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JULIAN THE APOSTATE,

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a hypocrite for ten years, till the proper time arrived | from Christianity a portion of its truth and light, for openly declaring that he was “ the implacable thereby the better to resist it; but after all, he was enemy of Christ." Though he granted toleration for baffled and borne down by Him that is mighty. some time to all, he ordered the Pagan temples to In order the more effectually to proselytize, the be re-opened. To favour his own views, he recalled emperor divided his favour between the old Payans heretics who had been banished, restored them to and those who turned from Christianity when it their churches, and then employed the hostile sects ceased to be the emperor's religion. The resources to debate and wrangle in the imperial presence. He of the Roman Empire were frequently thus employed. thus sought to gratify his enmity against the truth, to The army speedily became Pagan, and assisted, Gibfoment divisions, and consolidate Paganism, by weak- bon says, “ with fervent devotion and voracious apening Christianity.

petite at the hecatombs of fat oxen,” offered in the These notices of Julian might suffice to show the camp. A device of the Apostate to corrupt and deextent of his superstition as a professed Christian, grade Christians was thie:. The soldiers passed in and his fanaticism as a Pagan. But to exhibit his review from time to time before the emperor--each character at length, we notice that he had a temple received a donation; but he must first cast some grains to the Sun, in the precincts of his palace, where he of incense upon the altar fire. Many, allured by the daily offered sacrifice to that god, at sunrise and sun- bribe or awed by the sovereign presence, contracted the set. He solicited the meanest offices in the service pollution; and such devices, continued till conscience of the Pagan deities, as he had formerly done in became seared, crowded the camps with apostates like Christian Churches. Crowds of priests, and dancing him who occupied the throne. The flexibility of an unwomen, the attendants on the temples, were his com- converted man's conscience will easily allow him to panions. Gibbon says, that the imperial hands adopt the creed of a majority, or of the powerful; carried the wood for the burnt-offerings, blew the and though some did resist the temptation and die, fire that should consume them, wielded the sacrificial many abandoned their profession of religion rather knife, and drew forth the quivering heart and liver of than their pay and their prince's favcur. the victims, there to read the secrets of the future. One strange episode in Julian's life we cannot but A large portion of his revenue was expended on vic- describe—we refer to his attempt to rebuild the cims and festivals; scarce and beautiful birds were temple of Jerusalem. To weaken Christianity by bonght for sacrifices; and the voracious veneration strengthening its enemies, the emperor bestowed of Julian frequently caused the slaughter of a hun- many favours on the Jews, and in the hope of destroydred oxen in a single day. No wonder that, under ing the Christian ergument from prophecy connected | such patronage, Paganism rose from its degradation. with the overthrow of Jerusalem, the apostate re

Every part of the world displayed the triumph of solved to rebuild the temple. The ploughshare had religion; and the grateful prospect of flaming altars, passed over it; but still the Jews cherished hope;

bleeding victims, the smoke of incense, and a solemn and Julian seemed likely to turn that hope into train of priests and prophets, without fear and with fruition. He called the Jewish Divinity Meye; Osos; out danger. The sound of prayer and of music was and was willing to enrol him among the other gods; heard on the tops of the highest mountains, and the and encouraged by his patronage, after some intersame or afforded a sacrifice for the gods and a sup- ruptions, the Jews flocked from every land to see the per for their joyous votaries."*

