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When the first session of the and river and harbor work already under Adjourn. Fifty-Seventh Congress came to

construction, estimates that the recent sesCongress. an end July 1 its members very sion authorized the expenditure of $750,063,

generally congratulated them- 837. Taking into consideration the extreme selves on the vast amount of work which solicitude of Mr. Cannon during the closing it had performed. The bare statistics of weeks of congress to keep down expenses, that work are sufficiently formidable. In it is fair to conclude that the figures quoted the house of representatives 15,572 bills are quite as low as an abie partisan conand joint resolutions were introduced, and scientiously can make them. Not only in apin the senate 6,450. A total of 1,503 bills propriations for river and harbor improvewere sent to the president, of which 596 ments and for the erection of a surprising originated in the house and 547 in the sen array of public buildings, but in very many ate. One thousand of the senate measures

other sorts of expenditures, including furwere passed by that body; the house passed ther pension legislation, was shown the 1.386 of its own bills. It is disquieting to liberal spirit in which congress disposes of think that so much lawmaking is deemed

the public funds. Doubtless the people necessary by the men who go to Washing- themselves are responsible for this policy of ton to attend to the legislative affairs of the magnificent spending: The average citizen, nation. Indeed, there is comfort in the be

careful as he is with his own possessions, lief that the congressmen have done many takes a sort of pride in seeing the public things that were not necessary; for surely money scattered with a free hand. they have left many important things undone. Money was appropriated lavishly.

That is one of the evils of the

MisforIncluding the expenditure involved in the

treasury surplus. When

the construction of the isthmian canal, it may be

Too Much government has

money said that this was a billion-dollar session,

Wealth. than it needs a spendthrift conthe total of its appropriations establishing a gress and a complacent public are useful in new record. The great canal, however, is getting rid of the embarrassing overplus. such an exceptional work in all respects that They obviate the necessity of reducing the fairness seems to require the elimination of revenue by cutting down taxation. If such the sums to be spent for it from the list of usefulness is to be applauded the present is expenses authorized before judgment is a particularly favorable time to indulge in passed upon the congressmen. Mr. Cannon, gratulations over the large activities of chairman of the house committee of appro

Mr. Cannon's hard working committee. At priations, by leaving out the isthmian canal the close of the fiscal year, on June 30, the appropriation and the large sums required available cash balance in the national treasto carry out contracts on public buildings ury was $208,630,022. The excess of re(Copyright 1902, by the CURRENT ENCYCLOPEDIA COMPANY.)

tune of

more

1

1604

portant reform. Congress and the presi-
dent, while guarding sedulously against
the forming of an issue for the democrats
out of charges of official misconduct in the
Philippines, seem to have made a political
blunder in failing to guard against the great
issue forming nearer home.

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No Re-
lief for
Cuba,

congress ad

Congress made other mistakes at its recent session. Chief of them was the lamenta

ble breakdown in the plan to give relief to Cuba by tariff reductions on its tobacco and sugar.

When journed the senate had taken no action of any sort on the reciprocity bill, the attitude of the eighteen republican senators who opposed tariff reductions of any sort for the young republic being regarded as a sufficient excuse to let the matter go over. It

was announced in Washington at the time JOSEPH G. CANNON. Chairman of the House Committee of Appropriations.

of the adjournment that the president would

call no special session to consider the reciceipts over expenditures for the preceding procity bill but would wait until next wintwelve months was $92,193,390. Such an ter to secure for Cuba trade concessions by enormous surplus invites legislative extrav- legislation or treaty. This is a very tame agance and a general disregard for business ending of the heroics in which the friends exactness in the conduct of the government's of reciprocity indulged at the height of affairs. Though congress, by abolishing their enthusiasm. Without regard to the the last of the special internal revenue taxes actions of the so called republican insurwhich were brought into existence to pay gents, the senate's course gave a painful disthe expenses of the war with Spain, has play of ineptitude on the part of those mem. cut off annual receipts amounting to about bers who ostensibly were in sympathy witli $73,000,000, it would be a mistake to sup the president's efforts to aid Cuba. That pose that this action will be followed by a the real needs of the beet sugar industry had corresponding decrease in the excess of re anything particular to do with the outcome ceipts over expenditures as compared with seems doubtful. It may be questioned that of last year. The customs receipts are whether the eastern sugar trust did not likely to increase sufficiently to swell the surplus still further. That congress failed

