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since the Israelites amounted to only seventy persons; dertaken quite as much in order to break their spirits and it is exceedingly improbable that they had in so by severe labour, as for any other purpose.* short a time become more numerous than the native A striking confirmation of the opinion, that the Egyptians, who had been a settled nation for about six native Egyptians were not the oppressors of the hundred and fifty years. But it is very possible that Israelites, is furnished by the command given to the a conquering tribe, like the Turks of modern times, latter by Moses: “Thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian;" might be inferior in number even to the smallest of which would seem to indicate, that though the Hethe two nations that then occupied Egypt. We learn brews were oppressed by the State, they received from the Sacred Narrative, that the Israelites were kind treatment from the Egyptians as iuctividuais, so compelled by Pharaoh to erect "treasure cities”-in as to lay them under obligations to make a grateful other words, fortresses to secure his plunder-a fact recompense. The mere fact that the Israelites were which strengthens the supposition that Egypt was “ strangers in the land of Egypt," would not have then under the iron rule of a foreign conqueror; for been a sufficient reason for such a command, unless zo such precaution was taken by Joseph when he it had implied that the Egyptians had shown kindreceived all the money of the country in exchange for ness to them in their adversity, and had thereby corn. Finally, we find this Pharaoh actually pro- earned for themselves a right to kindness in return. posing to Moses to violate the laws and customs of This is one of those apparent contradictions, but Egypt, by sacrificing the sacred animals within their real confirmations, of the accuracy of the Sacred land. The remonstrance of the Jewish legislator is, Narrative which truth alone could furnish. A forger as we shall see, very appropriate when addressed to inventing a story, would, without doubt, have reprea foreigner, but scarcely within the bounds of credi- sented the Egyptians as entitled only to hostility and bility if we suppose that any such speech could be hatred from the emancipated Hebrews. mlade to a native prince. “And Pharaoh called for In the present state of chronology, it is difficult to Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye sacrifice to your determine, with perfect certainty, the correspondence God in the land. And Moses said, It is not meet so between the events portrayed on the monuments to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the and the dates and events found in the Sacred Volume, Egyptians to the Lord our God: so shall we sacrifice though all that we have been able to extract of a the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, historical kind from the monumental sculptures and and will they not stone us? We will go three days' inscriptions is in entire harmony with what the journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the Lord Scriptures, directly or indirectly, teach respecting our God as he shall command us."-Exod. viii. 25-27. Egypt. But by far the most valuable portion of the The policy of the intruding sovereign is easily illus- contributions which the study of Egyptian antiquities trated. “He found himself,” says Mr Faber, “mas- has brought to our stores of Biblical literature, is ter of a land in which were two distinct races of men, derived from the memorials of the manners and who, from a sense of mutual benefits, hasi generally customs which the people of the Pharaohs had delived in strict amity with each other; and he was picted on the walls of their sepulchres. Whoever," fully aware, or at least he naturally suspected, that, it has been justly said, “is curious to know how these notwithstanding any temporary disgust, the Israelites prineval inhabitants of the Valley of the Nile worwould be far more likely to make cominon cause with shipped their gods, and warred with their neighbours their friends the Mizraim, than with himself and his and with foreign nations-how they were armed and intrusive warriors. Hence, to a man who was re- disciplined-how they laid siege to and stormed strained by no nice scruples of conscience, who con- cities—how they exercised juulgment, and feasted, sidered only how he might best secure his conquest, and buried their dead-how they danced and sang, and who neither knew nor regarded Joseph, the and played on instruments of music, and wrestled and policy is obvious; and the principle of it is most dis- tumbled—how they ploughed and sowed, and reaped tinctly exposed by Moses: “ Come on, let us deal and gathered fruit, and cultivated the vine, and wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to plucked the grapes, and trampled them in the winepass, that when there falleth out any war, they join press—how they built and made bricks, and drew also unto our enemies, and fight agninst us, and so enormous weights, and clove wood, and practised carget them up out of the land." With the natural pentry in all its branches--how they hunted and feelings of a conqueror, and with the superadded shot, and snared birds and caught tish-how they remembrance of a former expulsion from this very killed and cooked, and served up their dinner, and country, he anticipated a probable rebellion of the ate-how they laid out their gardens and housesnative Egyptians; and be shrewdly conjectured that, how they furnished and adorned them-- how they while he was engaged in reducing them to obedience, built and rigged out their boats and barks, and rowed or in resisting an invasion of the dethroned king from or floated on the Nile;" all this, and much more, the Thebais, whither (according to Manetho) he had may be found in these interesting paintings. The retired, the Israelites, compactly associated in the Egyptian was determined to make his sepulehre, his land of Goshen, would take him in the rear, and place more lasting mansion, as like as possible to the more him between two enemies. “Therefore, they did | temporary scenes through which his soul had passed set ofer them task masters, to afilict them with their in its course of transmigration in this state of being. burdens”-reducing them, and also the native Egyp- Accordingly, upon all walls tians (as we learn from both Manetho and Herodo- “ Each change of many colour'd life be diew;" tus), to a state of absolute servitude, obliging them

