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to espouse the cause of independence but he could not con-
scientiously do so, and in December, 1776, joined General
Howe and accompanied the British army. During the
British occupation of Philadelphia, at the request of
General Howe, he assumed the duties of Superintendent-
General of Police and Superintendent of the Port, being
assisted by his friend and neighbour, Samuel Shoemaker.

Because of his outspokenness and unhesitating action in
support of the King, his name has been loaded with oblo-
quy, which only in recent years has somewhat disappeared
as people have begun to realise that the Loyalists were en-
titled to their opinions as well as the Whigs and as much
privileged to act upon their convictions in what was, after
all, only a very violent political struggle between English-
men as those who differed from them, without being held
up to the execration of all future generations.

In speaking of the Philadelphia Loyalists of whom
there were many, Thomas Allen Glenn says:
* family traditions of loyalty to the Crown were not to be lightly
thrown aside. The position of the Loyalists of Philadelphia has
never, perhaps, been properly presented. They were, as a class,
the best people in the Province and the descendants of those
settlers who, by hard work and unceasing effort had brought
Philadelphia to be the chief city of Great Britain's American
Colonies. They were, most of them, people of wealth, education,
culture and refinement. Many, like the Rawles, were descended
from the best of those who, in Penn's time, had planted the
Province. Belonging to families that for generations, despite
persecution, at times, for religious belief, had continued unswerv-
ingly loyal to their King, they hesitated now to cut themselves loose
from an authority which they had so long and faithfully obeyed,

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and which, taken all in all, had treated them well. They had, indeed, waxed rich and prosperous under the rule of King George und his predecessors, and the great principles of liberty and selfgovernment were to such people but shadowy phantoms of a dream. Not a single instant did they believe that the Continental army would ultimately conquer, or that the Continental Congress would achieve aught save ruin to its members. The Loyalists, or “ Tories," as their enemies called them, had property at stake which in money value far exceeded that of those engaged in the struggle for independence, and they could not bring, as they thought, irretrievable ruin upon their families, their kindred and themselves. It was not, with some of them, that they were Friends, or Quakers, for many of that belief either entered the Continental Army or else, because of religious scruples, declined to take part on either side, but they felt that in turning their backs on Washington and the cause he represented they were doing loyal service to their King and country. Had the American Revolution failed, they would have been praised instead of scorned, applauded instead of hissed.

After the British evacuated Philadelphia, Galloway was attainted of high treason and his estates adjudged confiscate. Mrs. Galloway in order to protect her property remained at Ormiston until she was forcibly ejected by the commissioners in charge of confiscated estates. In this connexion the great Charles Wilson Peale does not appear in an amiable light. He was one of the commissioners and he it was who ran Mrs. Galloway out by the shoulders, forcing her from her home and into Benedict Arnold's coach—he was then a near neighbour and had not yet fallen into disgrace—which was waiting at the door to convey her away.

Ormiston along with all the neighbouring seats is now a part of the park property, and is used by the family of one of the park employees.



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ONSPICUOUS among the seats
that line the east bank of the Schuyl-
kill is Laurel Hill. Separated from
Ormiston by a deep-wooded combe
and standing on a high bluff over-
looking the river, it commands an

unexcelled view up and down the
banks of that stream, which for natural beauty has few
peers and for the social distinction of the dwellers
along its shores had not its equal in the Colonies. In
Colonial times and for long afterwards, until the
land was taken for park purposes, within the compass
of a few miles, beside its waters were to be found more
plantations belonging to folk of quality and substance
than in any like neighbourhood. Great distances sepa-
rated many of the Hudson manors, and on the James
a like state of comparative isolation was not uncommon.
The Schuylkill, on the contrary, combined virgin loveli-
ness of scenery with an unsurpassed opportunity for easy
and frequent intercourse with the most agreeable of
neighbours as well as convenient proximity to the city.

The house at Laurel Hill—the name, by the way, is derived from the luxuriant growth of laurel for which the bluffs along the river were once noted—though not as large as some others nearby, is a striking sample of Georgian architecture, two storeys in height with hipped roof. The walls are of brick painted yellow and all the woodwork is white. The main entrance, on the eastern

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or land front, is through a spacious classic doorway with flanking pilasters and a pediment above. A pediment likewise springs from the cornice in a line with the doorway pediment and this repetition of the motive imparts a dignified emphasis to the façade. A transverse wing with octagon ends at the northern side of the house is characteristic of a number of countryseats erected about the same period. This device relieves the angularity of the exterior and gives an opportunity to make an apartment of notable elegance within.

Entering the door, one steps at once into a long gallery extending across the front of the house. At one end is a small room containing a square staircase, while at the other is a door opening into the great drawing-room, a chamber of truly princely dimensions with octagon ends. A handsome fireplace adorns the side opposite the entrance and, over against it, balancing the door from the gallery is a door into the dining-room. The interior woodwork of Laurel Hill is admirably wrought and in good preservation.

Joseph Shute, who owned large tracts of land close by, built Laurel Hill about 1748. In 1760 Francis Rawle bought the estate for his summer residence and it was during the occupancy of the Rawle family that the place began to figure on the stage of history. Francis Rawle, born in Philadelphia in 1729, was an only child and inherited an ample fortune from his parents. As a young man he made the “Grand Tour” of Europe as a part of his education and, after travelling extensively, returned to his native city. He was a broadly educated, cultured gentleman of wide interests. In 1756, shortly

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