make telling use of its own unpopularity to to extend the free list so as to withdraw pro- pains to impress upon the public that it

prevent action by the senate, going to some tection from certain industries that are controlled by oppressive trusts which fix arbi- sugar. The disquieting discovery, due to

greatly desired low rates on Cuban raw trarily prices to consumers of their products is one of the grievous mistakes of the recent iprocity bill, that its differential on refined

the action of the house in amending the recsession. President Roosevelt, who earnestly advocates curbing the power of trusts that

sugar was likely to be taken from it when

the tariff was lowered on the Cuban raw have a harmful effect on the affairs of the product seems to have made the cane sugar people, has given .no intimation in his speeches or public messages that he sympa

trust eager to defeat the measure which up thizes with the view that tariff protection

to that time it had favored. Reports of a

business alliance between the beet sugar and ers. In view of President McKinley's his truth by the disgraceful fiasco at Wash

cane sugar refiners were given the color of toric speech at Buffalo it is very remarka- ington. Kneaded into the complicated mass ble that his successor in the presidential office and the legislators of the party of Mc

of intrigue was the effort of certain senaKinley should have ignored this very im- Roosevelt by subjecting him to the ignominy

tors to injure the influence of President

of a conspicuous failure. The defeat of leg- portant industries," but this is an excepislation which he had so much at heart and tional view of the situation. Minnesota rewhich he advocated in a special message to publicans seem to have been rather put to it congress as late as June 13 was expected when they prepared their platform, the senby the president's republican enemies in the ators and some of the congressmen of that senate to break his spirit and lower his pres- state having opposed the reciprocity bill. So tige

they declared in favor of "reciprocity with

Cuba urged by President Roosevelt by a Attitude But the president is likely to plan which shall insure the profitable interof the have his revenge. With char- change of commodities, insure to the advanPresi

acteristic buoyancy and persist- tage of both nations, help the Cuban people dent.

ence he has continued to plead needing assistance, but the chief benefits of the cause of Cuba and to demand that jus- which shall not enrich trusts, monopolies or tice be done to its business interests. The foreign speculators, or which shall not intermethods of this young chief executive af rupt our home production.” This is truly a ford a curious study and are watched by heroic attempt to make everybody happy. friends and opponents with increasing inter The president himself has lost no time in est. His stubbornness is of a different sort proclaiming his future policy toward Cuba. from that of President Cleveland ; whether In his Fourth of July address at Pittsburg, it is to prove more or less effective than the after giving reasons why Cuba “must in the latter remains to be seen. If the democratic larger sense be a part of the political system president had failed to Bludgeon the sena in international affairs of which this repubtors of his party into carrying out his wishes in a case of this sort very likely he would have called a special session and driven through a reciprocity bill with ponderous blows. But President Roosevelt is not that kind of a fighter. Besides, he has come into power by a cruel chance and not by the deliberate act of his party; therefore he does not possess the baton of party leadership under conditions that warrant extreme measures in carrying out his policies. Such resiliency as he has shown under defeat, however, must be disquieting PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S HOME AT OYSTER BAY, NEW YORK. to those who have tried to

Where the President and his family are spending the summer, shatter him. Republican state conventions, held in the midst of the hubbub lic stands as the head," he continued: “She at Washington, very generally have ap

has assented to that view and in return this proved the plan to give relief to Cuba and nation is bound to give her special economic in conspicuous instances have declared for privileges not given to other nations. I rethe reëlection of the president in 1904, thus gret that a measure of reciprocity with Cuba materially strengthening his hold on party

is not already embodied in statute or in affairs. True, the republican convention in treaty, but it will be just as sure as fate.” Michigan, a center of the beet sugar indus Doubtless the president will win in the end, try and the home of Senator Burrows, one but the delay is a bitter injustice to Cuba of the principal "insurgents,” congratulated and a humiliation to the president which the the president and congress on having ful- public ought to resent. Incidentally, it filled "to the letter" the nation's pledges to

should be remembered that the democratic Cuba and commended the state's represen senators probably would have voted for the tatives in Washington for their “zealous house bill if they had been given an opporand able work in behalf of Michigan's im- tunity to do so.

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