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(Tit. ii. 12); he girds his loins, trims his lamp, pointing to John Huss,“ this obstinate heretic. sets his house in order, that when death comes It is a holy work, glorious prince, that which for him with an habeas corpus, he may have no.
is reserved to you to accomplish-you, to whom thing to do but to die. Behold here the man
the authority of justice is given. Smite, then,
such great enemies of the faith, in order that who makes religion his business.*
your praises may proceed from the mouth of
children, and that your glory may be eternal.'! JOHN HUSS.
May Jesus Christ, for ever blessed, deign to John IIuss was condemned before the Council accord you his favour !" of Constance for adhering to certain of the the decree, by which the council demanded
Immediately after the sermon, a bishop read "heresies” of Wycliffe. It was in his case that silence: and nothing testifies more strongly the Church of Rome sanctioned and exempli. than this the omnipotence which the council fied the atrocious principle, that “no faith is to arrogated to itself, and the humiliation in which be kept with heretics." When John Huss the kings and the emperor were held in its went to stand his trial before the council, he presence. This decree is thus worded: “The received a “ safe-conduct,” or pass, from the holy Council of Constance, lawfully assembled Emperor Sigismund, certifying that he should by the influence of the Holy Spirit, decrees and
orders every one, with whatever dignity he be allowed to go to Constance, and return in
may be invested, whether imperial, royal, or safety. After the council had condemned him, episcopal, to abstain, during the present session, however, they passed a decree to the effect that, from all language, murmur; and noise, which
Huss being a heretic, the emperor “should not may trouble the assembly, convoked with the iuin this case be obliged to keep his promise, by spiration of God; and this, under pain of incurwhatsoever tie he inight have been engaged;" ring excommunication, an imprisonment of two
months, and to be declared an abetter of heresy." and, accordingly, Huss was handed over to the
This decree having been read, Henry Piron, tender mercies of the magistrates of Constance. the proctor of the council, rose up and demandThe following account of his sentence and death ed, in its name, the condemnation of John Huss is taken from a work of singular interest, a and of his writings. translation of which has recently been publish
The council had first sixty articles of Wyed—“ The Reformers before the Reformation," by cliffe, extracted from the books already con
demned, read aloud; and it condemned them Bonnechose:
afresh. John Huss remained for thirty days in prison John Huss, and thirty articles were gone
It then proceeded to the works of after having publicly replied to his judges; and through which had not been previously read it was on the 6th July that he appeared for the in public, but several of which were a mere last time before the council, in the fifteenth repetition of those on which he had been algeneral session, in order to hear his sentence
ready interrogated. pronounced.
Huss wished to reply to each separately; but The Cardinal de Viviers presided: the em
the Cardinal of Cambray ordered him to be peror and all the princes of the empire were silent, declaring that he could reply, at the end, present; and an immense crowd had assembled
to all of them together. Huss represented to from all quarters to view this sad spectacle. him that so great an effort of memory was alMass was being celebrated when Huss arrived; solutely impossible, and was proceeding to enand he was kept outside until it was over, lest force his request to be allowed to speak on each the holy mysteries should be profaned by the article as it arose, when the Cardinal of Florpresence of so great a heretic. A high table had been erected in the midst of the church, ning us!" gave orders to the ushers of the council
ence stood up, and exclaiming, “You are stud, and on it were placed sacerdotal habits, with
to seize liim, and force him to keep silence. 'which John Huss was to be invested, in order He was a second time prevented from speakto be stripped of them afterwards. He was ing; and, finding that he was not permitted to directed to seat himself in front of this table repel so many accusations, he kneeled down, on a footstool, elevated enough to allow him to and, raising his hands and eyes to heaven, re be seen by every one. On taking his seat, he commended his cause to the Sovereign Judge made a long prayer in a low voice; and, whilst of the universe. he was employed in this self.communion, the
After the reading of the articles had been Bishop of Lodi ascended the pulpit. He took for his text this passage of St. Paul: “ That the body of were proceeded to, and these were designated
gone through, the depositions of witnesses sin might be destroyed.” (Rom. vi. 6.) He conclud. by their titles and qualities, and not by their ed with these words, addressed to Sigismund: " Destroy heresies and errors, and, above all," against him, relative to his doctrine on the
The accusation previously brought • This admirable paper is from the same pen as the arti: administration of the sacrament, was again cie, entitled ". How to read the Bible with profit," previously adduced, although he had victoriously refuted inserted, pp. 433
it, and had been pronounced orthodox on the most anxious, to be better instructed by the point. He was also accused, amongst other Scriptures. I declare that my zeal for the absurd charges, of having given himself out as truth is such, that if, by a single word, I could the fourth person of the Trinity. This accusa- overturn all the errors of beretics, there is no tion was supported by the testimony of a doc- peril that I would not encounter for such a tor, whose name was not given. John Huss, result.” He then fell on his knees, and said replied by repeating aloud the Athanasian “ Lord Jesus, pardon my enemies ! Thou Creed.
