much of nature and truth in the Some years ago Llorente published a History of the actors it brings upon the stage; why the delineation Inquisition in Spain. He enjoyed peculiar advantages of their characters is so faultlessly correct, and yet for the composition of such a work. Sources of incharacterized by such perfect freedom, that the con- formation were accessible to him from which the ception and execution of them appear to have cost public have been generally excluded. He was secrethe author not the smallest effort; why there is such tary to the Inquisition at Madrid during the years an irresistible force in its least words; why the writer 1789 - 90 - 91; and during the years 1609-10 il, is so prodigal in every line of the treasures of his genius, when it was suppressed in Spain, all the archives and and is apparently all the while perfectly unconscious records were placed his hand; and from these of the riches he is scattering around him; why, authentic materials he compiled his History. among mortal books, this book occupies the first It has been supposed that the Inquisition was first place, and is inferior only to the Bible in point of introduced into Spain in 1477 or 1483. Llorente is of its combined simplicity and grandeur; and why, in opinion that it existed there so early as the thirteenth fine, as we pass on, we come, at every short distance, century. Preparations were made for it, as against to openings by which we are let see into another the Albigenses, as far back as 1203; and it was world—why it is all this, no one need, or can won- finally established by Gregory IX. in 1227, about two der, who considers what the author was. This years before laymen were first prohibited, by the we shall endeavour to make good in our next Council of Toulouse, from reading the Scriptures in paper.

their vernacular tongues. At the time of its intro


19 duction into Spain, that country was divided into for the purpose of eliciting confession. In the course four distinct kingdoms—Castile, Arragon, Navarre, of his trial a prisoner never saw his accusation, nor and Portugal: and in each it was vigorously opposed knew his accusers: the evidence against him was not at first by many of the nobles, and even magistrates made known, except a few extracts from the declaand bishops; but their opposition was overwhelmed ration of witnesses, which were sufficient to alarm by the perseverance and boldness of the Inquisition, him, but which left him in total ignorance of the real who, being chiefly of the orders of Dominican and state of the suit against him. In these circumstances, Augustinian Friars, were independent of the bishops, it was safer for an innocent man to confess heresy and subject only to the will of a foreign power. and abjure it at once, than to run the hazard of a They held of the Pope alone. The princes, nobles, trial. If, after confession, he relapsed or was again and parochial clergy, as well as the laity, were sub- suspected, he was again subjected to torture, or given ject to this tremendous engine of tyranny--the only over to be executed or burnt. persons exempted from its jurisdiction being the After burning Hebrew Bibles and other books, Pope, his legates and nuncios, and the officers and from 1490 to 1523, the Inquisition took measures for familiars of the Inquisition itself.

preventing the circulation of such works as were disIts professed object was to detect and suppress tasteful to them. In 1539 the University of Louvar heresy; but, in practice, it was not confined to heresy was ordered to make up an index of prohibited openly avowed and capable of direct proof, but em- books: in 1549 it was augmented by the inquisitorbraced the mere suspicion of heresy: and the symp- general; in 1550 it was again published with additions, toms or indications which it recognised as sufficient including translations of the Holy Bible / nay, in warrant for prosecution, were infinitely various, and 1558, theologians were required to give up the Hebrew often ludicrously absurd. Thus the absence of a and Greek Bibles! and by a law of Philip II., those right faith was inferred from blasphemy, sorcery, who should buy, keep, read, or sell books thus prodivination, demonology-from abuse of the sacra- hibited by the inquisitor, were subject to the penalty ments, or neglect of them-from absolution not being of death and confiscation. In this same year, Paul asked by a man under censure for a year—from IV. addressed a brief to the inquisitor-general Valas, schism, or denial of the Pope's authority-from abet- commanding him to prosecute all schismatics and ting or concealing heresy-hiding those chargeable heretics—" to deprive all such persons of their digwith it, or not denouncing them to the Holy Office - | nities and offices, whether bishops, archbishops, from any manifestation of repugnance to the Inqui- patriarchs, cardinals, or legates; barons, counts, marsition itself-from the refusal to expel heretics from quises, dukes, princes, kings, or emperors !” their estates on the part of the nobles-from the re- The horrible results of this system of tyranny and fusal to repeal statutes that were offensive to the persecution are thus stated by Llorente. From 1481 Pope on the part of princes—from professional advice to 1809, under forty-four inquisitors-general, there rendered to heretics by lawyers—from permitting were, in the Peninsula aloneheretics or suspected persons to be buried in ecclesi


