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first instance, in each of the new Colonies Orange River Colonies for goods requisi-
a Governor and an Executive Council, con tioned from them by the late Republican
sisting of a certain number of official mem Governments, or, subsequent to annexation,
bers, to whom a nominated unofficial ele- by Commandants in the field being in a posi-
ment will be added. But it is the desire of tion to enforce such requisitions. But such
His Majesty's Government, as soon as cir claims will have to be established to the sat-
cumstances permit, to introduce a repre isfaction of a Judge or Judicial Commission
sentative element and ultimately to concede appointed by the Government to investigate
to the new colonies the privilege of self and assess them, and if exceeding in the ag-
government. Moreover, on the cessation of gregate £1,000,000, they will be liable to
hostilities a High Court will be established reduction pro rata.
in each of the new colonies to administer the "I beg to inform your Honor that the new
law of the land, and this Court will be in Government will take into immediate con-
dependent of the Executive." It is note sideration the possibility of assisting by
worthy that in the treaty just signed no loan the occupants of farms who will take
mention is made of Crown Colony Gov the oath of allegiance to repair any injury
ernment. Just what "civil government" sustained by destruction of buildings or loss
means is left in the vague. Probably the of stock during the war, and that no special
Transvaal and the Orange River Colony tax will be imposed on farmers to defray
will for a time occupy an intermediate posi- the expense of the war."
tion between a crown colony and self Tennyson, in his poem on “England
governing colony like Canada

America, 1782,'

praises the American The eighth clause, respecting the Kaffir colonials "who wrenched their rights" from vote, is shorter than the original provision: the mother country. The burghers have in “As regards the extension of the franchise like manner "wrenched” these concessions to Kaffirs in the Transvaal and Orange from the British by their prolonged and desRiver Colony, it is not the intention of His perate resistance. They have won for themMajesty's Government to give such iran selves pretty nearly all they asked for exchise before representative government is cept independence absolute or in some modgranted to these Colonies, and if then given ified form. With respect to Cape rebels the it will be so limited as to secure the just pre case is different, as Mr. A. J. Balfour exdominance of the white races, The legal plained in a speech in the House of Composition of colored persons will, however, mons on June 2. The dispatch from Lord be similar to that which they hold in Cape Kitchener dealing with this matter is as folColony."

lows: The ninth clause is wanting in the Mid ""His Majesty's Government must place delburg document. Its insertion in the peace on record that the treatment of the Cape pact means much to the Boers,

and Natal colonists who have been in reThe tenth clause, relating to financial pro- bellion, and who now surrender, will, if they visions, is very different from the colices return to their colonies, be determined by sion previously made, which allowed a grant the colonial courts and in accordance with of only £1,000,000 to the burghers, while the laws of the colonies, and any British now they can draw on British funds to an subjects who have joined the enemy will indefinite amount. The aid afforded is be liable to trial under the law of that part more ample, and there are no humiliating of the British Empire to which they belong. expressions used, such as “an act of grace. ""His Majesty's Government are in The assurance that "His Majesty's Govern formed by the Cape Government that their ment will be prepared to make advances on views regarding the terms to be granted to loan” is quite different from considering British subjects in Cape Colony, now in the "the possibility of assisting by loan," etc. field, or who have been surrendered or been The two paragraphs of the Middelburg con captured since April 12, 1901, are as folference are as follows:

lows: With regard to the rank and file they
"As regards the debts of the late Repub should all, after surrender and giv
lican Governments, His Majesty's Govern their arms, sign a document before
ment cannot undertake any liability. Il is, dent magistrate of the district in

however, prepared, as an act of grace, to set surrender, acknowledging the
aside a suim not exceeding £1,000,000 to re- of high treason, and the
pay inhabitants of the Transvaal and accorded them, provided





tion of such court, with the provis, 'que ip nain thing the root of the content: un

h sovereignty in South Africa was with threw down the gauntlet of war and

1. "Never again,” has been the watch

end of the British Ministers. They were "These arrangements, conc

..! Zit would not have to be some over,

carmined to do the work so thoroughly.