knowest that they have falsely accused me, His appeal to Jesus Christ was also again and that they have had recourse to false testilaid to his charge as a heavy crime. He, how- mony and vile calumnies against me;---pardon ever, repeated it, and maintained that it was them from thy infinite mercy!" a just and proper proceeding, and founded upon This prayer produced feelings of indignation the example of Jesus Christ himself. “ Be- in some of the members of the council, and hold !" cried he, with his hands joined together called forth mockery in others, particularly and raised to heaven, “behold, O most kind amongst the heads of the assembly. | Jesus, how thy council condemns what thou Then commenced the afflicting ceremony of hast both ordered and practised! when, being degradation. The bishops clothed John Huss borne down by thy enemies, thou deliveredst in sacerdotal habits, and placed the chalice in up thy cause into the hands of God, thy Father, his hand, as if he was about to celebrate mass. leaving us this example, that we might ourselves He said, in taking the alb, “ Our Lord Jesus have recourse to the judgment of God, the most Christ was covered with a white robe, by way righteous Judge, against oppression. Yes,” of insult, when Herod had him conducted becontinued he, turning towards the assembly, fore Pilate.” Being thus clad, the prelates “ I have maintained, and I still uphold, that it again exhorted him to retract, for his salvation is impossible to appeal more sately than to and his honour; but he declared aloud, turning Jesus Christ, because He cannot be either towards the people, that he should take good corrupted by presents, or deceived by false care not to scandalize and lead astray believers witnesses, or overreached by any artifice.” | by a hypocritical abjuration. “ How could I," When they accused him of having treated with said he," after having done so, raise my face contempt the excommunication of the pope, he to heaven? With what eye could I support observed: “I did not despise it; but as I did the looks of that crowd of men whom I have not consider him legitimate, I continued the instructed, should it come to pass, through my duties of my priesthood. I sent my procurators fault, that those same things which are now to Rome, where they were thrown into prison, regarded by them as certainties, should become ill-treated, and driven out. It is on that ac- matters of doubt-if, by my example, I caused count that I determined, of my own free will, confusion and trouble in so many souls, so many to appear before this council, under the public consciences, which I have filled with the pure protection and faith of the emperor here pre- doctrine of Christ's Gospel, and which I have sent."
strengthened against the snares of the devil ? John Huss, in pronouncing these last words, No! no! it shall never be said that I pre. looked stedfastly at Sigismund, and a deep ferred the safety of this miserable body, now blush at once mounted to the imperial brow. destined to death, to their eternal salvation!"