temple rise again in its beauty. “The men forgot But Julian further attempted to reform the Pagan their avarice, and the women their delicacy; spades. priesthood. He addressed pastoral letters to them, and pick-axes of silver'were provided by the vanity for he was the high priest as well as the emperor. of the rich; and the rubbish was transported in manHe tried to weed out all that was scandalous--hetles of silk and purple. Every purse was opened in urged utmost punctuality in regard to the ceremonial; liberal contributions; every hand claimed a share and aimed at what has been called “ immaculate in the pious labour; and the commands of a great purity of mind and body,” hy worshipping Jupiter, monarch were executed by the enthusiasm of a whole and Apollo, and Hecate, and Isis ! His priests durst not people.” resort to theatres or taverns, or consort with any who Such, according to Gibbon, were Julian's preparawalked disorderly. Their libraries were to be select tions or efforts—with what result ? “ An earthquake, ---their company decorous; in a word, the resusci- a whirlwind, and a fiery eruption, which overturned tated Paganism was to be fostered by the sobriety, and scattered the new foundations of the temple, are hospitality, faith, and devoutness of its priesthood; attested with some variations by contemporary and and yet all this was avowedly done by Julian in a spirit respectable evidence.” “ Whilst Alypius, assisted by of rivalry to Christians. He signalized by his favour the governor of the province, urged with vigour and those who had continued Pagans while the emperor's diligence the execution of the work, horrible balls uncle, Constantine, occupied the throne of the of fire breaking out near the foundations, with freworld; but though Julian did all that he could to re- quent and reiterated attacks, rendered the place from store the effæete and exhausted system—though he time to time inaccessible to the scorched and blasted pursued his object with that pertinacity and single- workmen; and the victorious element, continuing in ness of aim which sometimes marks the conduct of a this manner, obstinately and resolutely bent, as it maniac, all was in vain-the crumbling system could were, to drive them to a distance, the undertaking not be propped up even by an emperor. He stole was abandoned." Such are the words of a contem• Libinius, the Orator, quoted by Gibbon.

porary historian (Ammianus Marcellinus), as quoted,

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by Gibbon. Even the Infidel historian is staggered. Gibbon is compelled by historical truth reluctant! He gives a possible explanation; but he does not deny to record that “ their mangled bodies were drar. the fact. Without supposing a miracle, yet coupling through the streets; they were pierced by the suits together the reported events and the certain inter- of cooks and the distaffs of women, and the entrus ruption of the attempt, we cannot but regard the of Christian priests and virgins, after they had been whole as marvellous.*

tasted by these bloody fanatics, were mixed wit: Besides this notable effort to falsify predictions, barley, and contemptuously thrown to the unclean refute Christianity, and strengthen its enemies, animals of the city." Opportunities were embraced Julian adopted other methods to effect the object on for confiscating all Church property. Insult was - which his heart was set. He enjoined the Christians added to injury. Christianity says, Blessed are tbto adopt the name of Galilæans, as one that tended poor in spirit; and Julian impiously boasted that ke to degrade them. In one of his edicts he hinted at would reduce all the Galilæans to that condition, persecution, and avowed that a frantic patient might telling them, with all the ferocity of a godless tyrant.

be treated with salutary violence. He prohibited thaš they might “ dread not merely confiscation .. | the Christians from teaching schools, and in effect exile, but fire and the sword.” A city had murdere!

from learning aught but Paganism; and in defence of its bishop in an outbreak of Pagan fanaticism. The his tyranny, he contemptuously said, that “if men emperor should have punished the murderers; k: 1. would refuse to adore the gods of Homer, they ought “the virtuous prince," in consideration of the found: to content themselves with expounding Luke and of the city (Alexander), and of Serapis, the tutels Matthew in the temples of the Galilæans.” He deity, granted a free and gracious pardon." took power to corrupt or to punish the more constant Athanasius, the stanch friend of truth, was sa Christians; and when they were removed, he found object of utmost hatred to the apostate, whose enmis the minds of the young ready to receive the impress against the truth appears on every side. He was tosion of Pagan literature and idolatry. In a word, nished from his see as “the enemy of the gods;" 22. Heathenism—" the gods of Homero'-on the one the impious Heathen thus announces his mind to his hand, and utter ignorance on the other, were the al- minions: “ I swear by the great Serapis, that unless ternatives presented to Christians by one who has on the calends of December, Athanasius has dit! been eulogized as “ a hero and a sage,” and who parted from Alexandria, nay, from Egypt, the officers himself became one of the gods at last. Christians of your government shall pay a fine of one hundrim? were obliged to restore the Pagan temples, while their pounds (weight) of gold.” With a meanness which churches, because often built on the ruins of former betokens that degradation which false religion inflicts edifices, were thrown to the ground. Accounts for an emperor stoops to call the archbishop " an abomi. damages and debt were summed up against the Gali- nable wretch;" and with a malignity indicative of | læans; and when they could not meet the demands, the lowest style of mind, he expresses the wish tas they were seized and imprisoned. An aged prelateall the venom of the Galilæan school were come was thus maltreated. He was equally poor and tained in the single person of Athanasius." stedfast; and to punish him “they inhumanly scourged We do not trace the apostate's history farther. him, and tore his beard; while his naked body, He was soon withdrawn by war from persecuting the anointed with honey, was suspended in a net between Christians, and fell, after many hardships and disa: heaven and earth, exposed to the stings of insects, ters, fighting against the Persians, in the thirty-second and the rays of a Syrian sun." Another proof this year of his age. Some of his last words are instrue of Pagan clemency-another reason, perhaps, why tive: “I have learned from religion that an earls Gibbon called Julian “a hero and a sage, a virtu- death has often been the reward of piety, and I acous prince," "a prince who felt for the honour of the cept as a favour from the gods the mortal stroke gods."

