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TIIE CHARACTER OF INFIDELITY.

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reat the subject as coolly and indifferently as I would unusual at the time. Nine or ten years later, he had the dispute between Cæsar and Pompey.” The times taken charge, chiefly for gain, of a half madman, a of Greek and Roman greatness had far greater charms | Marquis of Annandale. For this service, he was to for him than the historical periods, at least the ear- receive £300 a-year. The charge was particularly 'lier ones, of Britain; so much so, that his biographer degrading; only one strongly mercenary in spirit could li regrets that he did not rather illustrate the one than submit to it. A question arose at the termination of the the other. It is plain, we think, that his heart lay far year, about a sum of £75 which Hume thought him. more in France, where he had been caressed and self entitled to, and for this paltry sum he battled and honoured, than in any part of Britain. While this ab- litigated as for his life. Fourteen years after, we find sence of patriotism must have prevented him doing him still insisting on it, and threatening a law-suit, justice as an historian to Britain, and hence, among though apparently baffled after all. What, if possible, other reasons, the failure of his “ History of England" adds to the humiliation and selfishness of the exhi23 a real history of that country, can it be doubtedbition, is the fact that after Hume had met with that Infidelity had its influence in making him cold- enough to disgust any man of the smallest sense of hearted and indifferent to country? Patriotism is a honour, on the place being proposed anew, at a reChristian virtue. Paul, and Paul's Master, afforded duction of one-half the salary, Hume intimated his beautiful illustrations of its power. It was impossible willingness to accept the terms. Even his friend that Hume could do so. It is to be considered, too, Henry Home (Lord Kames), who was noted for his that the struggles of the Christian Church are identi penuriousness, trusted that Hume “would not be so fied in Britain with patriotism. Hence if a man has mean-spirited” as to accept of lowered terms. The not religion enough to sympathize with the Church philosopher, however, in his selfish love of gain, though of Christ, he is not in circumstances to feel very but a young man of thirty-five, was prepared to subwarmly as a patriot. Over the finest passages of his mit to the degradation. Let it not be supposed that country's history he must be dumb, or look on with this was some peculiarly unhappy case. It was a case 1, ill-suppressed anger. Hume, then, was a stranger to illustrative of general character. Unwarned by what

one of the noblest and most generous impulses of the had taken place, Hume was shortly after employed human mind, the patriotic. Whatever might have as Secretary to General St. Clair on a trifling military been the original susceptibilities of his mind, in this expedition to the coast of France. Its great charm direction they were extinguished by his Infidelity. | for him, seems to have been that he could make some What a contrast to the Scottish Reformer, to whom money by it. Not satisfied with what he received, the Infidel bore so deadly a grudge! how warmly did he made some claim for half-pay as Judge Advocate patriotism beat in his heart! Concerned for the ever- on the expedition; the claim was disallowed, but for | lasting salvation through Christ of the existing gene- seventeen years thereafter, we find him urging his

ration of his beloved Scotland, he was scarcely less suit, and only reluctantly abandoning it. A year or two concerned for the salvation of their posterity; in other subsequent to the period referred to, he had collected words, his patriotism was hallowed to latest ages. and saved £1,000. This sum, like a miser's heap, Being truly religious, he was necessarily truly patrio- seems to have filled and possessed his soul; so that cic. It is scarcely necessary to notice, that, constituted thirty years thereafter, when writing his autobioas Hume was, by his Infidelity, he could not appreciate graphy, we find him dwelling upon it with exultation. the patriotism of the Bible; and, in so far, was an in- Is this a very creditable exhibition of character, worcompetent judge of its spirit. We may well ask, Is thy of a philosopher? What would Hume have thought it a recommendation of Infidelity, that it is not pro- or said of a Christian, above all, of a Christian minister, pitious, that, on the contrary, it is injurious, to pat- acting in this manner? The man who was robbing riotism, one of the most generous emotions of the others of the hope of a future world, took care to human mind—an emotion leading to deeds which even afford a good illustration in his own person of tenacity Heathens can eulogize?

