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the ruling sentiment in the chamber is clear sky to a distance of ten niles. shown by the election of M. Bourgeois, Through this black mass frequent and fearradical, as presiding officer instead of the ful lightning-like bolts shot horizontally, due former president, M. Deschanel, progres to terrific explosions of gases, demonstratsivist. France, except on the side of its ing how it was possible for the entire popufinances, which must be handled with ex lation of St. Pierre to be slain in a few mintreme care under a policy of retrenchment, utes by blasts of fire. This phenomenon is is in an exceptionally strong position, said to be entirely new in the experience of thanks to the astuteness of its retiring pre those who have studied volcanoes. Explormier and to the sturdy good judgment of ers discovered that a new crater has been President Loubet. While all sorts of opin- formed on Mont Pelee and that the carly ions are expressed as to the outlook for reports of the destruction of the volcano's the new ministry, there are good reasons top are untrue. Professor Hill and Profor believing that it will carry on with a fessor Heilprin, president of the Philadelfair measure of success the policy of Wal- phia Geographical society, agree that there deck-Rousseau. The Combes ministry has been no flow of lava from the mountain. starts off with the enemies of the republic Professor Heilprin says that the eruption of within its borders beaten to their knees and May 8 "was unique in that it resulted in the with its affairs abroad in good order. greatest destruction of life and property Doubtless its chief danger is that the very ever known by direct agency of a volcano."
strength of the republic's position may be In the opinion of the scientists the violent taken as a license for bitter wars among the eruptions of Mont Pelee and Soufriere, on factions that now support the ministry. the island of St. Vincent, are now over,
though they freely admit that it is unwise
to prophesy as to what a volcano will do. Those
A second violent eruption of The relief of the volcano sufferers on the West
Mont Pelee, in Martinique, on two islands was conducted with great exIndian May 20, greatly alarmed the pedition by United States government vesVolcanoes.
people in Fort de France and sels and by vessels sent by the governments elsewhere in the island, though it did no of France and Great Britain, as well as particular harm, since the region already by individuals and commercial organizahad been devastated upon which its showers tions. The panic in Martinique having subof aslies and stones descended. During sided to a considerable extent, it is probathis disturbance Professor Robert T. Hill, ble that the people will resume their ordingeologist of the United States government ary occupations soon, except in those secand head of the expedition sent to Martin tions where the rain of ashes has ruined the ique by the National Geographical society, homes and the growing crops. Doubtless was fortunate enough to witness from
many persons who have left the islands will Vorne Rouge, near the volcano, a tremen not return, but there is little likelihood that dous explosion from the crater, which was either of them will be depopulated. No disaccompanied by extraordinary phenomena. turbance of coast lines or of the whole mass Huge, mushroom shaped columns of cin- of either island has been discovered by ders were thrown up, spreading across the scientists.
ROM THE STEAMER "POTOMAC."
THE RELIEF EXPEDITION AND SCIENTISTS AT WORK AMONG TUE RUINS.
n the opinion of the scientists the violent ruptions of Mont Pelee and Soufriere, en he island of St. l'incent, are now over, hough they freely admit that it is unwise
prophesy as to what a volcano will do. The relief of the volcano sufferers on the vo islands was conducted with great eredition by United States government vesIs and by vessels sent by the governments
France and Great Britain, as well as
individuals and commercial organizas. The panic in Martinique having subled to a considerable extent, it is probathat the people will resume their ordin
occupations soon, except in those secmis where the rain of ashes has ruined the mes and the growing crops. Doubtless ny persons who have left the islands will return, but there is little likelihood that er of them will be depopulated. No disance of coast lines or of the whole mass either island has been discovered by
Prosperity, as is well known, the Isth- and Soufriere seem to have de Prosperity breeds labor strikes. The com
and mian stroyed the last chance of ac
mon saying that in prosperous Canal. ceptance by Congress of the
times the price of labor is the Nicaragua route for the interoceanic canal.
