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ple; it protests against the academic
its merely political expression; it says
must live the life of those you would
what will take millions of men de
gs that takes time; at least for hicas
silent, undemonstrative preparation for
everywhere, it seizes upon a reasoning
BAGDAD RAILWAY, THE PROJECTED. consolidating the provinces of Turkey in – The Sultan of Turkey recently issued an Europe and Asia by means of railroads, Trade, approving the plan for the construc and a beginning was made.
Lines were tion of a railway between Konieh and the built connecting Constantinople with AnPersian Gulf. When completed, this line gora, and from Smyrna to a number of will connect the Bosporus and the Indian points. Several ancient cities not far from Ocean thus opening a great highway of the coast, Jerusalem, Damascus, and travel and traffic between Europe and Asia. Adana—now have railway communication It must be looked upon as a long step to prominent seaports such as Jaffa and forward in the modernizing of the Orient.
Beyrout. Here the iron horse has sucWestern ideas follow Western capital, and a ceeded the camel, although caravans still foothold is gained that must be regarded as traverse their accustomed routes in the inan advance to civilization. This enterprise, terior as of old. In 1899 there were all which is largely in German hands, is an told 1,713 miles of railway in Asiatic Turother example of European expansion in
key. The three principal lines were the Asia
, and it means that a mighty influence, Anatolian (634 miles), the Aidin (320 political and commercial, will be brought miles), and the
miles), and the Smyrna-Cassaba (321 to bear on the dominions of Islam. The miles). power of European nations is steadily in The concession for the Bagdad line has creasing in the East, making for the de been granted to the Anatolian Railway velopment and progress of regions that Company. The term of the concession is have hitherto been in many places half- 99 years.
Work has already been begun
on the first section of the route, and it is So far there have been only a few short expected that the whole line will be ready railroads in Asiatic Turkey. In 1872 the for traffic within eight years. The concesTurkish government saw the advantage of sionaires undertake to strengthen the line
a sentiment which desires the well-bein
wise, the foolish, the weak, the strong,
are journeying toward
THE CITY OF BAGDAD,
connecting Constantinople and Konieh, so terminus of the Anatolian Railway, traverse that it may bear the strain of rapid trains. the elevated tablelands of Caramania, and It will bring into closer touch the cities that through the Taurus Range will descend are the centers of commercial importance into the fertile plains of Southern Cilicia in the interior of Asia Minor-Adana (hav and reach Adana, which is already coning about 45,000 inhabitants), Mosul (61, nected by rail with Mersina. Technical 000), Bagdad (about 150,000), also Orfa works of exceptional difficulty will have and Diarbekir, having from 30,000 to 40, to be carried out, especially in the chain of 000.
the Taurus. From Adana, the line turns According to the conditions of the con to the northeast, ascends the Djihan Valley, cession granted to the Anatolian Company, and through the mountainous region of the it is authorized to establish tile and brick Ghiaour Dajh, which it crosses by the kilns along the line and it may work any Baghtché Gorge, proceeds across a very mines on either side of the railway within
clifficult country south-southeast, passing twenty kilometers (about
(about 122 miles). by Kazanali, Kilis, and Tell Habesch. A The concessionaires are exempt from taxes branch, 60 kilometers in length, will conand from customs and stamp duties. They nect the last-mentioned place with Aleppo. are to pay an annual subsidy of 600 Turkish "The main line runs east from Tell pounds (nearly $2,700) to the Shishli Poor
Habesch, crosses the Euphrates at a point house. The government guarantees 12,000 20 kilometers to the south of Biredjik, francs of net receipts per kilometer and passing by the interesting ruins of the anper annum, plus 4,500 francs per kilometer cient town of Europus, by Harran, Ras el for working expenses. In case the kilomet- Ain, and Nissibin, and, turning to the ric receipts exceed 4,500 francs, but not southeast, arrives at Mosul, thus bringing 10,000 francs, the surplus over 4,500 francs ancient Nineveh within easy reach of the will belong to the State; any surplus over capital. The ancient Edessa (the present 10,000 francs will be distributed between
Orfa) will be connected by a branch of the government and the concessionaires in, about 30 kilometers with some point to the proportion of 60 and 40 per cent." be determined hereafter.
The Bagdad Railway, including “On leaving Mosul, the railway proceeds branches, has a length of 2,500 kilometers due south along the right bank of the (about 1,560 miles). The new line will
Tigris, through Tekrit and Gadije--whence connect with the existing railway system
a branch runs to Hannekin, on the Turkoof Asia Minor and will pass through the Persian frontier-and reaches Bagdad. most distant provinces of Turkey in Asia. Here it crosses the Tigris and by Kerbella, "It will start from Konieh, the southern Nedjef (Meshed Ali)--the holy cities of
the Shiite Mohammedans, which are annu the permanent historic fame that will
seum, and founded the biennial Barrows
German investors have 1895, and, leaving their children in the controlling interest in the Anatolian Com- family of his brother in Rockford, he and pany, and it is confidently believed that Germany will profit most by the enterprise. However, it is said that 40 per cent of the investors are Russian, and Russia will undoubtedly bend every effort to shape its policy to her own advantage.
of the Anatolian Railwar, travers
exceptional difficulty will have
, which it crosses by the é Gorge, proceeds across a very country south-southeast
, and Tell Habesch
main line runs cast from le
The ancient Edessa (the present
BARROWS, John Henry, the president of Oberlin College, died June 3, 1902, after nine days' illness, with pleuro-pneumonia.