31,912 astical ground—from a refusal of evidence when any Burnt in efigy, the parties having filed one was summoned before the Inquisition as a wit- or died,

17,659 1 ness-from any thing in the work of an author that Severe penances,

291,450 seemed to encourage or palliate error. All these were held to be grounds of suspicion; and it is easy

341,021 ! to see how many persons might in this way be in- The Spanish Inquisition was suppressed by Navolved in a charge of heresy, who were in all essential poleon in 1808, and by the Cortes in 1813. But it respects attached to the Popish Church.

was restored by Ferdinand in 1814. Pius VII. exThe method of procedure was somewhat different pressed an intention to ameliorate it, by prohibiting in the old than in the more modern Inquisition; but torture, and by confronting the witnesses with the the latter was most severe. On being appointed, an accused. inquisitor demanded a mandate from the king or In 1920 the Inquisition was thrown open, by order magistrate, requiring the tribunals to arrest suspected of the Cortes of Madrid. Twenty-one prisoners were persons: if the magistrate refused, he was excom- found in it, not one of whom knew the name of the municated. When he went to a particular station, city in which he was, nor the precise crime of which the inquisitor preached in public, and then read an he was accused. “One of these prisoners had been edict requiring all heretics to confess, and all having condemned, and was to have been executed on the any knowledge of such persons, to come forward and following day. His punishment was to be death by accuse them, on pain of excommunication. If persons the pendulum. The method of thus destroying the came forward confessing their heresy within thirty victim is as follows: The condemned is fastened in a days, they received absolution in public, and were re- groove upon a table, on his back-suspended above conciled, but subjected to certain penances and penal- him is a pendulum, the edge of which is sharp, and

ties such as being forbidden the use of gold, silver, it is so constructed as to become longer with every il

pearls, silk, and fine wool. If they confessed after the movement. The wretch sees the instrument of dethirty days' grace, their goods were confiscated. If struction swinging to and fro above him, and every they did not confess, but were accused, and proved to moment the keen edge approaching nearer—at length be guilty, there was no alternative, but either to abjure it cuts.” the heresy, or to be punished: in the case of a semi- This, let it be remembered, was a punishment of proof being established, torture was had recourse to, the Secret Tribunal in 1820 !


inscriptions; but the key to these mysteries, so long ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE EVIDENCES,

sought in vain, was at length discovered by means of
a large block of black basalt, termed the Rosetta
Stone. This celebrated monument, which had lain

for ages under ground, was accidentally disinterred by BY THE REV. JAMES TAYLOR, ST ANDREWS.

the French army in digging the foundation of a fort OF late years a very remarkable and interesting class

near Rosetta, and, having been captured on board a of contemporary records has been brought to light French frigate, was brought to England and depoand deciphered, affording most valuable testimony to sited in the British Museum. This interesting relic the authenticity of the Mosaic history-we refer to

bears three inscriptions—one in Greek, one in hierothe monumental sculptures and inscriptions of Egypt. glyphics, and a third in the common writing of the The walls of the temples, palaces, and sepulchres, country, which is in good measure an abridgment or which abound in such numbers in Egypt, are com

running form of the hieroglyphics.* In the Greek pletely covered with sculptures, representing the version of the inscription there occur the proper battles, sieges, and victories of the successive mo

names Alexander and Alexandria; and two groups of narchs who ruled over that country, and delineating, characters were found closely resembling each other, with every appearance of minute fidelity, the every- and occupying a corresponding position in the hieroday life of the people—their pursuits and trades--

glyphic inscription. The word king occurs twentytheir amusements and labours—their feasts and fu- nine times in the Greek version; and as there is only nerals—their public processions and their religious one word which occurs so often in the hieroglyphic ceremonies. All these sculptures were accompanied inscription, it was concluded that these two must by hieroglyphical inscriptions, supposed to be ex

correspond in their meaning. The proper name planatory of the scenes depicted. But these sacred Ptolemy, occurs fourteen times in the Greek; and an characters had long remained an inscrutable mystery. assemblage of characters is found in the hieroglyphic Their origin, object, and meaning, were all enveloped inscription, agreeing in frequency with this name, in the profoundest darkness. Conjectures there were, and generally occurring in passages corresponding in indeed, in abundance on the subject, but their contra

their relative situation. The merit of these ingenious dictory character showed how little confidence could discoveries belongs to our learned countryman, Dr be placed in their accuracy; and the mysterious in- Thomas Young; and the key to the monumental scriptions remained a sealed book, which no man

legends having thus been at length discovered, his ! could open. While matters were in this position, the investigations were greatly extended and improved abetters of infidelity, like birds of evil omen, who love by Messrs Champollion and Bankes, Sir G. Wilkinthe darkness, were peculiarly active, and looked with

son, Lord Prudhoe, and other distinguished writers. eager expectation to the deciphering of these hiero