Huss' refusal to abjure having been publicly The bishops then made him descend from repeated before the council, two sentences were his seat, and took the chalice out of his hand, pronounced-one of which condemned all his saying, “O accursed Judas ! who, having aban. writings to be publicly burned; and the other doned the counsels of peace, have taken part devoted him to degradation from his sacred in that of the Jews, we take from you this cup office, as a true and manifest heretic, proved | filled with the blood of Jesus Christ !" guilty of having publicly taught errors which “I hope, by the mercy of God,” replied John had been long condemned by the Church of Huss,“ that this very day I shall drink of his God-of having advanced several things that cup in his own kingdom; and in one hundred were scandalous, rash, and offensive to pious years, you shall answer before God and before ears, to the great opprobrium of the Divine me!” Majesty, and to the detriment of the Catholic His habits were then taken off one after the faith;-in fine, of having stubbornly persisted other, and on each of them the bishops proin scandalizing Christians by his appeal to Jesus nounced some maledictions. When, last of all, Christ as to a sovereign Judge, in contempt of it was necessary to efface the marks of the the apostolic see, and of the censures and the tonsure, a dispute arose amongst them whether keys of the Church.
a razor or scissors ought to be employed. During the reading of the sentence. Huss, “ See,” said John Fluss, turning towards the who was listening very attentively, exclaimed emperor, “ though they are all equally cruel, against it several times, and, in particular, re- yet can they not agree on the manner of exerpelled the accusation of stubbornness. “I cising their cruelty.” have always desired,” said he, "and am still They placed on his head a sort of crown or
pyramidal mitre, ongwhich were painted fright- which he was firmly tied to a stake, driven ful figures of demons, with this inscription, deep into the ground. When he was so affixed “ THE ARCH-HERETIC," and when he was thus some person objected to his face being turned arrayed, the prelates devoted his soul to the to the east, saying that this ought not to be, devils. John Huss, however, recommended his since he was a heretic. He was then untied, spirit to God, and said aloud, “I wear with joy and bound again to the stake with his face to this crown of opprobrium, for the love of Him the west. His head was held close to the wood who bore a crown of thorns."
by a chain smeared with soot, and the view of The Church then gave up all claim to him, which inspired him with pious reflections on the declared him a layman-and, as such, delivered ignominy of our Saviour's sufferings. him over to the secular power, to conduct him Fagots were then arranged about and under to the place of punishment. John Huss, by the his feet, and around him was piled up a quatorder of Sigismund, was given up by the Électity of wood and straw. When all these pretor Palatine, vicar of the empire, to the chief parations were completed, the Elector Palatine, magistrate of Constance, who, in his turn, accompanied by Count d'Oppenheim, marshal abandoned him to the officers of justice. He of the empire, came up to him, and for the last walked between four town-sergeants to the time recommended him to retract. But he, place of execution. The princes followed, with looking up to heaven, said with a loud voice, an escort of eight hundred men, strongly armed; “I call God to witness, that I have never either and the concourse of the people was so prodi. taught or written what those false witnesses' gious, that a bridge was very near breaking have laid to my charge. My sermons, my bouks, down under the multitude. In passing by the my writings, have all been done with the sole episcopal palace, Huss beheld a great fire con- view of rescuing souls from the tyranny of sin; suming his books, and he smiled at the sight. and, therefore, most joyfully will I confirm with
The place of punishment was a meadow ad- my blood that which I have taught, written, and joining the gardens of the city, outside the gate preached; and which is confirined by the divine of Gotleben. On arriving there, Huss kneeled law and the holy fathers.” down and recited some of the penitential psalms. The elector and the marshal then withdrew, Several of the people, hearing him pray with and fire was set to the pile!“ Jesus, Son of the fervour, said aloud, “ We are ignorant of this living God,” cried John Huss," have pity on man's crime; but he offers up to God most ex. me!” He prayed and sung a hymn in the cellent prayers.”
midst of his torments, but soon after, the wind When he was in front of the pile of wood having risen, his voice was drowned by the which was to consume his body, he was recom- roaring of the flames. He was perceived for mended to confess his sins. Huss consented, some time longer moving his head and lips, and and a priest was brought to him, a man of great as if still praying—and then he gave up the learning and high reputation. The priest re- spirit. His habits were burned with him, and fused to hear him, unless he avowed his errors, the executioners tore in pieces the remains of and retracted. “ A heretic,” he observed, his body and threw them back into the funeral “ could neither give nor receive the sacra- pile, until the fire had absolutely consumed ments.” Huss replied: “I do not feel myself everything; the ashes were then collected toto be guilty of any mortal sin, and now that I gether and thrown into the Rhine. am on the point of appearing before God, I will not purchase absolution by a perjury."