and grasping at the present. Strange as it may seem, 2d, But more than this, Hume appears not only these two are connected. If Infidelity did not origito have been a stranger to the generous, but in a large nate Hume's love of gain, it did nothing to check it, manner to have been ANIMATED BY THE MERCENARY. but the reverse. More than this, a disbeliever in Though, as a philosopher and religious reformer, and futurity, Hume's heaven consisted in a comfortable accustomed, moreover ,to denounce the cupidity of the independency upon earth; hence his anxiety about Christian ministry, under the foolishly misapplied a secure competency, and hence the mercenary sel

name of “ Priests," it might have been anticipated fishness which degraded and disgraced him while yet that he would have been a pattern of the dis- a young man. What a contrast to the spirit of true interested; yet it is a remarkable fact, that in money Christianity ! " It is more blessed to give than to rematters he was repeatedly involved in disputes--dis-ceive”-a spirit embodied and exemplified on the cross putes which were conducted with a keenness and of Calvary. No wonder that Hume was an Intidel; perseverance, anything but honourable to the pro- the generosity and self-sacrifice of the Bible could fessed character of the philosopher. When a young find no favour in such eyes as his. Well may we ask, man of twenty-six-not an old man, on whom ararice however, Are the mercenary and the avaricious recommight be supposed to have made some inroadhe en- mendatory of philosophy or scepticism, or anythir tered in " a most stringent manner,” according to his else? biographer, into pecuniary arrangements with his publishers-arrangements which seem to have been

To be continued.

The Inquisitors could further compel civil LITTLE THINGS.

governors to extirpate from their territory all Scory not the slightest word or deed,

who were known as heretics. Witnesses might Nor deern it void of power;

be compelled to give evidence, under pain of There's fruit in each wind-wafted seed,

excommunication or the torture; and the for. Waiting its natal hour.

mer was the award whenever a layman dared

to dispute about the faith, whether in public or i A whispered word may touch the heart, private. The power of the Office extended also And call it back to life;

to books, not one of which could be published A look of love bid sin depart,

without the Inquisitor's permission; while Tor- ! And still unholy strife.

quemada burned six thousand volumes in one fire

at Salamanca. To render the Officials sufficiently No act falls fruitless; none can tell

stringent in the application of their laws, they How vast its power may be;

were, for any instance of leniency, forbidden to Nor what results infolded dwell

enter a church for a period of four years. In Within it, silentls.

examining prisoners, lawyers acted as assessors Axon.

to the clergy, to help forward their cruelty.

They were sworn to secrecy regarding their diaXIE VORIALS OF THE INQUISITION. | bolical proceedings, as were the other officers NO. II.

of the Tribunal; and so strict were the instruc.

tions to certain of the functionaries, that, in BY TIE REV. W. K. TWEEDIE, EDINBURGII.

recording the dealings with the accused, Ix adverting to the facts which illustrate the every trivial incident connected with the crispirit of the Inquisition, and along with it the minal required to be noticed. If he changed spirit of Popery, out of which that institution colour, trembled, hesitated or faltered in his arose, it must suffice to exhibit only a specimen. speech, or coughed, or spoke with tremulous We feel as if humanity were revolted, and the tone during the inquest-all must be engrosreligion of the Prince of Peace not merely out- sed, “ that by these circumstances the Inqui.

rayed, but utterly extinguished, by such a sys- sitors may know when to put the criminals tem of scientific persecution. But as with the to the torture." If any one refused to aid in anatomist, in examining the human structure, detecting or apprehending a criminal, lie was though much that is painful or offensive may be fined and put to the ban. The bailiffs or Fawiencountered in our inquiry, it must be endured liars, who apprehended the accused, were chiefly for the sake of the remedies to which that ex. the nobles of the kingdom, and not one of them aznination may point, or ihe warnings which it dared to claim exemption from the service-nay, may supply:

that despicable office was coveted as an honour So high, then, did the office of Inquisitor rank even by them. So expert were these myrmiin the estimation of Rome, that the title of dons of old, that a father, with his sons and “ Most Reverend” was early attached to it, so daughters, six in all, were on one occasion apthat to be an Inquisitor was to be equal to a prehended in the same house, carried to the bishop; and so complete was the ascendency of Inquisition about the same time, and detained the lloly Oice, that the proud kings of Castile, in it for seven years, in perfect ignorance of prior to their coronation, bound themselves and each other's destiny, till they met when they all their subjects, by a solemn oath, to obey the were brought forth in an Auto-de-fe. Of these Holy Tribunal.

