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ple; it protests against the academic
ards of education for persons whose
are to be industrial; it protests against
justices that pertain between domestis
their employers in the matters of in-
te duties, unlimited hours and the
ering of family ties.
e book would extend Democracy be

its merely political expression; it says

must live the life of those you would
2, for action is indeed the sole medium
spression for ethics." A careful reading
is book emphasizes the thought tha: 0%
idual can put into words within sing

what will take millions of men de
es to carry out. It is the doing of gre

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gs that takes time; at least for hicas
gs. Men have spent six thousand years
Tving to rebuild the social part of to
id, but the work is not yet completa
ky maintains, in his “Rationalism in E3
2," that no great and radical soca
nge ever takes place except by a grai

silent, undemonstrative preparation for
7 the public mind. That preparations
ng made now for the new conception si
The Idea is abroad. It is a reasonable
a, and being reasonable, here and there

everywhere, it seizes upon a reasoning
d and compels it into adherence an
n into action. It is in the schools; i
es in legislative halls; it demonstrates it.
E to men of business enterprise ; ii 29
Is through morals, it applies in its bekal
sanctions of religion; and it will becor.
versal to regard Democracy "not mer:

BAGDAD RAILWAY, THE PROJECTED. consolidating the provinces of Turkey in – The Sultan of Turkey recently issued an Europe and Asia by means of railroads, Trade, approving the plan for the construc and a beginning was made.

Lines were tion of a railway between Konieh and the built connecting Constantinople with AnPersian Gulf. When completed, this line gora, and from Smyrna to a number of will connect the Bosporus and the Indian points. Several ancient cities not far from Ocean thus opening a great highway of the coast, Jerusalem, Damascus, and travel and traffic between Europe and Asia. Adana—now have railway communication It must be looked upon as a long step to prominent seaports such as Jaffa and forward in the modernizing of the Orient.

Beyrout. Here the iron horse has sucWestern ideas follow Western capital, and a ceeded the camel, although caravans still foothold is gained that must be regarded as traverse their accustomed routes in the inan advance to civilization. This enterprise, terior as of old. In 1899 there were all which is largely in German hands, is an told 1,713 miles of railway in Asiatic Turother example of European expansion in

key. The three principal lines were the Asia

, and it means that a mighty influence, Anatolian (634 miles), the Aidin (320 political and commercial, will be brought miles), and the

miles), and the Smyrna-Cassaba (321 to bear on the dominions of Islam. The miles). power of European nations is steadily in The concession for the Bagdad line has creasing in the East, making for the de been granted to the Anatolian Railway velopment and progress of regions that Company. The term of the concession is have hitherto been in many places half- 99 years.

Work has already been begun

on the first section of the route, and it is So far there have been only a few short expected that the whole line will be ready railroads in Asiatic Turkey. In 1872 the for traffic within eight years. The concesTurkish government saw the advantage of sionaires undertake to strengthen the line



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a sentiment which desires the well-bein
all men, nor yet as a creed which beliers
the essential dignity and equality is
n, but as that which affords a rued
ng as well as a test of faith.
Democracy and Social Ethics" is the
spel of The Open Road: "To know the
verse itself as a road, as many roads, 2
ds for traveling souls.In this vast pro
sion of souls along the Open Road all are
rem-the old, the young, the good, the bad

wise, the foolish, the weak, the strong,
sad, the gay-all are pressing forward is
· belief that they

are journeying toward
mething greater and something bette
in they have ever known. We shall fo'
w after the great companions, and when
ver we meet on the Road shall be of
ghbor. This is the pith of the messa
Democracy and Social Ethics.



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connecting Constantinople and Konieh, so terminus of the Anatolian Railway, traverse that it may bear the strain of rapid trains. the elevated tablelands of Caramania, and It will bring into closer touch the cities that through the Taurus Range will descend are the centers of commercial importance into the fertile plains of Southern Cilicia in the interior of Asia Minor-Adana (hav and reach Adana, which is already coning about 45,000 inhabitants), Mosul (61, nected by rail with Mersina. Technical 000), Bagdad (about 150,000), also Orfa works of exceptional difficulty will have and Diarbekir, having from 30,000 to 40, to be carried out, especially in the chain of 000.

the Taurus. From Adana, the line turns According to the conditions of the con to the northeast, ascends the Djihan Valley, cession granted to the Anatolian Company, and through the mountainous region of the it is authorized to establish tile and brick Ghiaour Dajh, which it crosses by the kilns along the line and it may work any Baghtché Gorge, proceeds across a very mines on either side of the railway within

clifficult country south-southeast, passing twenty kilometers (about

(about 122 miles). by Kazanali, Kilis, and Tell Habesch. A The concessionaires are exempt from taxes branch, 60 kilometers in length, will conand from customs and stamp duties. They nect the last-mentioned place with Aleppo. are to pay an annual subsidy of 600 Turkish "The main line runs east from Tell pounds (nearly $2,700) to the Shishli Poor

Habesch, crosses the Euphrates at a point house. The government guarantees 12,000 20 kilometers to the south of Biredjik, francs of net receipts per kilometer and passing by the interesting ruins of the anper annum, plus 4,500 francs per kilometer cient town of Europus, by Harran, Ras el for working expenses. In case the kilomet- Ain, and Nissibin, and, turning to the ric receipts exceed 4,500 francs, but not southeast, arrives at Mosul, thus bringing 10,000 francs, the surplus over 4,500 francs ancient Nineveh within easy reach of the will belong to the State; any surplus over capital. The ancient Edessa (the present 10,000 francs will be distributed between

Orfa) will be connected by a branch of the government and the concessionaires in, about 30 kilometers with some point to the proportion of 60 and 40 per cent." be determined hereafter.