The Boers hoped for intervention or for ability, be the same as is now powel to be illusori. Except the t'nited The language used in Varch. T. vates and Hoi

sher quarter of the world. These hopen
follows: "British subjects ginger to sa

The meeting piars

"Some malen Vereeniging.
of murder or acts contrary to the 22

12 desire to have the war over before of civilized warfare, shall be that the 25

. Er nation, that he "compelled his Minnot entitled, for life, to be registered as

offer concessions to the Bier voters, or vote in any parliamentar

eurs could certainly afford to be ver-
provincial council or municipal election.

--he gold mines
**With reference to justices of the site Instead of exacting payment from

are inder mit
field cornets and all others who hold orica
positions under the government of zone: cease fighting. They are glad :)

arghers, they are actually paying the
Colony, or who have been occupying a save the strife ended and to begin a sew
tion of authority, or who have hel! - seconstruction.
mands in the rebel or burgher forces. a act and patience, or will they recei

Will the vin
shall be tried for high treason beine anders of the past in dealing with
ordinary courts of the country, OT 4**.

race? The future is full of puss
cial courts as may hereafter be cons***
their punishment to be left to the
no case shall the penalty of death,

Bo the British fought for and won. The
"The Vatal Government are of op
ion that rebels should be dealt wit
ing to the law of the country.
Balfour"have come

The condition of Cape rebels, as we
in the Middelburg terms would a

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not easy. In this case, it is rendered doubly difficult because of past failures. Old wounds are slow to heal under a treatment that is unnecessarily harsh. In the past the British have at times shown a lack of consideration for the Boers as men. Much depends upon the mood of the conquerors. An over-bearing manner, a needless show of authority, and the use of force at the wrong time—these are the things that may make South Africa another Ireland. With Milner removed from the scene, an obstacle to success would be removed. With another High Commissioner a more satisfactory modus vivendi could be hoped for. Chamberlain has been a thorn in the flesh, and his influence may yet be fatal to harmony. A Liberal Ministry would doubtless get along better with the burghers. The attempt to humble them may be carried too far. With another Colonial Secretary the

prospects of reconstruction would be much
against the unlimited resources of the Brit- brighter.
ish Empire.

Much depends, too, upon the officials
Both sides longed for peace, and peace chosen to administer affairs in the colonies.
has come.
That it will last a generation or

Will the British have the good sense t) semore is probable. It is a question, however, lect some of the Boer leaders to fill responsiwhether British hopes of a permanent peace

ble positions in the Government? Such a are well founded. While the British fancy policy would make a favorable impression themselves secure in the possession of the upon the burghers at the outset and would two republics, there are others who are not tend to promote loyalty and hearty coso optimistic. Boer domination in South operation in building up a common country . Africa may yet be a fact, notwithstanding In the articles on the Boer War (pp. 24, the British determination never to let it 566, 964, 1236) details were given of the happen again.

chief battles and other events of the strugWith the increase of the Africander pop- gle. A short chronological outline is apulation, the Boer element may in time be pended. come the stronger, and the burghers may vet win the day by peaceful means, by cun

1899. ning, by outvoting the men of British de Oct. 10—Kruger's ultimatum to the scent.

British, which expired Oct. II at 5 p. m. Another contingency may be looked for. Oct. 12–Natal invaded by the Boers. There will be wars in Africa between Euro Oct. 15--Siege of Kimberley began; pean powers, and England will inevitably be lasted 124 days; garrison nearly famished. drawn into a conflict that will tax her full Nov. 2-Ladysmith invested; siege lasted strength. The Boers will be quick to see 117 days; several Boer assaults repulsed. their opportunity, and Britain's foe can Nov. 23-Battle of Belmont. safely count upon them as effective allies. Nov. 25-Battle of Gras Pan (Enslin)

It remains to be seen how much liberty Nov. 28~Battle of Modder River.
and justice and equal opportunity the out Dec. 11- Battle of Magersfontein.
landers will enjoy under British rule. It Dec. 15–Battle of Colenso (Tugela).
may be doubted whether they will be better Dec. 18 --Roberts appointed to take com-
off under the capitalistic regime that Rhodes

mand of 250,000 men.
and other financiers have planned. National
improvements, such as the Cape to Cairo

railway, will come, and yet the future of Jan, 23—Spion Kop captured.
South Africa is problematical.