l'amiliars there was one order, instituted by When any heretic was excommunicated by Dominic, who took an oath to defend the Popish it, no authority but that of the Pope could faith at the cost of fortune and of life; and ope absolve him. The Church was no sanctuary section of the persecutors was called by that against its power, as it was to other offenders. saint The Militia of Christ. Strange soldiers

A delinquent could be dragged from the these in the service of the Prince of Peace! horns of the altar; while the Inquisitors could In accordance with the general spirit of this grant indulgences, partial or plenary, to all system, civil magistrates were in complete subwho died in their service, not one of them. jection to the Inquisition. They swore to selves being exposed to the perils of purga- exterminate heretics at the bidding of the Intory. Their indulgence was ex officio plenary quisitors; and if any lord of a province refused -that is, there was no purgatory for them. obedience, or, in technical language, declined They could proceed for heresy against bishops, “to purge his dominions from heretical pravity," priests, and friars; nay, against cardinals and his territory was ordered to be seized, after a archbishops as well as laymen.

Not even

year of grace; and the person who seized it posprinces and kings were exempted from their sessed it thereafter without challenge. Surely power; and Charles V., despot as he was, Peter Martyr had reason to exclaim: “0, un. trembled before the Inquisition; while members happy Spain, mother of so many heroes, how of the imperial family, when cited, appeared unjustly disgraced by such a horrible scourge!" before it as their menials would have done.

It may easily be supposed that the prisons of

MEMORIALS OF THE INQUISITION.

343

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these horrid tribunals were inhumanly construc- as a stigma, on account of the humanity disted for torture. They have been likened to played. graves for the dead, though they varied accor- In our next notice we design to advert to ding to the degree of alleged delinquency. A the crimes of which the Inquisition takes cogjail in Spain and Portugal was actually named nizance, with the mode of procedure before the Santa Casa, or the holy house, because the Tribunal. Meanwhile let us ask. Would any one Inquisition imparted of its own sanctity to all suppose, while glancing over these paragraphs, connected with it. On entering it (in Portugal), that we have been describing measures adopted the prisoners were shaved and dressed. Their for spreading and upholding the religion of fare was wretched, and kept in some cases as peace, and mercy, and love? Has it ever near as possible to the point of starvation, that occurred to think that all these diabolical plans if the prisoners had property, the more might were executed by men professing the religion, remain to the Inquisition at the confiscation or pretending zeal for the cause, of Him who that followed upon the sentence. The harpies of would not break the bruised reed nor quench the Holy Office often lived upon the prisoners, if the smoking flax? Nay, rather, do not these they had means, like vermin upon those whom details exhibit, as in the lurid light of the fires they infest. Hence annoyances and privations which the Inquisition so often kindled, the ori. more galling to some generous spirits than even gin, the spirit, and the tendency of the revolting the torture and the rack. Those who were system? We here see into the very heart's core confined in the worst class of cells, generally of Popery. We discover its real nature, as the sat in utter darkness, and were sometimes kept Antichristian system which tends to overlay the there for several years, without a visitor but religion of love, and rear in its place the inventheir keeper, that they might be subdued by tion of fiends. Popery is, no doubt, now shorn the horrors of their dungeon, and compelled by of much of its virulence. The Inquisition now suffering:" to confess things which oftentimes has not the same startling sound, nor the same they had never done." No one durst even Satanic power, as of old. But let that creed mutter a syllable in those dungeons. The regain its former sway over men's consciences, silence was absolute and profound, like that of and souls, and fears, and the system will be