Dr. Barrows, the well known educator, was born in Medina, Michigan, July 11, 1847. He was the son of John M. and Catherine Barrows, received his early education in the public schools, and was graduated at Olivet College in his native state at the age of twenty. He studied theology first at Yale, then at Union and afterwards at Göttingen, Germany, finishing his seminary course in this department at Andover, in 1874-75. He was ordained a Congregational minister April 29, 1875, and at once entered upon his first pastorate at Lawfence, Mass., where he worked faithfully for five years. He then occupied a pulpit at East Boston for a year before coming to the First Presbyterian Church in Chicago, where he ably filled the position of pastor for fourteen years.
his wife made a prolonged visit to Europe L'pon solicitation by Hon. C. C. Bonney, and the far East. Here Dr. Barrows de the president of all the Congresses at the livered a series of discourses to the stuWorld's Columbian Exposition in 1893, dents of Indian universities on the historiDr. Barrows organized, and became the cal evidences of Christianity, the work chairman of the World's Parliament of being supported by funds provided for the Religions, as it was popularly called, though Haskell Lectureship, under the auspices of its official title was "Congress of Religion." the University of Chicago. The combined enthusiasm and judiciousness On November 29, 1898, he accepted the with which Dr. Barrows executed this diffi- presidency of Oberlin College (Ohio), ascult task caused his name to be honored suming the duties of that position January wherever the Parliament of Religions made 4. 1899. Lake Forest l'niversity conferred it known. It is to this famous Congress upon him the degree of D. D. in 1892. of Religion also that Dr. Barrows will owe He was the author of "Seven Lectures
JOIX IEVRY BARROWS.
ith along the right bank of
frontier-and reaches Bagdel
on the Credibility of the Gospel Histories" formally recognized and actively assisted by
dence and arrange a programme for the
and actively assist the C'nited States
Departments 2 our Genera Dira --- charge of a Carmina
to suggest the means of further progress; The Departınent of Religion embraced
The Advisory Council of this Congress forces of mankind may be made dominant embraced nearly three thousand names of throughout the world."
eminent religious leaders. It soon became The object of the Religious Congresses evident that the embarrassment of this Conwas thus set forth:
gress would be, not a lack of material, but "To unite all Religion against all irre a superabundance. Several times the place ligion; to make the Golden Rule the basis and limits of the Parliament were changed of this union; to present to the world in to make room for the addresses offered, and the Religious Congresses to be held in con finally it was arranged that the Parliament nection with the Columbian Exposition of would open on September uth and close 1893, the substantial unity of many reli- September 27th, 1893. It did so open and gions in the good deeds of the Religious close, and its marvelous story is told in the Life; to provide for a World's Parliament
two-volume history of the great event preof Religions
, in which their common aims pared by Dr. Barrows; and in inany minor and common grounds of union may be set
historical works. The highest expectations forth, and the marvelous Religious Prog- of the success of the Parliament had been ress of the Nineteenth Century be reviewed; more than realized.
As Chairman of the and to facilitate separate and independent Committee of Organization of the DepartCongresses of different Religious Denomi- ment of Religion, Dr. Barrows became exnations and Organizations, under their own
officio Chairman of the Religious Parliaofficers, in which their business may be
ment and had charge of its programme, and transacted
, their achievements presented in conjunction with the General President and their work for the future considered."
of the Congresses conducted the proceedThe Department of Religion was the cul- ings. mination of the World's Congress scheme.
The plan of a Union Congress of the The Committee of Organization comprised
World's Religions on the basis of the sixteen representatives of different religious Golden Rule had been formed and anbodies, including a Jewish Rabbi and a
nounced. Dr. Barrows carried that plan into Dr. Barrows was effect and made it a great success.
The made Chairman of this Committee. Appre- value of his services in so doing cannot well ciating very fully the magnitude and im
be'overrated, portance of the work proposed, he was re
The marvelous success of the Religious luctant to take the position, but finally did Congresses has largely overshadowed many $0, and entered upon its duties. The inas
others of the series which were eminently terly ability with which he discharged them
successful and deserving of world-ivide has made him known throughout the reli
recognition gious world and has given him a perma
It is enough for the present purpose to nent place in the history of mankind.
say that in the Religious Congresses of 1893 What Dr. Barrows did was to take the
at Chicago, the Golden Rule won the greatplan of the Religious Congresses and pre
est victory in its history; and that for his pare a circular letter explaining the plan part in winning this victory Dr. Barrow: has and inviting the coöperation of religious been awarded a high place among those by leaders throughout the world. He obtained
whose faithful labors the progress of manthe hearty coöperation of all the members
kind is wrought. of his Committee, and thereby secured the
CHARLES CARROLL BOXXEY, LL. D.. success of the Religious Parliament.
Guil Pres. of thi Il'orld's Fuir Congresses, 1893.