that secures me from the danger of disgracint a But the apostasy of Julian is not yet all described. character hitherto supported by virtue and fortitude The Temple of Daphne, near Antioch, had once been

I die without remorse, as I have lived either among the most magnificent in the world; but under guilt. I am pleased to reflect on the innocence of Christianity it fell into decay. Julian visited the my private life.

The eternal Being bagi shrine, and instead of finding hecatombs of oxen given me, in the midst of an honourable career, a slaughtered to the goddess, he complained that he splendid and glorious departure from this world; an ? found only a single goose, provided at the expense of I hold it equally absurd, equally base, to solicit of t) a priest, the pale and solitary inhabitant of the decline the stroke of fate." _“ We hope in a fer temple.” Christians were, moreover, buried near it, moments to be united to heaven, and with the and their polluting remains must be removed! But stars." Such are the great swelling words of a part the temple was set on fire during the succeeding night, dying sinner, a hypocrite, an apostate, a persecutor

. and left a blackened pile to horrify the emperor; and When wounded on the field of battle, he is said to vengeance was inflicted on the Galilæans. Several have taken a portion of his blood from his woun) were tortured. Theodoret, a presbyter, was beheaded. and thrown it into the air, exclaiming, “The gallu The burial-places of Christians throughout Syria LÆAN HAS CONQUERED;" and the Christian will adopt were removed, and the living were not spared. the testimony as true. This most curious topic is worthy of full elucidation. B.

And such is an example of apostasy! Julian was Warburton, in his “ Julian," has largely considered the sub- trained in the Christian religion. He had a bishop ject.

for his preceptor, and other ministers of religion to

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inform his opening mind. For a time, he seemed to sweetest music. The blackbird and the thrush hold Christianity as then known, in his very heart. were piping their richest notes on the “greenHe visited the tombs of the martyrs--he fasted-wood tree;” the gentle cooing of the wood-dove he prayed-he found pleasure in the menial services issued with a delicious softness from the grove; as well as higher functions of the sanctuary. “ He and the joyous lark, high in the air, was pouring narrowly escaped being made a bishop, or even a a flood of melody down upon the wilderness. saint.” But first Paganism, then hypocrisy, then the wild bees were humming among the keen persecution, guided by open and avowed hostiloneyed blossoms of the hawthorn; the scented lity to Christ and the Christian name, became the wind, breathing over the fragrant heath, was characteristics of Julian. And whence the change? playing with the rustling foliage; the brook was Because Julian's religion was only that which bishops murmuring in the ravine below; the lambkins and other human beings teach-the creed of his family, were gamboling on the verdant lea, and the his guardians, his Church—not that faith which the sheep were grazing quietly by their side; while Holy Ghost produces, which comes from heaven and on the distant hill the shepherd was seen, will guide us to it. Julian, in short, was an uncon- wrapped in his plaid, with his sportive dog at verted man; while praying and fasting, grace had his foot, slowly winding his way up the steep taken no hold, and exercised no intiuence on his ascent. The good man's heart beat high with heart; hence his apostasy when temptation came rapture_his delighted eye roamed over the 1-an apostasy signalized by the high level at which charming variety of hill and dale-he contemit took place, but paralleled sooner or later, in its plated the glorious sun, and all the splendid principles, in the case of all who have no religion scenery of the sky-he felt as if he were standbut what man teaches, and no creed but what their ing on holy ground, in the midst of the great fathers held. * They went out from us, but they temple of nature-he experienced an unusual were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would elevation of mind, and all the freshness and no doubt have continued with us : but they went out, buoyancy of youth seemed once more to take that they might be made manifest that they were possession of his aged frame. Full of devout not all of us.” (1 John ii. 19.) “Let him that sentiments he uncovered his head, the silvery thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.” (1 Cor. hairs of which were streaming on his shoulders, x. 12.)