One portion of these interesting investigations is glyphic legends, as certain to afford conclusive proofs worthy of being related in detail, in order to show of the falsehood of the Mosaic history. “They called the manner in which the knowledge of this ancient upon those huge and half-buried colossal images, and mode of expressing ideas was obtained. In the island those now subterranean temples, to bear witness to

of Philae an obelisk was found by Belzoni, and afterthe antiquity and early civilization of the nation which wards brought to England by Mr Bankes. It had erected them. They appealed to their astronomical originally been placed on a square pedestal, bearing remains, to attest the skill, matured by ages of obser

a Greek inscription, which, on examination, proved to vation, of those who projected them. More than all

, be a petition of the priests of Isis, residing at Philae, they saw in those hieroglyphic legends, the venerable addressed to King Ptolemy, to Cleopatra his sister, dates of sovereigns deitied long before the modern and to Cleopatra his wife. There was good reason days of Moses or Abraham. They pointed in triumph to believe, therefore, that as the inscription on the to the mysterious characters which an unseen hand base expressly referred to these royal personages, the had traced on those primeval walls, and boasted that hieroglyphic inscription on the obelisk itself would only a Daniel was wanted to decipher them, to show bear their names also. On examination it was found that the evidences of Christianity had been weighed that in the midst of the inscription there were two' and found wanting, and its kingdom divided between rings, enclosing certain hieroglyphic characters joined the infidel and the libertine! Vain boast! The together. One of these groups presented the same temples of Egypt have at length answered their ap: characters as were engraved on the Rosetta Stone, no peal, in language more intelligible than they could fewer than fourteen times, and had there been satis possibly have anticipated; for a Daniel has been found factorily shown by Dr Young to represent the name in judicious and persevering study. After the suc

Ptolemy. Supposing this to be correct, the other cession had been so long interrupted, Young and ring would, as a matter of course, contain the name Champollion have put on the linen robe of the hiero

of Cleopatra. The comparison and analysis of these phant, and the monuments of the Nile, unlike the

two names is in itself so curious, and in its results so fearful image of Sais, have allowed themselves to important, that we may give a brief extract from the be unveiled by their hands, without any but the letter of M. Champollion to M. Dacier, in which ne most wholesome and consoling results having fol- first announced his discovery. lowed from their labours."*

* This custom of affixing inscriptions in various languages, Various approaches were made by different philo- intended only for one country, which might be frequenied Bophers towards the deciphering of the hieroglyphic by strangers, illustrates and explains the reason of Pilates

commanding an inscription to be placed over our Saviour's Wiseman's Lectures, vol. ii., pp. 61-62.

cross, written in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew.

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“The first sign of the name of Cleopatra, which tains would cast great light on the history and manrepresents a kind of quadrant, and which ought to be ners of the ancient Egyptians, and especially on the the letter K (C), should not occur in the name of Biblical narrative. From the earliest ages there had Ptolemy, and it is not there. The second, a crouching been a close connection between God's chosen people lion, which should represent the L, is identical with and the “land of marvels," as Egypt is termed by the the fourth of Ptolemy, which is also an L. The third “father of history." "So intimately connected," says sign is a feather or leaf, which should represent the Wilkinson, "are Egyptian history and manners with short vowel E. Two similar leaves may be observed the scriptural accounts of the Israelites, and the at the end of the name of Ptolemy, which by their events of succeeding ages relative to Judea, that the position must have the sound of E long. The fourth name of Egypt need only to be mentioned to recall character represents a kind of flower or root, with its the early impressions we have received from the study stalk bent downward, which should answer to the of the Bible." Abraham, the “father of the faithful,” letter 0, and is accordingly the third letter in the "went down into Egypt to sojourn there," because of name of Ptolemy. The fifth is a sort of square, which the grievous famine that prevailed, and received from should represent the letter P, as it is the first in the the reigning Pharaoh* presents of "sheep, and oxen, name of Ptolemy. The sixth is a hawk, which should and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, be the letter A. That letter does not occur in the and she-asses, and camels.” The splendid administraGreek name Ptolemy, neither does it occur in the tion of Joseph+-the sojourn of the Israelites in hieroglyphic transcription. The seventh is an open Egypt during several centuries—the remarkable hand, representing the T; but this character is not events which attended their departure from the found in the name Ptolemy, where the second letter house of bondage—the marriage of Solomon to the T is expressed by the segment of a sphere. The daughter of the Egyptian monarch-the invasion of author thought that these two characters might | Judea by Shishak during the reign of Rehoboambe homophonic; that is, both expressing the same the overthrow and death of Josiah in battle against sound: and he' was soon able to demonstrate that Pharaoh-necho, at Megiddo-and the alliance behis opinion was well founded. The eighth sign or tween Zedekiah and Pharaoh-hophra, which led to mark seen in front ought to be the letter R; and the downfal of the Jewish monarchy, were all events as that letter does not occur in Ptolemy, it is also of great importance to the welfare of both countries, absent from his hieroglyphic name. The ninth and likely, therefore, to find a place in their national and last sign, which ought to be the vowel A, is a records. Nor have these expectations been disaprepetition of the hawk, which has that sound in the pointed. We find in this portrait gallery, if we may sixth." *