* Faber's Origin of Pagan Idolatry, vol iii., book 6, p. to labour in public works, which were probably un- 553; Illustrated Commentary on Exodus i. 5.10.


and the disinterment of these long-buried records Thebes there is a sketch in which King Rameses JII., has, after the lapse of three thousand years, pre- who is supposed to have been contemporary with sented these faithful pictures in all their original | Abrahan, is represented as playing the game of freshness and spirit. Now, the bearing which the chese. discovery of these records must have on the veracity We learn from the Sacred Narrative that Pharaoh of the Mosaic history is very apparent; and the bestowed upon Abraham presents of “sheep, and evidence which they furnish of the accuracy of the oxen, and he-asses, and man-servants, and maid-ser- 1 Sacred Volume, even in the most minute details, is vants, and she-asses, and camels." This passage has quite decisive, because incidental, undesigned, and been adduced by a German Neologian as a proof above all suspicion of collusion,

that the Book of Genesis must have been written by A favourite theory of certain Infidel savans, re- a native of Palestine, and at a much later period specting the Sacred Books of the Jews is, that they than the time of Moses. The narrator," he says, were written at a period posterior to the Babylonish “ mentions the animals of his own rative land, a part captivity; and they have laboured to show, by an of which Abraham could not receive in Egypt. He enumeration of the pretended mistakes and inaccu- ascribes to him no horses, which were native to Egypt; racies of the author of the Pentateuch, that he must but, on the other hand, he mentions shcep, which have lived long after the time of Moses, and that are found in the marsh lands of Egypt as seldom as he has transferred to the Valley of the Nile the man- camels and asses, which were especially odious to the ners, customs, and institutions of Palestine. We shall | Egyptians, on account of their colour." proceed to consider whether or not these charges are Now, first of all, the reason why the horse was not borne out by the monumental sculptures and inscrip mentioned among the presents given to Abraham tions.

could not be because the author did not know how It has often been confidently affirmed, that colo- abundant horses were in Egypt; for in Gen. xlvii. nizatical and civilization descended from Ethiopia 17, it is said that “ Joseph gave the Egyptians down the Nile to Egypt, and that, consequently, the bread in exchange for their horses.” But we learn references made in the Book of Gencsis to the from the monuments that horses were used chiefly flourishing condition of the kingdom of Egypt can- in war; and as Abraham was a man of peace, the not be authentic, as civilization could scarcely at that gift of such animals would have been every way untime have reached that country. Recent investiga- suitable to him. The omission of the horse, as Dr tions, however, have completely exploded this theory. Taylor has justly remarked, instead of being an obThe monuments of Ethiopia are not only far inferiorjection, is one of the strongest possible of undesigned to those of Egypt, but of a much later date. “Nubia," confirmations of the truth of the narrative. Sheep, says a modern French traveller, “ consists almost instead of being unknown or rare in Egypt, appear entirely of barren rocks. Such a land where the on the monuments often and in great numbers, the most urgent wants of man can only be supplied with flocks consisting sometimes of more than two thouthe utmost exertion, is not the cradle of the fine sand. So also do asses, which were so numerous