The Bagdad Railway, including “On leaving Mosul, the railway proceeds branches, has a length of 2,500 kilometers due south along the right bank of the (about 1,560 miles). The new line will

Tigris, through Tekrit and Gadije--whence connect with the existing railway system

a branch runs to Hannekin, on the Turkoof Asia Minor and will pass through the Persian frontier-and reaches Bagdad. most distant provinces of Turkey in Asia. Here it crosses the Tigris and by Kerbella, "It will start from Konieh, the southern Nedjef (Meshed Ali)--the holy cities of


the Shiite Mohammedans, which are annu the permanent historic fame that will
ally visited by an immense number of Per doubtless accrue to him.
sian pilgrims--and Zubeir, arrives at its Soon after this Dr. Barrows did further
terminus, Basra, the great emporium on great service to the study of comparative
the Shat el Arab, while a branch from religion by securing to the University of
Zubeir will be run to some point on the Chicago the gift of Mrs. Caroline Haskell,
Persian Gulf which has not yet been de which built the noble Haskell Oriental Mu-

seum, and founded the biennial Barrows
This railway will transform the face of Lectureship for India, and the annual Has-
the East, and the old lands that have re kell Lectureship for Chicago University.
mained practically the same for centuries Dr. Barrows was the first incumbent of the
will awake to new life and be subject to Indian Lectureship, and the permanent one
strange impulses. How far it will prove of the lectureship in the University.
to be a factor in political affairs, remains He accordingly resigned his pastorate in
to be seen.

German investors have 1895, and, leaving their children in the controlling interest in the Anatolian Com- family of his brother in Rockford, he and pany, and it is confidently believed that Germany will profit most by the enterprise. However, it is said that 40 per cent of the investors are Russian, and Russia will undoubtedly bend every effort to shape its policy to her own advantage.



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of the Anatolian Railwar, travers
ated tablelands of Caramania, and
the Taurus Range will desen
fertile plains of Southern C
ch Adana, which is already on
I rail with Versina. Technical

exceptional difficulty will have
ried out, especially in the chain of
rus. From Adana, the line turis
vrtheast, ascends the Djilan Valle
ugh the mountainous region of the

, which it crosses by the é Gorge, proceeds across a very country south-southeast

, pasta
anali, Kilis

, and Tell Habesch
60 kilometers in length, wil om
: last-mentioned place with 1.kopy

main line runs cast from le
1, crusses the Euphrates at a prima
neters to the south of Bireus
by the interesting ruins of the 2
uni of Europus, by Harran, Ras c
d Nissibin, and, turning to the
it, arrives at Vosul, thus bringin
Nineveh within east reach of 1

The ancient Edessa (the present
will be connected by a branch
10 kilometers with some point
mined hereafter.
earing Mosul, the railwar procent

BARROWS, John Henry, the president of Oberlin College, died June 3, 1902, after nine days' illness, with pleuro-pneumonia.

Dr. Barrows, the well known educator, was born in Medina, Michigan, July 11, 1847. He was the son of John M. and Catherine Barrows, received his early education in the public schools, and was graduated at Olivet College in his native state at the age of twenty. He studied theology first at Yale, then at Union and afterwards at Göttingen, Germany, finishing his seminary course in this department at Andover, in 1874-75. He was ordained a Congregational minister April 29, 1875, and at once entered upon his first pastorate at Lawfence, Mass., where he worked faithfully for five years. He then occupied a pulpit at East Boston for a year before coming to the First Presbyterian Church in Chicago, where he ably filled the position of pastor for fourteen years.

his wife made a prolonged visit to Europe L'pon solicitation by Hon. C. C. Bonney, and the far East. Here Dr. Barrows de the president of all the Congresses at the livered a series of discourses to the stuWorld's Columbian Exposition in 1893, dents of Indian universities on the historiDr. Barrows organized, and became the cal evidences of Christianity, the work chairman of the World's Parliament of being supported by funds provided for the Religions, as it was popularly called, though Haskell Lectureship, under the auspices of its official title was "Congress of Religion." the University of Chicago. The combined enthusiasm and judiciousness On November 29, 1898, he accepted the with which Dr. Barrows executed this diffi- presidency of Oberlin College (Ohio), ascult task caused his name to be honored suming the duties of that position January wherever the Parliament of Religions made 4. 1899. Lake Forest l'niversity conferred it known. It is to this famous Congress upon him the degree of D. D. in 1892. of Religion also that Dr. Barrows will owe He was the author of "Seven Lectures



ith along the right bank of
through Tekrit and Gadie--when
1 runs to Hannekin, on the Turki

frontier-and reaches Bagdel
crosses the Tigris and by Kerkella.
(leshed 11i)-the holy cities of