80 speak, of the Egyptian monarchs, sculptured By these laborious researches the Egyptian alpha- images of all the Pharaohs mentioned in the Sacred bet was gradually enlarged, and has at length been Scriptures, from the Pharaoh who made Joseph ruler completed: so that we are now in possession of the over all the land of Egypt, down to the perfidious means of deciphering the hieroglyphic inscriptions by Hophra whose treachery brought about the destrucwhich the walls of the monuments are covered, and of tion of Jerusalem; together with a delineation of perusing the records of the exploits of the successive their wars and conquests, arts, sciences, and modes kings who reigned over Egypt, from the days of of life. An incidental, undesigned, but most valuable Abraham down to the last of the Ptolemies, the suc- proof is thus drawn from witnesses that cannot lie cessors of Alexander the Great.

in favour of the trust-worthiness of those records. These interesting discoveries gave a powerful im- Paintings, numerous and beautiful beyond conceppulse to the investigation of the Egyptian antiquities; tion, as fresh and perfect as if finished only yesterand in the year 1828 a commission was undertaken, day, exhibit before our eyes the truth of what the under the joint auspices of the French and Tuscan Hebrew lawgiver wrote almost five thousand years Governments, for the purpose of examining and ago. The authenticity of the documents of our faith making drawings of the sculptures and inscriptions thus rests not on manuscripts and written records engraved on the monuments of Egypt and Nubia. alone, but the hardest and most enduring substances The celebrated Champollion and Professor Rosellini in nature have added their unsuspecting testimony, of Pisa, were placed at the head of the commission, and, by the memorials which they present of the and with them were associated a complete staff of manners, customs, and institutions of the ancient engineers, draftsmen, and architects. They remained Egyptians, afford a decisive, because an unsuspicious, in Egypt for upwards of two years; and, on their test of the historical veracity of the Old Testament, return to Europe, brought back with them not less and have furnished confirmations of its minute accuthan fifteen hundred drawings, together with a par- racy, which must silence where they do not convince ticular description of every monument in Egypt and the most sceptical. I Nubia. The precious materials thus accumulated were arranged by Professor Rosellini, and are now in

* The title Pharaoh has been proved to be identical with course of publication at Pisa, at the expense of the that of Phra or Phre, the Sun which is prefixed to the Tuscan Government.

names of the kings upon the monuments. The publication of this splendid work has excited The name Zaphnath-paaneah, which Pharaoh gave to intense interest, in consequence of the expectation Joseph, has been explained by Rosellini from the Egyptian that the invaluable mass of materials which it con

language to signify “Saviour of the world."

1 Preface to Hengstenberg's Egypt, by R. D. C. Robbins, • The Antiquities of Egypt, &c., p. 78.

Andover, and Dr W. C. Taylor.