the grave; and if a lamentation, a moan, or a found essentially and unchangeably the same. wail was heard, the rules of the Inquisition, Its errors are part of its very being--nay, commanding silence, were strictly enforced Popery has no existence but as error, inasagainst the sufferer. If admonition failed to much as it is, in all its parts, the direct antagorestore it, bodily correction was resorted to; nist of the revelation of God, which is truth. and a case is on record, in which one of those Then, its delusions are organic, and not merely confined died of blows inflicted because he functional — you cannot remove one of its could not refrain from coughing. One design of dogmata without destroying Popery itself. In this stringency was to preserve perfect secrecy, other words, it must be utterly swept awaywhich was proverbially regarded as “thestrength it cannot be improved or amended; and unless

of the Inquisition,” and prevent any intercourse the nations become alive to the horrors of the between cell and cell. Any relaxation that system, others besides Constantine of Seville, was granted, was in word and appearance rather one of its murdered victims, may have reason than reality, and if danger was dreaded, the pri- to exclaim_“O my God, were there no Scysoner might be laid in irons. In short, of all thians in the world-no cannibals more fierce the systems ever devised for harassing and tor- and cruel than Scythians, into whose hands thou

men accused, and wearing them out couldst carry me, that I might escape the paws by a kind of living death, the system adopted of these wretches !" by the Inquisition, especially in Spain, was Let no Romanist, or no enemy of God's truth

the most perfect-solitude, starvation, silence, here retort, Did not Melancthon, did not bodily correction, and chafing insult, were the Cranmer, did not Calvin, did not others of the bitter ingredients which made up the lot of the Reformers persecute in their turn? Popery prisoners. From such wretchedness even the itself, the creed in which they were reared, rack was a kind of relief; and if any other alle- must be held responsible for all such violations viation was vouchsafed, it was rather in contra of the law of love--the liberty which man enjoys vention of the laws than in harmony with them, of being responsible only to his God for his while in all that regarded what was reckoned faith. So thoroughly does Popery appear to be heresy, men and women shared the same fate. the religion of blood, that even those who had On one occasion clemency to one of the accused, escaped from its thraldom in other respects, on the part of a servant of the prison, was re- retained some marks of their bondage in this; frarded with incarceration for a year, with two and all who seek the emancipation of mind, the hundred stripes, wearing a garment of yellow salvation of the soul, the glory of God in the (the badge of disgrace), and banishment for ten growth and propagation of liberty, civil and years from the city and territory where the religious, will seek, by C.

and mercy had been shown; while the odious title, in a Christian spint, the di “ The Protector of Heretics,” was attached Sin, the overthur

menting

1

ing of the Mystery of Iniquity, the extinction broken and dispersed. O how tender and subduing of that deceivableness of unrighteousness which are the reminiscences of family connections and signalizes the system which exalts itself above their memories !- where are they Brothers! sisters!

Father! mother !- blessings op all that is called God. It is mercy to the na

where are they? Husband! wife! children! where tions, it is mercy to the Romanists themselves,

are they? Youthful readers, how little do you know to unveil the real nature of that false faith. what lies before you in the pathway of life. These The well-being of man throughout the world is touching, melting recollections, will soon be yours. identified with its downfal; and all who are

While the family, in whose warm bosom you now knit together in the bonds of the true Catholic Heaven, and improve this season as the happiest of

nestle, remains whole, prize the blessing as from religion should labour and pray, in the spirit of your temporal existence. their Lord, for the subversion of the delusions of

“ We all are here, Rome. Since Friar Thomas Torqueinada gave

You that I love, with love so dear ; the Inquisition its laws in 1483, and Valdes

This may not long of us be said recast them in 1561, how many thousands of

Soon must we join the gathered dead, God's saints lave been slaughtered! Though

And by the hearth we now sit round dead, do they not still speak against the odious

Some other ciicle will be found.