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on the Credibility of the Gospel Histories" formally recognized and actively assisted by
(1891), "llenry Ward Beecher, the Shakes the Government of the United States. The
peare of the Pulpit" (1893), "I Believe in Auxiliary had twenty Departments and two
Goul, the Father Almighty" (1893), “The hundred and twenty-four General Divisions,
Parliament of Religions," 2 vols. (1894), cach of which was in charge of a Committee
"Christianity, the World Religion" (1898), of Organization.
"A World l'ilgrimage" (1898), besides These Committees were appointed and
many valuable articles and papers. Dr. their Chairman named by the President of
Barrows was a brilliant writer and speaker, the Auxiliary, thus securing unity and effi-
in carnest and enthusiastic advocate of the ciency in the prosecution of the work.
doctrines set forth by the Light of the Each Committee received from the Presi-
World. Ilis was a beautiful spirit of love dent of the Auxiliary an outline of the Con-
and charity, he was an enthusiastic mis gress committed to its charge and pro-
sionary of ihe cross, and an inspiring leader ceeded to conduct the necessary correspon-

dence and arrange a programme for the
Dr. BARROWS AND THE RELigious Car- Congress. The Committees of Organization

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and actively assist the C'nited States

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to suggest the means of further progress; The Departınent of Religion embraced
to bring all the departments of human prog- forty-six General Divisions, of which the
ress into harmonious relations with each Religious Parliament was the chief and
other in the Exposition of 1893, to crown
the whole glorious work by the formation Dr. Barrows conducted a very extensive
and adoption of better and more compre- correspondence with the religious leaders
hensive plans than have hitherto been made; in all countries, cordially inviting their co-
to promote the progress, prosperity, unity, öperation in the great undertaking. The
peace, and happiness of the world, and to se responses were with few exceptions remark-
cure the effectual prosecution of such plans ably sympathetic and encouraging. The
by the organization of a series of world success of the Religious Parliament was
wide fraternities, through whose efforts soon assured.
and influence the moral and intellectual

The Advisory Council of this Congress forces of mankind may be made dominant embraced nearly three thousand names of throughout the world."

eminent religious leaders. It soon became The object of the Religious Congresses evident that the embarrassment of this Conwas thus set forth:

gress would be, not a lack of material, but "To unite all Religion against all irre a superabundance. Several times the place ligion; to make the Golden Rule the basis and limits of the Parliament were changed of this union; to present to the world in to make room for the addresses offered, and the Religious Congresses to be held in con finally it was arranged that the Parliament nection with the Columbian Exposition of would open on September uth and close 1893, the substantial unity of many reli- September 27th, 1893. It did so open and gions in the good deeds of the Religious close, and its marvelous story is told in the Life; to provide for a World's Parliament

two-volume history of the great event preof Religions

, in which their common aims pared by Dr. Barrows; and in inany minor and common grounds of union may be set

historical works. The highest expectations forth, and the marvelous Religious Prog- of the success of the Parliament had been ress of the Nineteenth Century be reviewed; more than realized.

As Chairman of the and to facilitate separate and independent Committee of Organization of the DepartCongresses of different Religious Denomi- ment of Religion, Dr. Barrows became exnations and Organizations, under their own

officio Chairman of the Religious Parliaofficers, in which their business may be

ment and had charge of its programme, and transacted

, their achievements presented in conjunction with the General President and their work for the future considered."

of the Congresses conducted the proceedThe Department of Religion was the cul- ings. mination of the World's Congress scheme.

The plan of a Union Congress of the The Committee of Organization comprised

World's Religions on the basis of the sixteen representatives of different religious Golden Rule had been formed and anbodies, including a Jewish Rabbi and a

nounced. Dr. Barrows carried that plan into Dr. Barrows was effect and made it a great success.

The made Chairman of this Committee. Appre- value of his services in so doing cannot well ciating very fully the magnitude and im

be'overrated, portance of the work proposed, he was re

The marvelous success of the Religious luctant to take the position, but finally did Congresses has largely overshadowed many $0, and entered upon its duties. The inas

others of the series which were eminently terly ability with which he discharged them

successful and deserving of world-ivide has made him known throughout the reli

recognition gious world and has given him a perma

It is enough for the present purpose to nent place in the history of mankind.

say that in the Religious Congresses of 1893 What Dr. Barrows did was to take the

at Chicago, the Golden Rule won the greatplan of the Religious Congresses and pre

est victory in its history; and that for his pare a circular letter explaining the plan part in winning this victory Dr. Barrow: has and inviting the coöperation of religious been awarded a high place among those by leaders throughout the world. He obtained

whose faithful labors the progress of manthe hearty coöperation of all the members

kind is wrought. of his Committee, and thereby secured the

CHARLES CARROLL BOXXEY, LL. D.. success of the Religious Parliament.

Guil Pres. of thi Il'orld's Fuir Congresses, 1893.

Catholic Archbishop

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