last to go up gives pithily one reason for When the matter came up for debate in the this tendency. The wage worker, prosenate last month Senator Hanna and vided he has steady employment, not infreothers presented with great force the ar quently discovers that he is more comfortguments against that route and in favor of
able in years of panic than in years of great Panama. Since the opinion is very general business activity, for his living expenses even among former advocates of the Vicar are low when times are bad. Of course tlie agua route, that if a good title to the Pan
statistician, who deals in averages, can show ama canal can be secured by the payment that the enormous volume of wages paid of $40,000,000 to the French company during prosperous times rains blessings on which controls it the purchase should be the workingman as compared with the lean made and the canal completed in the short pay-rolls of other periods; but
wages, est possible time, it is reasonable to think
after all, are earned merely that they may that Congress will approve of that plan. be spent. If rents are high, if beefsteak The vote on the question was taken in the is dear, if butter and bacon and four are senate June 19. The adoption of the to be obtained only at unusual cost, tlie Spooner amendment, which gives to the workingman who has experienced no corpresident authority to examine into the responding increase in wages very comquestion of title and choose the Nicaragua monly casts statistics to the winds and route only in case of failure to end success agrees with his comrades that they must fully the Panama negotiations, seems a wise share in the general prosperity to which solution of the matter. Senator Hanna and they contribute their toil or they will strike. others advocate that plan. Senator Morgan They know that crowds of unemployed men of Alabama, for the unswerving 110 longer swarm about the door of the shop champion of the Nicaragua route, Senator seeking work at any price, as they do in Mitchell of Oregon, a member of the inter times when factories are shutting down; oceanic canal committee of which Senator therefore it will not be
easy to fill the Morgan is chairman, and some others, can
strikers' places. Furthermore, it is notonot be convinced that the volcanoes of
rious that the firm is swamped with orders Nicaragua, some of which overshadow the
and can ill afford to have the plant lie proposed canal route, are a real menace to idle even for a day. So their demand is the great undertaking which they favor. made for more wages; if an increase is Leading scientists, however, assert that to
refused they strike. But suppose the firm build a canal across Nicaragua, in view of
has been straining every nerve to pay off that country's volcanic record, would be the indebtedness incurred to keep the plant height of folly. The isthmus of Panama running during panic years when, rather has no volcanoes to throw out cubic miles
than turn the men into the streets and lock of ashes and scori on short notice. The
the doors, the proprietors continued to manargument that earthquakes are a source of
ufacture goods that had to be sold at a loss? great danger at the isthmus is answered in
What if there is some equally good reason part by the fact that the steel 1-ridges, ma why wages should not go up at this time? sonry culverts and embankments of the
Surely such relations should exist between Panama railroad have stood for half a a firm and its workmen that the situation in century with little or no injury from earth all its bearings could be talked over amicaquakes. Furthermore, the Nicaragua bly by representatives of the two interests in canal's length of 183 miles, when contrasted
any controversy about wages. If an agreewith the 49 miles of the Panama canal, ment between them is impossible, an appeal would give far more opportunity for injury to honest and wise advisers acceptable to by seismic convulsions than does its rival. both very likely would lead to an adjustSenator Hanna's array of testimony from
ment of the differences. That arbitration ship ins and other mariners in favor of and conciliation are growing rapidly in the Panama route, as presented to the sen
favor, not only among labor unions that ate, was sufficiently convincing to change enjoy the benefits of intelligent leadership the views of some of the senators who pre but among enlightened employers also, is viously had favored the Nicaragua route. a hopeful sign.
but among enlightened employers also is
Prosperity, as is well known, Prosperity breeds labor strikes. The comStriks.
mon saying that in prosperous
times the price of labor is the to go up gives pithily one reason for
tendency. The wage worker, proid he has steady employment, not infreantly discovers that he is more comfortche in years of paric than in years of great siness activity, for his living expenses are low when times are bad. Of course the tatistician, who deals in averages, can show that the enormous volume of wages paic Curing prosperous times rains blessings on the workingman as compared with the lear Pav-rolls of other periods; but wages after all, are earned merely that they mar Sve spent. If rents are high, if beefsteai is dear, if butter and bacon and flour art to be obtained only at unusual cost, the workinginan who has experienced no corresponding increase in wages very commonly casts statistics to the winds and agrees with his comrades that they must share in the general prosperity to which they contribute their toil cr they will strike
. They know that crowds of unemploved men no longer swarm about the door of the shop seeking work at any price, as they do in times when factories are shutting down, therefore it will not be easy to fill the strikers' places. rious that the firm is swamped with orders and can ill afford to have the plant lie
tense relief of the community, which for
A splendid success
of arbitration to which could be referred Teamsters' Strike in
achieved during the first week in all differences between members of the Chicago. June for the policy of concilia Teamsters' union and their employers. Of
tion by the settlement of two ficials of the union and representatives of dangerous strikes in Chicago. Teamsters many large industries entered earnestly upemployed by the large packers to deliver on the work of perfecting the plan and carmeats to local markets struck for an in rying it into effect. With such an auspicrease in wages and other substantial bene cious beginning there is strong reason to fits. Efforts on the part of the packers to hope that the movement will become quite supply the city with meat by sending out general among employers of labor and that their wagons in long caravans furnished arbitration boards will come to be regarded with a strong police guard led to terrible soon as a necessity by the various indusstreet riots, extending for miles through the tries. There is, of course, nothing experiheart of the city and resulting in the kill- mental about such boards, since some of ing of a few persons and the serious injury of many. In the meantime members of the arbitration committee of the National Civic Federation and Mr. Frederick W. Job, chairman of the Illinois Board of Arbitration, used their best endeavors to secure a peaceful settlement of the bloody war.