and, lifting up his hands, he “praised, and lionoured, and extolled the King of Heaven, all

whose works are truth, and whose ways are A STORY OF THE PERSECUTION.

judgment." He had fixed his eye on a cottage

far off in the waste, in which lived a godly man Among the many hiding-places to which he oc- with whom he had frequent intercourse; and casionally retreated, was the solitude of Glen- there being nothing within view calculated to dyne, about three miles to the east of Sanquhar. excite alarm, he resolved to pay his friend a A more entire seclusion than this is rarely visit. With his staff in his hand he wended to be found. Glendyne stretches eastward, his way to the low grounds to gain the track winding among the hills for nearly three miles. which led to the house. Ile reached it in The width of the glen at the bottom is in many safety, was hospitably entertained by the kind places little more than five or six times the landlord, and spent the time with the household breadth of the brawling torrent that rushes in pious conversation and prayer, till sunset. through it. Dark precipitous mountains, frown- Not daring to remain all night, he left them, to ing on either side, rise from the level of the return to his dreary cave. As he was trudging valley to an immense height. On the eastern along the soft footpath, and suspecting no harm, extremity of the glen a cluster of hills gathers all at once several moss-troopers appeared to a point, and forms an eminence of great coming over the bent, and advancing directly altitude, from which a noble prospect of a vast upon him. He fled across the moor, and when extent of country is obtained. Near the lower about to pass a mountain streamlet, he acciend of this defile, which in ancient times was dentally perceived a cavity underneath its bank, thickly covered with wood, and where it termi- that had been scooped out by the running nates its sinuous course with one majestic brook, into which he instinctively crept, and sweep, reaching forward to the bleak moor: stretching bimself at full length, lay hidden lands beneath, our revered worthy had selected beneath the grassy coverlet, waiting the result. for himself a place of refuge. This spot, con. In a short time the dragoons came up, and cealed by the dark mantling of the forest, was having followed close in his track, reached the kuown only to a few who made the cause of rill at the very spot where he was ensconced. these sufferers their own. It happened, on one As the leavy horses came thundering over the occasion, that this honoured servant of Christ, smooth turf on the edge of the rivulet, the foot having emerged from his covert, stood by the of one of them sank quite through the hollow margin of the forest, on the beautiful slope of covering under which the object of their purthe mountain above. It was the balmy month suit lay. The hoof of the animal grazed his May, and nature had just put on her love head, and pressed his bonnet

deep into the soft liest attire. The forest was vocal with the clay at his pillow, and left him entirely unin

ALEXANDER PEDEN.

jured. His persecutors, having no suspicion things that God has made, while he perhaps saeer; that the poor fugitive was so near them, crossed at the man who, by studying the work of redem! the stream with all speed, and bounded away tion, is seeking to extend our knowledge of God hituin quest of bim whom God had thus hidden as self. If Christ be our prophet, it is no longer a in his pavilion, and in the secret of his taber question whether the information which he came to nacle. A man like Peden, who read the hand give be more important than any information which of God in everything, could not fail to see and we could acquire without his advent. He has given to acknowledge that divine goodness which was us the revelation of God, and if we neglect it, or preso eminently displayed in this instance; and we fer any other knowledge to it, we do so at our peril inay easily conceive with what feelings he would | The Gospel is not one of the things which, if it do return to his retreat in the wood, and with what us no good, will do us no harm. We must all account cordiality he would send up the voice of thanks to Christ for the use which we have made of the giving and praise to the God of his life.--Tra- knowledge given; and to each of us it will be the ditions of the Covenanters,

savour of life, or the savour of death. It will save us

from our sins, or it will leave us without excuse. I THE GREATEST SCIENCE.