So soon as I received information of the that one individual is represented as having seren true character of the antiquities of Nubia-when I, in hundred and sixty of them. Camels have certainly the pictures and sculptures, saw the same objects which not yet been found delineated on these sculptures. are represented on the monuments of Thebes-it was But many objects are wanting on the monuments cicar to me that the most of the monuments of Nubia which yet can be proved to have existed among the are far later than those of Thebes, and by no means Egyptians; and the camel was, in ancient times, as it served as models for them. The climate is different still continues to be, peculiarly the animal of the in the two lands; the productions of the vegetable wandering tribes. Even at the present day camels kingdom are not the same, the most distinguished are chiefly bred by the Arabs on the borders of i plants which the Egyptian artists have so often repre- Egypt. This portion of the Sacred Narrative derives sented—the lotus, the papyrus, the vine, &c.-are not considerable light from a scene in a rock-hewa found in these high regions; and the reed and the date sepulchre near the Pyramids of Geezeh, bearing the tree but seldom. The arts already cultivated and name of the king Cheops, which shows that it was in perfected could have been brought to these shores, all probability made more than a century before the but their inhabitants could not have transplanted arrival of Abraham in Egypt. A head shepherd is the arts for which their country offered no natural represented as giving an account of the flocks comtype to the shores of the Lower Nile.” The most mitted to his charge, which follow after him. “First cursory examination of the Egyptian monumental come the oxen, over which is the number eight hunsculptures is sufficient to show the egregious inaccu- dred and thirty-four; cows, two hundred and twenty; racy of the objection referred to. They prove, be- goats, three thousand two hundred and thirty-four; yond the possibility of doubt, that long before the days asses, seven hundred and sixty-five; and sheep, nine of Abraham, Egypt was a mighty monarchy, governed hundred and seventy-four. Behind follows a man, by rulers, who had extended their conquests widely carrying the young lambs in baskets slung upon a pole. over the neighbouring nations, and had surrounded The steward, leaning on his staff, and accompanied by themselves with all the usual pomp and splendour of his dog, stands on the left of the picture; and in an Eastern court; and that their cultivation of the arts another part of the tomb, the scribes are represented

and sciences, and even their amusements, had reached making out the statements presented to them by the a height which we have been accustomed to consider different persons employed on the estate.” In Gen, peculiar to modern times. In one of the tombs of | xlvii. 17, Joseph is represented as saying to the ruler

arts. ....

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of his house, “ Bring these men home, and slay, and Once more away! and a last farewell,
make ready; for these men shall dine with me at For she came no more in the ark to dwell;
noon." The author to whom we have already re- But she found a home in the silent wood,
ferred objects to the truth of this statement, as in Where the fadeless groves of the olive stood.
moet manifest opposition to the sacredness of beasts in

There wanders a spirit from many a brcast,
Egypt. “ The Egyptians," he says, “ partake, at

O'er the wide world's troubled sea, most, of consecrated flesh offerings; and the higher

That seeketh some bower of peaceful rest, castes, especially the priests, with whom Joseph was

Ard a sweet tranquillity : connected by marriage, abstained entirely from animal food.” Again: “ The hatred of this people to foreign

But it turns full oft from a fruitless flight,

Like the dove with a wearied wing, shepherds is founded on the inviolableness of animals,

Till it findech a bower of calm delight especially of neat cattle, goats, and sheep, which were

Where the flowers of Sharon spring. killed by the shepherds, but accounted sacred by the Egyptians." This assertion affords an evidence of the boundless credulity of a certain class of writers

AN EXPERIENCE. in regard to everything that seems to militate against

“ Take hecd lest your bands be made strong." the credit of the Sacred Scriptures. The affirmation

WHEN visiting an aged Christian a few years that the Egyptians abstained from all animal food is in direct opposition to the statements of every writer ago, his servant frequently referred to the of acknowledged authority. Herodotus, for example, miserable state of mind in which a man was mentions that cows only, not oxen, were sacred among

who frequently attended her master. I sougut the Egyptians, and that the priests received each day the poor man at the house of iny friend, but

so to arrange my time of visiting as to meet u large portion of flesh. On the monuments we have representations of kitchens, to which shambles appear fellow was so unwilling to converse with a

never could accomplish it, as I believe the poor to have been attached for slaughtering and jointing the meat. The servants are represented as slaughter stranger, that he altered his time of coming

so as to avoid me. He had, however, for some ing a great variety of animals, cutting the meat into joints, and carrying the joints as divided into the

weeks been failing in his health, and was at

I kitchen, and preparing them for the table, under the length unable to follow his cccupation.