Mr. Job, by patient endeavor, first succeeded in bringing together representatives of the department store managers of the city and of the drivers of their delivery wagons, who had struck in a body because two of their number had been discharged for refusing to haul meats from the packing houses during the teamsters' strike.
This an agreement between drivers and employers, arrived at by mutual concessions, and the drivers returned to work. Mr. Job then turned his attention to the greater strike of the stockyards teamsters. After a long day of rioting and bloodshed in the principal streets or the city, a night of negotiation, made possible by the tact and address of the chairman of the arbitration board, who had brought together representatives of the packers and of the Teamsters' union, resulted in a larmonious settlement of the strike.
the more progressive labor unions and the seen the streets
employers of their members long ago inaugurated the policy of arbitration and demonstrated its worth. While the nation and the states are powerless to compel the settlement of strikes by arbitration or otherwise, the force of public opinion as applied to acute labor difficulties is growing greater continually; so that, joined with the prompt
ings of self-interest the part of Out of this successful appli- employer and workmen, public opinion has
much weight the side of mutual
leading the concessions
peaceful among employers of teamsters
settlement of differences. Not many years ago the average employer deemed it a sign
meeting led to
Furthermore, it is noto
famine and which had
idle even for a day. So their demand is made for more wages; if an increase s refused they strike. But suppose the fir has been straining every nerve to pay of indebtedness incurred to keep the plar! running during panic years when, rathe than turn the men into the streets and la! the doors, the proprietors continued to mar ufacture goods that had to be sold at a
lost What if there is some equally good reason why wages should not go up at this time Surely such relations should exist betivame a firm and its workmen that the situation ** all its bearings could be talked over anricably by representatives of the two interests i any controversy about wages. If an agree: ment between them is impossible
, an appea! to honest and wise advisers acceptable 1 both very likely would lead to an adjust ment of the differences. That arbitration and conciliation are growing rapidly in favor, not only among labor unions that enjoy the benefits of intelligent leadership a hopeful sign.
been given of the superiority of reason over
violence on the other.
Board of cation of reason to a desperate
of inefficiency on his part to make a settle their power to strengthen their lines and ment with his striking workmen; now he prevent the employment in their places of is beginning to feel that it is a sign of in non-union men. On June 2 the extreme efficiency not to do so. Labor unionists measure was resorted to of calling out the are usually in favor of arbitration, which firemen, pumpmen and others whose imseems to show on their part a desire to be portant duty it was to keep the water fair to the extent of resting their cause on pumped out of the mines. It is asserted its merits. However, those of them who that from 60 to 80 per cent of these men have studied the statistics of strikes are obeyed the summons and went on strike. aware that by far the greater number fail, The places of some of them were filled by so that they are more likely to secure bene non-union men, mine superintendents and fits by arbitration than by fighting.
others, but many of the pumps remained
idle, to the enormous damage of mine propThe refusal of officials of the erty. As the weeks went by there was inProgress
coal roads in the anthracite re creased bitterness against the mine owners of the Coal Strike
gion of Pennsylvania to discuss, and the men who refused to strike. In
with a view to its settlement, the some of the mining communities large numstrike of the mine workers, continued to bers of effigies were to be seen hanging block efforts by public officials, commercial from trees and telegraph poles, bearing bodies, conciliation boards and private in- placards expressive of the anger felt against dividuals to pave the way for a settlement those who did not join in the struggle for of the great labor controversy. The 147,- higher wages. Some violence occurred and 000 miners who obeyed the command to there were threats on the part of the austrike issued the middle of May by the thorities of calling out the militia to keep United Mine Workers of America order. President Mitchell and other leadmained idle week after week, doing all in ers of the strikers threw their influence