therefore repeat, that if Christ be our prophet, we There are men eager in the pursuit of knowledge,

are bound by the most sacred ties, and under the and who suffer nothing to escape their examination

most fearful sanctions, to attend to his instructions —from behemoth to the worm, from the cedar that is with the most reverential regard; for suerly it will in Lebanon to the hyssop that groweth out of the

not be said that he can be safe who treats as a trifle wall

, from the combinations of the planets to the that which God became incarnate to reveal.- Dods. transformations of an insect—but from whose range of study the Maker of all things is most carefully ex- GIVE YOUR YOUTH TO THE LORD.

cluded, and from whose heart God is most resolutely Your present days are your precious and best. Your shut out. Perhaps there exists not a more deplorable young days be but days, and of short continuance; proof of the fatal nature of the fall of man, nor can yea, and dubious. Some are old, as we speak, soover Satan point to any more signal proof of the power of than others: their flowers sooner fade, and their his delusions, nor can angels, in their visits to this grass more quickly withers. But whenever your carth, meet with a more lamentable and instructive evening falls, you shall wish it again morning with spectacle than such a man-a man enriched with all you. If nothing else will do it, old age will convite

you of the excellence of youth. It was wittily that, the acquisitions, and adorned with all the honours of by some, Time was thus pictured of old :-Ti#10 science, and yet whose mind is totally impervious to come had the head of a fawning dog; Time pretul, the simple reflection, that if those works which he the head of a stirring lion; Time past, the head of a delights to investigate be wonderful,

biting wolf: so teaching, that though silly souls fancy

still that their best days are to come, yet, if they be “How passing wonder Ile who made them such !" stir not well themselves in their present ones, they No position, it apears to me, can well be more simple will be very miserably bitten and torn in their future. or less liable to dispute than this, that if the material I sadly remember sometimes the tears and words of system of the universe be glorious, and a knowledge fellows in our childhood.

a very ancient gentleman to myself and my school

“Children," said he. of all its departments important-much more glorious

your age is good for everything that you can desire and important to be known in all its parts must be to get; mine is good for nothing but to spend whatthat moral system, for the sake of which alone the ever one has got. A thousand worlds I would give material fabric was reared — a system throughout for a few of your learning-getting days again. Of all" which the “Sun of Righteousness," as its centre, dif- things, prize your time; and of all time, your young, fuses the light of heavenly wisdom, and the riches of

which is your sowing-time." It is upon eternity's

account that anything can be judged excellent: no heavenly joy! And with whatever pity or compas- doth aught make for our blessed eternity, but vital sion the philosopher may feel himself entitled to look piety. And surely, for that, there is no season like down upon the untutored peasant,

to life's morning. Poets say, it is a friend to the “Whose soul proud science never taught to stray

muses;

divines must proclaim it the friend of graces. Far as the solar walk, or milky way,"

-Burgess. and for whom suns arise only to light him to his toils, and set only to leave him to recruit his exhausted

SOUL INSURANCE. strength; with much greater pity and compassion is

FELLOW-TRAVELLER to eternity—is thy soul insured? that peasant, if he has been taught in the school of In vain (if it were possible) would it be for thee to Christ, entitled to look down on the proudest name

insure here thy life for a thousand years, if at the

end thy soul were not safe. Christian reader! is there that ever science owned, if separated from the know- not some friend whom thou canst arouse, whose soul ledge of God in Christ Jesus. A knowledge of the is not insured! If there be one, stay not till he has works of God, our own unaided efforts are able to heard of Christ, who still waits. Can you go by his attain; a knowledge of God himself, none but God or her side to the brink of this world, only to bear the manifest in the flesh could reveal. And he surely is

cry for mercy, or to behold one over whom you might a woful monument of the utter perversion of the abyss? Oh wait not for some' favoured season to re

have exerted a good influence, plunge into the dark human mind who prefers the former of these species turn, in which God will rouse careless souls, but ? of knowledge to the latter; and imagines that he en- now and entreat that friend, as you value

your eteriai nobles himself by extending our knowledge of the happiness, to seek its soul's insurance.