On another occasion he said: “Verily, the great-

ness of rewards is with greatness of misfortune; that

| is, whoever is most unfortunate and calamitous, the BY JOHN KITTO, D.D. MANY travellers and historians have informed us of when God loves a people, he entangles it in misfor

greater and more perfect the reward. And verily, the remarkable resignation under calamities which the Moslems habitually manifest, and which is in of God, in misfortune, for him is God's pleasure; but

tunes: therefore, he who is resigned to the pleasure some respects well worthy the attention and imita

whoever is angry and discontented with misfortune, tion of those who call themselves Christians. Such

for him is the anger and displensure of (tod." This is writers have, however, for the most part, failed to

not unlike Prov. m. 12; Amos'iii. 2; Heb. xii. 6-8; penetrate the real motive of this exemplary submis

James i, 2, 3, 12; Rev. ii. 19. sion to what is judged to be the will of God. They refer it to a true practical belief in predestination: misfortune in the world, will say, on the day of resur

Again: “Those who are free from calamity and and this is true, so far as it goes; but there is something more than this. Their view is, that affliction rection, when rewards are given to the unfortunate,

Would to God that our skins had been cut in pieces is one of the principal means by which God purifies with scissors in the world which we have left.” | the soul, and renders it meet for paradise; and that, which suggests a reininiscence of Rev. vii. 14. consequently, he who is the most afficted in this life is in the highest degree the object of divine favour. dences and comparisons. But in the following the

All this is very well, and saygests curious coinci. There is, in fact, much in their view of this matter

erroneous and yet highly-influential view of affliction which brings to remembrance many sentences in that

comes more clearly out. The prophet mentioned very portion of Scripture, Heb. xii. 1-11; and in particular the passage : “Whom the Lord loveth he diseases, and said: “Verily, when à Mussulman is

taken ill, after which God restores him to health, chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with his illness has been a cover to his former faults, and it you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father is as an admonition to him of what comes in future chasteneth not? But if ye be without chastisement, and afterwards restored to health, he is like a camel

times: and verily, wlien an hypocrite is taken ill, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons.”—Verses 6-3. The author of Islamism could, which has been tied up and afterwards set free; then

the camel did not know, for want of discrimination, however, grasp only part of the Christian idea of the uses of adversity; but he added another use for it, why they tied him up or why they let him loose.

Such is the hypocrite; but, on the contrary, a momin which Christianity knows not, but which enters largely into the views which influence his followers (believer) knows that his sickness was to cover his

faults.” To the same effect, but still inore improper, under sufferings and trials.

is the following: “ When a believer's faults are Mohammed was too sagacious not to feel the great difficulty under which he laboured in making out many, and he has no good actions to corer tkem, God

sends him afiliction, in order that his faults may be how man might be justified before God, under a

hidden thereby." system which refused to acknowledge Christ as the Saviour of the world. He made a strange patchwork these peculiar views; and is interesting from the

The following beautiful passage is not limited by of it, consisting in part of a sort of faith, partly of direct and striking illustration of Psalm xxxii. 35, 36, works and partly of sufferings. Thus sufferings are made a ground of justification. They are regarded with which it concludes: “ The condition of a Mussul

man is similar to green corn, which winds cause to as expiating sin, and as giving a man a claim to the incline to the ground, and then return: they throw blessings of the world to come; and the claim is held them down once, and again they become straight and to be greater in proportion to the intensity or long erect. Such is a Mussulman: sometimes he is thrown continuance of the aflicted condition. In practice, down by the misfortune of sickness and weakness, this feeling is very common among the uninstructed and then again health and strength make him straight poor of our own country; but to the Moslem it is a and right, till the time of denth comes. And the dogma-an active and influential article of faith. The following dicta of Mohammed, and anecdotes which is fixed firm in the ground, and not affected

state of the hypocrite is like that of the pine tree, concerning him, will corroborate and illustrate these by winds or calaınities, until it falls to the ground all particulars :

Such is the hypocrite always in health Some one asked him, who were the most unfortu

and vigour, without sickness or weakness—till of a nate of men? He answered, “The prophets, and

sudden he falls and dies." next to them those who approach the nearest to them, in proportion to their eminence. And according to the difference of their degrees, for every one of them

THE HOLY LAND. there is a calamity. Man is afflicted according to the proportion of his faith, in which, if he is perfect and firm, his misfortunes are severe; but if he is remiss DESCENDING and leaving the Jericho road, re aume in his religion, misfortune is made light and easy on quite suddenly upon Bethany, called by the Ares him, in order that he may not be impatient, and let Azarieh, from the name of Lizarus. We found thi. slip the cord of his faith.” This reminds one of have imagined it

. It lies alrıost hidden in a small ravise

ever-memorable village to be very like what we could Matt. xxiii. 31; 1 Cor, iv. 9, s. 13; IIeb. xi. 37, and of Mount Olivet, so much so, that from the height it similar passages.

cannot be seen. It is emboson in fruit trees, espe

at once.

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