THE REAPER AND THE FLOWERS. When he wished to address the crowd in German, the Elector Palatine opposed it, and ordered him to be forthwith burned.
There is a reaper whose name is Death, Jesus !" cried John Huss, “I shall endeavour And, with sickle keen, to endure, with humility, this frightful death,
He reaps the bearded grain at a breath, which I am awarded for thy Holy Gospel. Par
And the flowers that grow between. don all my enemies.” Whilst lie was praying thus, with his eyes raised up to heaven, the
“Shall I have naught that is fair?" saith he,
“ Have naught but the bearded grain ? paper crown fell off: he smiled, but the soldiers
Though the breath of these fiowers is sweet to me, replaced it on his head, in order, as they de.
I will give them all back again." clared, that he might be burned with the devils whom he had obeyed.
He gazed at the flowers with tearful eyes; Having obtained permission to speak to his He kissed their drooping leaves; keepers, he thanked them for the good treat- It was for the Lord of Paradise ment he had received at their hands. “My
He bound them in his sheares. brethren," said he, “learn that I firmly believe in my Saviour; it is in his name that I suffer, · My Lord hath need of these flow'rets gay," and this very day shall I go and reign withi The reaper said, and smiled; him !"
“ Dear tokens of the earth are they, His body was then bound with thongs, with Where he was once a child.
BY HENRY W. LONGFELLOW.
JULIAN THE APOSTATE.
They shall all bloom in the field of light, me supper; done, I put it in middle house.. I
think, 'By and by he cool? I come back, I eat And saints, upon their garments white,
him. I go in piazza and lay down; the moon These sacred blossoms wear."
shine, and I see plenty star come out. I think of And the mother gave, in tears and pain,
one word my father tell me one of the prophets The flowers she most did love;
say before: When I consider the heavens, the She knew she would find them all again,
work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, In the field of light above.
which thou hast ordained; what is man that
thou art mindful of him ?' &c. I think, · That 0, not in cruelty, not in wrath,
person who make them no him finger, he no The reaper came that day,
bad as me.' I say, 'If he hear man as me; if Twas an angel visited the green-earth,
he let the firmament fall down and crush me to And took the flowers away.
I die, I am sure I shall be in hell. When I
think upon that, I am afraid and trembling. PRAISE FROM THE STAMMERING
I rise, and went in the house to pray. When I TONGUE.
begin to pray, I wish to pray sofely (softly); but
my heart force me to pray aloud. Many ManThe following account of the conversion of dingoes and other people heard me and came; William Sallah, an African boy, was received but my sin troubled me, and I pray loud and from his own lips by a Wesleyan missionary:- loud, till I believe in Jesus Christ, when I feel
“From a little boy I like for read too much. in my heart, “Thy sins are forgiven thee.' I pray; but, mind, that time I no feel nothing Then my heart glad. That same night I not 1 in my heart. The first thing led me to class take my supper for the sake of my heart re
good was. One day my father" (Pierre Sallah, joice. who had taken him, when a boy, from the libe- “In next morning the people begin come to rated African yard) “says, "Little boy will meeting. I begin tell them all that God done die as well as big man. When I hear that, for me. They astonishing. They get no prothe next day I went to Mr. Fox, and tell him, per word to say, until some say, 'I hope God 'I want to join myself to class. He tell me, will give me that blessing to feel it in my heart." * What reason you want join yourself to class ? I tell them, hope, without believing could not I answered, 'I not hungry for food. My soul give them that. They all went home, and is hungry.' He asked me, 'How do you know pray much; but no one return back and tell me your soul is hungry? You not see your soul. anything. How you know it is hungry?' He ask me, “The same morning I write to my father.