O, then, that wisdom may we know, system ?

Which yields a life of peace below;

So, in the world to follow this,
THE WHOLE FAMILY.

Mas each repeat, in words of bliss,

We're all-all here!" (From Rev. B. Slowe's Whole Family in Heaven and Earth.")

TIE ANNALS OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE. WHOLE family! It is not easy to conjoin other two words that would awaken so many tender associa

(From the Free Church Magazine.) tions ,or furnish so many topics of exhilarating or Our present design is to gather fron the pages saddening interest. "God setteth the solitary in families;” and you

of the elaborate work whose title we have can probably recollect when you was a constituent of prefixed to this paper, some notices of the a whole, and, in some respects, of a happy family. English Bible. It never was the policy of Then you were all, parents and children, sheltered Popery to put the Scriptures into the bands by the same roof, and grouped at the same fire-side. of the people. Till nearly the end of the fourThen, thrice a-day, you surrounded the same table, teenth century there was no translation of the and partook of the bounty of Him who openeth his Word of God into the English language. Transhand and satisfieth the desires of every living thing. lations of some small fragments there were

, Then you " went to the house of God in company," and occupied the same pew, and listened to the same but no translation of the whole Bible. Those expounder of the heavenly oracles. Then, morning who were unacquainted with the Hebrew, and evening, you sat in reverent silence, and heard & Greek, and Latin languages, knew as much chapter read from the family Bible--a peculiar book, or as little of the Word of God, which maketh whose shape and appearance you can never forget, and wise unto salvation, as an ignorant and vicious the like of which you have never yet seen. Then you priesthood might

be able and willing to teach bowed, an unbroken circle, around a common altar, “When kneeling down to heaven's eternal King,

them. The saint, the father, and the husband prayed."

Wickliffe was the first who translated the Then, as you had one home, and sought no other, whole Bible into English. He knew neither your joys, griets, and interests were one. You had Hebrew nor Greek, and translated from the * all things common.” Then, as affection bound to- Latin. His, therefore, was a translation from gether, the thought of separation was inexpressibly a translation, and so far it was imperfect

, painful. You deprecated the rupture of the family though still an unspeakable boon to his country tie as an evil of unsurpassed magnitude. Those days of home confort—of sweet domestic vented till about 1435, and therefore copies of

It was finished in 1380. Printing was not in: endearment--are fresh in your recollection, and only by the annihilation of your being can they be extir Wickliffe's translation could be multiplied only pated from your memory. Your thoughts love to by the slow and expensive process of the linger about those sunny scenes, and from them ex- transcriber's pen. Notwithstanding this it ob tract the honey that sweetens the bitterness of pre- tained a wide

circulation, and exercised a great sent cares and disappointments. And the farther and salutary influence. Wickliffe's opinions

, you advance in life, the more frequently do your minds recur to them as a fount of solace that the or rather the knowledge and belief of Scrip

ture truth, made great progress. The Dukes But that circle of home kindred, once and so long of Lancaster and Gloucester, sons of Edward complete, has been broken. That family, once whole, III., favoured and protected Wickliffe; and of the fragments are mouldering in the tomb where successfully a bill brought in to suppress the yard, where in summer grow the fern and the wild- English version of the Word of God. 'England brier, and in winter the cold north wind spreads over possessed no Bible in her own language, except then a snowy mantle. Other portions, widely sundered, have become centres around which new circles

* The Annals of the English Bible. By Christopher

Anderson, in two volumes. are forming, that are soon, in like manner, to be

London: William Picketing,

1845.

THE ANNALS OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE.