Jan. 24-Spion Kop abandoned.
Success in governing a subject people is Feb. 5-Buller's second crossing of the


s rendered doubly -st failures. OM

under a treatment h. In the past the own a lack of com

as men. Much de

T, a needless shoes se of force at the he things that may her Ireland. Wir

e scene, an obstari
emoved. With a
ner a more sats
ould be hope &
a thorn in the last

yet be fatal: has
inistry would ut
ath the burghers
m mar be cama's
Colonial Secretari
uction would be the

Kitchener at Middelburg

00, upon the other
affairs in the cake
2 the good
leaders to fill resur

lowing program was observed :
Address on the “Report of the Committee

Tugela ; his third attempt to relieve Lady on State Supervision and Administration of
smith fails.

Charities and Correction," by Jeffery R.
Feb. 15–Kimberley relieved by French. Brackett, Ph. D., President of the Depart-

Feb. 21-26—Buller's third crossing of the ment of Charities and Correction of Balti-

more, Chairman.
of the conquerors Feb. 27–Cronje surrenders at Paarde Address on “State Supervision of Private

Charities," by Hastings H. Hart, formerly Feb. 28–Ladysmith relieved.

Secretary of the State Board of Correction March 17—Bloemfontein captured. and Charities of Minnesota, Secretary of the

March 31–British defeat at Sannah Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society. Post (Koorn Spruit).

The subjects discussed on

on Thursday
May 18–Siege of Mafeking raised. afternoon were as follows:
May 28–Orange Free State annexed. “What part should relief play in the
June 5– Pretoria surrenders.

treatment of families whose distress is Oct. 19~Kruger sails for Europe. due mainly to the husband's fault or deOct. 25–Transvaal annexed.

fect?" Nov. 12–Kitchener takes command.

The leading paper was presented by S. C. Dec. 11—Roberts departs for England.

Loewenstein of the Federation of Jewish Dec. 13-Battle of Nooitgedacht.

Charities, Cincinnati, and was followed by

a general discussion. 1901.

"Punishments—what place have they in Feb. 28-Conference of Botha and the reform school, and what are the effects

in general?" March 7—Terms of peace offered; re

The Hon. T. F. Chapin, Superintendent jected by Botha March 16.

of the Lyman School for Boys at Westboro, May 20–Battle at Vlakfontein.

Mass., opened the principal discussion on June 2–Cape Colony invaded by the this topic. He said:

“I suppose that all workers have come Aug. 6-Kitchener's banishment procla

to realize that a reformatory is not a place

of punishment, although the general public Sept. 17—Battle near Urecht.

has this idea, but a place, as its name deSept. 26-Forts Itala and Prospect at

clares, for reform."

Referring to methods of discipline, he Oct. &-Martial law in Cape Colony.


“All things considered, I think a ju1902.

dicious use of the rod preferable to a good March 7—Methuen captured by De la many things at present used as substitutes. Rey near Turebosch.

I object to knocking boys about, pulling March 23—Peace negotiations begun.

their hair and other similar modes of punMay 31--Treaty signed.

ishment sometimes employed."

Thursday evening embraced two articles: CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS, THE An address on “The Relation of Social TWENTY-FIFTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF,

Settlements to Organized Charity, How was held at Detroit, Michigan, beginning Should the Two Coöperate? What should May 28 and ending June 3, 1902. Nearly

Each Learn from the Other?” by Robert a thousand delegates were present, making Hunter, Head Worker of the University It the largest conference of this society ever Settlement of New York City. held

. Welcoming addresses were delivered. On Friday morning. May 30. Jose Maria The Hon. Timothy Nicholson of Rich Berriz of Havana spoke on “Cuban Charimond, Indiana, the President of the Con- ties, with Especial Reference to Children.” ference, delivered the annual address.

The Hon. James Allison, Superintendent of In it he dealt with the work of the past,

the Cincinnati House of Refuge, chairman the present conditions confronting the or

of the Committee on Juvenile Delinquents, ganization, and drew a bright picture of the

made his annual report.

In referring to

reformatory work he made many recomAt the Thursday morning session the fol

mendations for the comfort and cleanliness of the inmates, emphasizing especially the

Boers under Kruitzinger.