found out his lodgings, and introduced myself superintendence of the head cook.*

to him, by saying that I had been told he was

ill, and unhappy. He received me with a very THE MESSENGER DOVE.

suspicious and forbidding countenance, and was (From the New York Observer.)

not at all disposed to enter into conversation. ** Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters

I asked him if he had a Bible; he said he had were abated from off the face of the ground."-Gen, vui. 8. not seen one, nor attended a place of worship The stormy wrath of heaven was o'er,

for nearly twelve years. I offered to lend him For its deathful work was done;

one, which he rather reluctantly consented to And the parting clond revealed once more receive. The next time I called, he received The smile of the welcome sun;

me with a more confident and open air; thanked While the ark that wandered through the strife, me for the loan of the Bible, and said it O'er the buried hills, with its freight of life, brought to mind many things he had once On the lofty mountain found a rest,

known. He gave me a brief history of himThat pierced the waves with its lonely crest. self, to the following effect: “I was once in

very different circumstances to those in which The snowy dore, whose flightless wing Had rested long unspread,

you now see me. I was born in Yorkshire,

and served my apprenticeship to a painter and Went gladly forth with a lithesome spring, And swift in her freedom sped;

glazier. During my apprenticeship I attended

the worship of God regularly, and I thought But afar she flew on a goalless track,

myself, and was thought by others, a decidedly And came with a weary pinion back;

pious young man. I was received as a memFor nought she could find but a shoreless sca

ber of the Methodist Society, attended all their Where her verdant haunts were wont to be.

meetings, and used to take my turn at the And the messenger dove went forth again prayer-meetings. I was very happy, and was Oa an eager plume at morn;

much respected. Soon after my apprenticeAnd returned at the evening hour-but then ship closed, I took a small business at a village With a leaf from the olive torn,

a few miles from Hull, and for some months all * In plate 83 of Rosellini's Civil Monuments, one of these

went on very comfortably. I had occasion to servants is represented as sharpening his knife upon a steel go to Hull one market-day to buy colours, &c., E2uspended from his waist, and wbich is exactly similar io the and after I had finished my business, I went Eleels employed at the present time. We believe there is into a public-house for some refreshment. an instruinent of this kind among the examples of cutlery There I met with a stranger who drew me into preserved in the Egyptian Room in the British Museum,

conversation. I drank my pint of ale, and was There is also a stand, on which are the remains of some of ite animals cooked for an Egyptian feast, in a wonderful disposed to go; but my companion prevailed state of preservation,

on me to stay a little longer, and take another



pint with him. This was the fatal step. I He made a violent effort to speak, but could had never been used to drink so much, and it not; by a sort of convulsive struggle he forced produced an unnatural elevation of spirits, both his hands over his head, and a little raised which disposed me to drink more. I became himself; gave a vacant look; his head suna intoxicated. I got home, however, and con- back; his bands slid down over his face gradutrived to conceal my fall from my minister and ally, and then fell on the bed; he drew a long the Church. This,” he said, “occasioned all the breath-it never returned--the silence of death mischief that followed. I lost my peace of pervaded the room: we who witnessed the mind; it made me miserable to meet my Chris- scene lost our respiration for a few moments, tian friends, and my conscience was distracted. All was over; the spirit had fled the day of If I had confessed my sin, and humbled myself grace was ended—the sad scene had closed in before God and his people, they would bave the darkness of death. pitied me, prayed for me, and watched over O my soul! never mayst thou forget the me. I could not do this: pride and shame in- awful impressions of that moment; never duced me to hide my iniquity. The next time mayst thou lose the deeply solemnized feelings I went to llull, I had resolved beforehand not with which thou didst contemplate a felloseven to venture into a public-house; but my creature in ruins. lle had made his bands resolution failed me; I drank again, and then strong, and he could not break them. drank too much, on purpose to drown reflection. Thus I went on, till at length I became a con

JOHN BUNYAN-THE CITY OF DESTRUCfirmed drunkard, and till, by my profligacy, I

TION-THE STRAIT GATE. lost my business and my little property. Chris. tian friends were obliged to turn their back upon me, and I soon became the companion of the drunkard. I wandered about from place