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BY THE REV. J. T. HEADLEY, NEW YORK. It is difficult to recall any scene vividly tha the bewildered listeners; and a mournful sadhas been so often described, and so long familiar ness rested on every face, as through the silent to us, as that which transpired on the Mount of chamber rang those tones of tenderness. Olives. The mind is prepared for every event Gradually the great city sank to rest, the in it, and hence cannot be taken by surprise, or noise of wheels grew less and less, and only held in suspense. But there are moments when now and then a solitary carriage went rumbling the heart forgets all that it has ever heard, and by. It was midnight, and from that solitary seems for the first time to witness that night chamber arose the voice of singing. The victim of suffering. The indifference which long at the altar, the sufferer at the wheel, sent familiarity has produced, disappears before forth a hymn at the moment of sacrifice. Was rising emotion, and that lonely hill-top—that there ever before a hymn sung under such cirmidnight prayer-that piercing agony, with its cumstances ? bloody testimonial, and the rude shock of Ro- Through the darkened streets those twelve man soldiers—all, all, swim before the swim- forms are slowly passing towards the walls of ming eye, with the freshness of first sight, till the city, cared for and noticed only by the the heart thrills and sobs at the spectacle. police, whom the betrayer has put upon the

But as morally grand and moving as that track. Kedron is passed, and they reach the scene was, it caused but little talk in Jerusa- garden of Gethsemane. “ Sit you here,” says lem. The streets of Jerusalem were filled with Jesus, “while I go and pray yonder;" and careless promenaders--parties of pleasure were taking with him only Peter and James and assembled — dissipation and revelry were on John, he ascended the slope of Olivet. As every side; and the quiet of the staid citizen's they paused on the solitary summit, the human home was pot interrupted by the tragedy Mount heart threw off the restraint it had put on its Olivet was to witness. Everything moved on in feelings, and burst forth in tones of indescrib

its accustomed way, when, in an obscure street, ahle mournfulness –“ My soul is exceeding som in the upper chamber of an inferior dwelling, rouful, eren unto death; tarry ye here, and watch with a group of coarse-clad men sat down to a table mo.” Every prop seemed falling beside him, spread with the plainest fare. The rattling of and in the deepening gloom and dread that carriages and the bum of the mighty city were surrounded him, he reached out for sympathy unheeded by them, and you could see by their and aid. Then, as if recollecting himself, and countenances that some calamity was impend the task before him, he broke away, even from ing over their head. Few words were spoken, those three remaining friends, and they saw and those few were uttered in a subdued and with speechless grief and amazement, his form saddened tone, that always bespeaks grief at disappear in the darkness. the heart. At the head of the table sat one Jerusalem is sunk in slumber and security, whose noble countenance proclaimed Him chief and naught but the tread of the watchman is there. He had won the love of those simple heard along the streets. The disciples in the hearted men; and now they sat grouped around garden of Gethsemane are quietly sleeping behim, expecting some sad news; but they, o, low, and all is still and solemn, as night ever is they were unprepared for the startling declara- when left alone; and the large luminous stars tion that fell from those lips, “ This night one of are shining down in their wonted beauty. Ke. you shall betray me." "Is it I?Is it I?” ran dron goes murmuring by, as if singing in its from lip to lip, in breathless consternation. At dreams, and the olive trees rustle to the passing length all eyes centred on Judas, and he arose breeze; as if their leaves were but half stirred

from their slumbers. It is night, most quiet I will not speak of the conversation that fol- night, with all its accompaniments of beauty lowed; but amid words that thrilled every heart, and of loveliness. were heard such language as, This is my blood, But hark, from the summit of Mount Olivet shed for many;" and as the bread crumbled be- rises a low and plaintive moan, and there, neath his fingers, “ This is my boiy;"-strange stretched on the dewy grass, his face to the language, and awakening strange sensations in earth, is seen the diin outlines of a human form.

No. 42.*

and went away.

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