Government? Such i
a favorable imprese
at the outset and woul
pyalty and hearty c
g up a common count

the Boer War (pa
tails were given a
her events of the
nological outlines

tacked by Botha.

or's ultimatum :
ired Oct. 11 at
nvaded by the Basis

of Kimberler by
arrison nearly fan
ith invested; siege by
Boer assaults repul
of Belmont
of Gras Pan (Ecs
of Vodder River
of Magersfontein

of Colenso (TA is appointed to tak men.


Кор captured.
kop abandoned
s second crossing te

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In speaking especially of the boys, he charged or paroled from the schools many said:

of the pupils possessed a useful trade, and "The boy is to be fed, and in the matter were provided with occupation and good of what he eats, where, and how, enters one

homes. of the most effective elements of his disci Play as a Reformatory Agent was displine. If there is any particular variety or cussed by Hon. T. F. Chapin in the aiterregimen of food, taken in a form known no011, and the subject of Juvenile Courts, and recognized as 'prison fare,' that pecu- by Judge Lindsay of Denver, Colorado. liarity should not be furnished him. He “Municipal Lodging Houses” were conshould be furnished with plenty of whole sidered at an informal meeting by Raymond some food, extravagances, of course, being Robins, Superintendent of the Municipal eliminated. Within reasonable limits the Lodging House in Chicago. He said: food should be varied, as the season and “There are 2,700 tramps in Chicago, who the market will permit. It should not be have organized and districted the city for limited to bread, meat, potatoes and mush, the purposes of begging. They make their with a dash of molasses, while all these headquarters at the barrel houses, where items may have their appropriate place." they sell the proceeds of the day's begging

With regard to play, he claimed that it is for a third or less of the real value, and a reasonable as it is a useful form of occu then they spend the money in dissipation. pation. It should be provided for with "The aim of the municipal lodging house such regulation as may be needed to keep it is to assist in the correction of this evil. within proper restraint, care being taken to Cards have been sent to every home in the apply restraint when needed. The forms of city, requesting the residents to refuse aid play should be athletic, and suitable for the to beggars, and to send them instead to the masses to join.

lodging house." On the subject of punishment he said: On Saturday morning, May 31, Robert

"Should corporeal punishment be adinin W. De Forest of New York City presented, istered ? In rare and extreme cases, and as as chairman, the Report of the Committee a last resort, yes. It is possibly the only on “Neighborhood and Civic Improveform of punishment which will reach some ments." Mrs. Sarah M. Perkins, Superof the boys sent to a reformatory. If it will intendent of Infirmary Work for the W. C. reach the case, and lay the foundation of T. U. of Cleveland, discussed the question habits of obedience, with what may follow, of cleanliness. She said: it would be, a crime to waste the boy by "Cleanliness is one of the most important omitting the punishment. The rod should things to be taught to the people who inbe administered only in rare and apparently habit the tenement districts. There was a extreme cases, after the fullest investigation particularly dirty boy in one of our slums. of the offense, without passion or haste, We persuaded him to wash his face. The amid such conditions as will preclude any experiment was such a revelation to the exhibition of assumed bravery on the part whole neighborhood that immediately the of the culprit, and under such others as may entire vicinity took on a different appeargive it the character of a solemn judicial ance." event.”

On Saturday evening A. W. Wilmarth, He gave the following interesting statis superintendent of the Wisconsin Home for tics :

Feeble Minded, gave the annual report of "In the United States there are 88 re the committee on "The Feeble Minded and form schools in operation; and, quoting Epileptics." from the report of the United States com Following this report was a paper on missioner of education, 80 of these schools “The Imbecile and Epileptic versus the show the number of inmates to be 23,901. Taxpayer and Community," prepared by There are employed 538 instructors, with Dr. Martin W. Barr of Elwyn, Pa. In the 1,569 assistants and caretakers. The value absence of Dr. Barr, the paper was read by of the grounds and buildings, $17,504,444; E. R. Johnstone, of Vineland, N. J. Dr. expenditure on buildings for the year 1900, Barr argued in substance that the defective $576,344 ; salaries and other expenditures, classes named should be perpetually seg. $3,254,690. The number of children com regated, and that the imbeciles of higher mitted during the year, 12,750, and the grade should not be kept with those of number discharged, 13,158. When dis- lower grade, except as caretakers.

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