345

you do."

this version in manuscript, for the next 150 with which to combat ignorance and super. years; and it is not a little singular that Wick- stition. liffe's translation is now being printed for the The quarto edition was completed as well as first time.

the octavo one, and both of them found their The substratum or foundation of our present way into this country soon after they came English Bible is not the translation of Wick from the press. But as it was of the quarto liffe, but that of William Tyndale, which, after edition that the king and Wolsey had been five revisions from the Hebrew and Greek, still forewarned, it was that edition which was stands, word for word, in many places of our seized, denounced, and condemned; whilst its authorized version. Tyndale was a man of smaller companion, the octavo edition, was considerable learning, having studied at both circulating unnoticed and unopposed in thouthe Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. At sands throughout the land. And it is a rean early period of his life he was deeply con- markable fact, that God permitted man's convinced that the best remedy for the ignorance demnation to fall first on that translation which of the laity, and the corruptions of the clergy, was loaded with glosses and comments, and to was the throwing open to all the Scriptures of fall so heavily as to crush it entirely; whilst truth; and, in an argument which he had with the translation without note or comment rea dignitary of the Church, he was roused to mained, and spread, and multiplied in spite of say to his opponent, “ If God spare my life, ere the most furious and persevering endeavours inany years I will cause a boy that driveth the to destroy it. God will take care of his own plough to know more of the Scriptures than Word: when man makes addition to that

Word, even in the shape of an honest and Tyndale went abroad, probably to Hamburg, faithful comment, the mingled gold and clay where he seems to have published a translation must take its chance among human composifirst of Matthew and then of Mark. In 1525 tiong. he is believed to have removed to Cologne, Tyndale's New Testaments arrived in Engwhere he put his translation of the New Testa- land in the early part of 1526. It is not known ment to the press. But the printing had pro- from what port of the Continent they were ceeded only as far as the tenth sheet, when shipped; it was probably from several, as the John Cochlæus, one of the bitterest enemies stock which had been printed was wisely kept that ever lived to the translation of the Scrip- in different places. Simon Fyshe, a lawyer in tures, came to the knowledge of what was London, and George Harman, a merchant in going on. By his influence with Herman Rinck, Antwerp, were the first active instruments in one of the leading men of Cologne, the senate bringing over the English New Testament, and was prevailed upon to interdict the printer from putting it into circulation among the people. proceeding with Tyndale's work. Tyndale And so early as January 1526, many of the immediately fled from Cologne, taking with him learned youths in London, and in the two uni. the printed sheets of his translation, and went versities, were eagerly reading the Word of í up the Rhine to Worms, where there was more God in their own language. In a very short Lutheranism and more freedom. And striking period the effects of this appeared. A number enough, that which Cochlæus designed to be of the most promising students of Wolsey's a hindrance to the publication of the Scrip- own college (Cardinal College) at Oxford were tures in the English tongue, proved the occa- suspected of heresy, apprehended, and subject. sion of two editions instead of one issuing from ed to very harsh treatment. the press; for at Worms Tyndale not only com. To stay the progress of the evil, a number of pleted the printing of the quarto edition begun Tyndale's New Testaments and other books at Cologne, but also printed an octavo edition. were publicly burnt in London by Wolsey's

Cochlæus and Rinck, on discovering what order, and in his presence, in February of the was going on at Cologne, had written to Eng- above year. This was immediately followed land informing Henry VIII. and Wolsey of by an address in the king's name, denouncing the translation of Tyndale, and beseeching Tyndale's quarto New Testament, the only one them to be on their guard against its introduc- apparently yet known to the enemies ofathe tion into England. Tyndale was aware of this Word of God, and ordering the book to be -Was aware that his book had been minutely burned wherever it could be found. described to the king and Wolsey; and this But all this was of no avail. Unable to preseems to have led him to change its form, with vail on the people to give up the treasure of the view of bafiling the vigilance which might the Scriptures to be destroyed, it was deterbe employed to keep it out of the hands of his mined by Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, countrymen. The quarto size was changed for to try what could be done by purchasing up and the octavo, and certain notes or glosses which burning this very troublesome and dangerous he had added on the margin were omitted ;- translation. Three editions had been published, indeed, Tyndale seems to have come very early and the archbishop succeeded in obtaining a to the conviction that the Word of God, with part of these, at a cost of £60:9:4d. of the ont note or comment, was the best weapon money of those days, and equal to about £997

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