Aut or of The Modern Judea," de., dr. to place; for I was ashamed that my relations The two grand sources whence Bunyan drew the should know how wicked and how miserable I various and rich materials which compose his work, When I could get no one to employ me,

were the Bible and his own II EART. Both be I learned the trade of a barber, and have tra

had studied with an intensity which it is not easy velled through several counties, gaining, in that

for words to describe-the one, that he might koom way, a precarious subsistence. About four how he might be saved; and the other, that he might years ago I came to this place; here I found know whether he was saved : both, therefore, be great encouragement, and I resolved again in thoroughly knew. His acquaintance with himself this new place to change my habit, and be a

gave him that profound knowledge of human nature sober man.

This resolution, however, I soon which enabled him to paint with perfect truth and broke; and I seldom went sober to bed if I unequalled power all the varieties of human charsehad money to buy liquor, or could get credit. ter; and his familiarity with the Bible not only For some months my constitution has been furnished him with those great truths which are the giving way, and it will soon be all over.” staple of his work, though expressed symbolicalis,

It was in vain that I set before him promises but gave him also that singularly graphic style, that or threatenings-he appeared "twice dead," simplicity combined with power as a writer, in which My visits seemed so perfectly useless to him, he remains to this day, as he is likely to do for a long that they soon became painful to myself; and time to come, altogether unrivalled. Now let us as his medical attendant gave himn hopes of compare Bunyan with his “ Pilgrim," not for the recovery, he was very little disposed to see me. purpose of establishing an identity between the two, In this way for about three weeks I lost sight of which we believe has no existence, and to seek for him. It was then told me that he was worse, and which, therefore, would be absurd; but for the purthat his landlady scarce knew what to do with pose of showing that there is a striking resemblance him. I went iminediately. The landlady said, between the leading events which befell both, and " He is dying: will you walk up and see him. Ithat the life of the one is the best illustration of the said, “ Certainly." I entered his apartment; two pilgrimage of the other. nurses were standing by his bed. He seemed Than the opening scene in the “Pilgrim," nothing to have lost his sight, and to be sinking fast. could be more graphic. The curtain rises, and that The women told me they had been dreadfully moment our attention is arrested, never again to be frightened; that they never saw anything so let go, till Christian has passed in at the Celestial gate. terrible in their lives; that he thought death Right before us is the city of Destruction, overshawas on him; that he struggled so hard to get dowed by dismal mountains, and standing, with all out of bed that they were obliged to call men its giddy multitudes, on a soil beneath which rages up stairs to hold him; that he said he could not the fires of the Pit. In the foreground of the die-he would not die. “Now," they said," he picture, and forming the most prominent object in is too far gone." His countenance was set, but it, is a man in rugs. We see him standing in the in the very image of despair. I tried to arouse open plain, in the neighbourhood of the city, with a him, and fancied he was not so near death as great burden on his back, and an open book in his the nurses supposed. I said,“ Can you not cry, hand, on which he continues to gaze with a look of 'Lord save me, I perisia ??--Have you no hope?" most intense and stedfast earnestness.

He lifts up


57 his eyes, and oh! we never can forget that face; quality which enables the mere narration of the there is an air of anguish upon it that were enough dream to make so awful an impression on the mind : to draw pity from a heart of stone. He utters a most for to stand and hear the man tell it, is about as piercing cry: "What shall I do to be saved ?" He dreadful as if, in the darkness of the night, it had looks this way and that way. Why does he not flee ? visited our own pillow. “So he took Christian by Alas! he beholds nothing but destruction all around the hand again, and led him into a chamber, where him. While in this miserable plight he is joined by there was one rising out of bed; and as he put on his Evangelist, who directs him to the wicket gate with raiment, he shook and trembled. . . . . 'This night, the shining light over it. The gate he is unable to as I was asleep, I dreamed, and, behold, the heavens see, but, keeping the light in his eye, he sets out, grew exceeding black. Also it thundered and lightover a very wide field, in order to reach it. Now, ened in the most fearful wise, that it put me into an where, unless in the pages of the Bible, shall we find agony. So I looked up in my dream, and saw the a picture like this, so complete in all its parts, and clouds racked at an unusual rate; upon which I revealing at a single glance the whole inward and heard a great sound of a trumpet, and saw also a outward state of the man, drawn with so few touches ? man sit upon a cloud, attended with the thousands The picture explains itself; no one needs to be told of heaven. They were all in flaming fire, also the that the man before him is an awakened sinner. heavens were in a burning flame. I heard then a