What pray is ?' I tell him, “Pray is beg.' llé It please him very much. He give very good said, “Do you sabby (know) beg?' I tell him, work. This was January 5th, 1842. I thank
Yes, if I hungry I sabby beg person nyan, God, I feel this yet.”
JULIAN THE APOSTATE. for my soul, he go give me. He say, 'Don't you hear what Christ say?-Suffer little children On no subject is the Word of God more explicit than to come unto me.' I say, I hear that very well regarding those who have made shipwreck of the from my father all time; but I think I do so faith and a good conscience. In one passage we much bad, Christ can't carry me to that place.' read, that it is impossible to renew to repentance When he hear that, he pleased very much, and those who were once enlightened, but have subseasked me, 'What class you wish to meet?' I quently fallen away. (Heb. ri. 4–6.) In another it tell him to Monday.' He tell me, ‘Monday is written, that “if we sin wilfully, after we have you come to class.'
received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth “ In Monday I come and join myself in class: no more sacrifice for sins” (Heb. x. 26); and in the then next Monday I come in class, I pray: it same chapter (verse 38) we read, “If any man draw please Mr. Fox very much. So I continually; back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.” Exbut I not feel the pardon of my sins. Some- cept the phrases which describe the hopelessly lost, times when I pray, my heart sweet me very the eternally condemned, there are no stronger exmuch: sometimes it still dark. One day I pray, pressions employed in Scripture than those which my heart sweet me very well. I see nothing thus apply to apostasy and apostates. in world. I only want for die. I was with And as it is thus in the Word of God, there is fremy mother in middle day. I say, “Mammy, quently a response to it in the consciences of men. I want nothing but die.' She asked me, Few conversions take place in which, at some stage
William, are you hungry? Have you nothing of the change, the thought does not occur to, or ento cover your skin? Anything burt you? I tell, gross the mind, that the unpardonable sin has been her, No;' but I didn't tell her what reason. committed, and the Spirit forever grieved or quenched.
“ In this way I continued until Mr. Swallow It is felt that warnings have been slighted, that grace sent me in Fattota to teach in 1842. I was in has be ked, conscience stifled, and sin commitbouse by me one (myself). In night I cookter?
- but against light. Hence deep,
and often overwhelming fears, lest the sinner should gave alms, and performed other ceremonies at the be cut off from hope and the soul made a victim of tombs of the martyrs. Nay more, he erected a splendil misery before its time.
monument to one of the saints at Cæsarea; he often It may tend, then, to throw light on this subject, solicited the blessing of monks and hermits; and Gih. if we consider a few cases of clear and decided apos- bon says, though with a sneer, “ He escaped very nartasy. In an age when profession is rife, and men are rowly from being a bishop, and perhaps a saint." prone to substitute some transient emotions, felt at According to his own information, the emperor #23 some period of their lives, for true and spiritual reli- a Christian till his twentieth year. gion, it would be well to define distinctly the limits When Julian rose to prominence and power, the between the genuine and the spurious-between the Arian heresy was at its height, and the controversy religion which originates in earth, and must of neces- greatly scandalized him. It soon appeared that unsity end there, and the religion which comes from der his religion he cherished an invincible averdion heaven, and will infallibly conduct us thither-be to the doctrines of Christianity; it had no control over tween the condition which Christ describes when he his heart and mind, and the gods of Homer had more says, “ None is able to pluck them out of my Father's attractions for Julian than the God of Scripture. hand,” and that which he describes where these are They did not repress the natural mind; on the conhis words, “ When persecution or tribulation ariseth trary, they fostered all its tendencies; and the prince
because of the word, by and by he is offended." embraced what he felt left him free, not what would 1. The first case, then, of apostasy to which we ask have made him holy. What he withheld from the
attention, is that of the Roman emperor Julian, called Gospel he freely conceded to Jupiter and Apollo by excellence, The A postate. He was the nephew of the imperial philosopher believed the fable regard. Constantine the Great, the first emperor called Chris- ing the Ancilia which fell from heaven, but deplored tian, and narrowly escaped being massacred in the the stupidity of Christians in caring for the cross o sixth year of his age, when nearly all his kindred Christ! perished. When Constantine died, his empire was By degrees the apostate emperor developed a divided among his sons, and atrocities were soon tolerably perfect Pagan system; and the order in perpetrated by them such as rarely disgraced the which the imperial infidel mustered his numerou reigns even of the Pagan emperors. Julian was res- gods was this spirits, gods, demons, heroes, men cued from one of the massacres which were then so The favour of his divinities was to be solicited and common, and kept for about six years as a kind of their wrath deprecated by sacrifice, ceremonies, and state prisoner, by his cousin the emperor Constantius. prayers. Inferior deities, according to Julian, might He pursued his studies at Constantinople; but his sometimes dwell in statues and temples. Philosophy eminence and popularity are said to have excited the he reckoned their handmaiden, and philosophers their imperial jealousy, and Julian withdrew from the priests. He was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries scene of peril to find safety and retirement at Athens. about his twentieth year, and mingled in all the str He was at last made the colleague of his cousin, horrent and revolting practices of the men called sages, who had inherited a third part of the empire; and, Pious fraud and hypocrisy might sạnetimes lead even as the Cæsar, Julian was devoted 'to study, him, even after that event, externally to conforin to to a degree that made him an object of mockery in a the religion which he hated; but his heart was stedsphere and an age when martinl glory was the pas- fast to the fanaticism of those who were initiated in sion of all, and when the science of murder had often the mysteries. To recommend his new creed, Julian supplanted the science of benefiting man. He con- fasted like a hermit in honour of Pan and Mercury, tinued in comparative obscurity till the gods, by their Hecate and Isis, and his eulogist Libanius declares omens, compelled him to become a prince; and at that the emperor held perpetual intercourse wih last, after various battles and victories, the soldiers gods and goddesses, who “gently touched his bad! proclaimed him the emperor of Rome. Jupiter, while he slumbered to awake him, that they might Apollo, Mars, and Minerva, had become his favourite enjoy his society.” They were his constant condgods; and he entered Constantinople, under their panions, and so adroit was the princely fanatie, or guardianship, on the 11th of December 361.
impostor, that he pretended he could distinguish be! But previous to that event, Julian publicly re- tween the voices of Jupiter, Apollo, and Hercules, nounced the Christian religion in which he had been while they conversed with him. Gibbon might have trained, and surrendered himself to the care of “the left out the qualifying term when he said that such immortal gods."
Soon after his accession to the pretensions * almost degraded the emperor to the i throne, he composed an elaborate work against the level of an Egyptian monk."
Christian religion, and yet he had formerly taken It was supposed, that had the apostasy of Julian part in the festivals and functions of the Church. been generally known at its commencement, his life His education was intrusted to Eusebius, bishop of would have been the forfeit. But the flexible creed of Nicomedia, and till his twentieth year the youth was Paganism allowed him to conceal it for a time; and constantly under the tutelage of Christian instruc- thus a polytheist mingled among the worshippers of tion. He even appeared so zealous a Christian, that Jehovah. His hypocrisy has been defended by his he performed some of the duties of the inferior clergy, Pagan encomiast, who says, “ Very different from and publicly read the Holy Scriptures in the church the ass of Æsop, which disguised himself in a lion's of Nicomedia; while he and others of his family, fol- hide, our lion concealed himself under that of an ass lowing the customs of his age, often fasted, prayed, In that disguise, then, Julian said to have acted as