Now let us turn to Bunyan. We adequately de- voice, saying, 'Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment;' scribe Bunyan's youth, when we say that he “lived and with that the rocks rent, the graves opened, and without God." The iniquities, in which he indulged the dead that were therein came forth. .... Then were not of a kind to brand him, in the opinion of I saw the man that sat upon the cloud open the the world, as a profligate, or to give him a very book, and bid the world draw near. . . . . I heard it marked distinction among his fellow-townsmen of also proclaimed to them that attended on the man the city of Destruction. Eschewing enormities, Bun- that sat on the cloud, 'Gather together the tares, the yan stood out from others by the fact that he threw chaff, and stubble, and cast them into the burning his whole heart into the enjoyment of the delights of lake;' and with that the bottomless pit opened just | the world. Among his godless companions his laugh where about I stood. ... It was also said to the was the loudest and the lightest. His mornings and same persons, 'Gather my wheat into the garner.' evenings were passed without prayer. No sanctuary And with that I saw many catched up and carried attracted his steps to its sacred threshold. The away into the clouds; but I was left behind. I also

Sabbath was spent in idleness, or in unhallowed sought to hide myself, but I could not; for the mar i sports. His throat was an open sepulchre, from that sat upon the cloud still kept his eye upon me."

which lies and cursings were often poured forth. If in his after days Bunyan slept in the chamber Thus God was not in all his thoughts-a course of called Peace, whose windows opened towards sun

life wbich escapes the censure, and even the notice rising, surely it may be said of him at this period of 11

almost, of the world, but which is seen to be full of his life, that he lay down, night by night, in the guilt and misery, when the fiery light of the Law chamber called Guilt, whose windows opened towards shines into the conscience.

the blackness of darkness. But though Bunyan, meanwhile, was a dweller His slumber was now disturbed, but not completely in the city of Destruction, God had thoughts of shaken off'; and if God had not employed other peace regarding him, and began by times to draw means, Bunyan would have dwelt to his dying-day in him to himself—to make the fiery light we have the city of Destruction. His marriage, at the age of spoken of fall upon his conscience. It has often nineteen, to a woman who had received a religious

been seen that there is a beautiful adaptation be- education, was the means of deepening the impres:, tween the mental constitution of the sinner and the sions he had been already brought under.

She agency employed by God in his conversion. This brought with her (it was all her dowry) two reliadaptation is very visible in the case of Bunyan. gious books; and from these Bunyan learned more God addressed his conscience first through his ima- certainly that the end of the place where he now gination. Scarcely had the days of his childhood dwelt would be with fire and brimstone from heaven. passed away, till there began to gather around his We now see the man in rags looking this way and nightly pillow the most terrific dreams. The quiet that way; and if he does not flee as yet, it is because of the day was succeeded by the doleful apprehen- he knows not whither to flee. God commonly sions of the night. Sometimes he thought that the honours his own ordinance—the preaching of the archangel's trump had sounded, that the dead were Gospel-for effectually awakening and converting the risen, and standing before God, himself among them, sinner. It was a sermon on the sin of Sabbath. to be judged. At other times he imagined himself breaking which appears to have brought Bunyan's to be in the eternal world, with fiends and lost spirits guilt and danger fully before him. This was his around him, and about to take up his abode in the darling sin; and the preacher became a Nathan to midst of everlasting burnings. The recollection of him, who said, “Thou art the man.” As he returned these terrors may be traced in other descriptions in from church, the “great burden on his back” was his “ Pilgrim's Progress," besides the scene of the that day heavy indeed. Having taken his mid-day man in rags, with which the book opens. The dream meal, the strong man resolved to shake himself as at which Bunyan puts into the mouth of the man in the other times, and go forth to his sports. He was interpreter's house is no doubt one of his own early already on the scene of his unhallowed pastime, ir. visions; and to this may be attributed that peculiar the midst of his companions: he had struck the ball.

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