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only to consider the depth of distress into which the sugar industry in the neighboring island of Jamaica, a British colony, has descended and the complete failure of the British ministry to hit upon an adequate method of relief, in order to realize the futility of expecting aid from that quarter. The other great nations of Europe are busy with the woes of their domestic sugar growers, A project for securing a large loan and advancing the money to the sugar planters has been considered by the Cuban government, but such action certainly should not be taken except as a last resort. Cuba's hope must rest with Washington, where the disregard by congress of the promises made to the Cubans by President McKinley which secured their acceptance of the Platt amendment must be a source of shame to Americans.


JULIUS C. BURROWS. United States Senator from Michigan,



After each had passed its own Rule in bill for the establishment of civil

the Phil- government in the Philippines, Cuba's

ippines. Meanwhile Cuba is doing the

the house and senate commitPresent best it can. Reports of dis tees in conference constructed out of the Condi tress among the sugar planters two compromise measure which was tion.

are numerous and there seems to adopted and promptly signed by the presibe no doubt that under present conditions dent. In somewhat indefinite terms which sugar growing can be carried on only at a seem to give large discretion to the presiheavy loss.

On many plantations, it is said, dent, the law authorizes the establishment of preparations for the next season's crop have a Philippine assembly two years after a cenbeen suspended through lack of money and sus of the islands shall have been completed, credit, while on the others the working provided peace shall have prevailed during forces have been cut down as low as possible. that period. The Philippine commission of The result is that large numbers of persons five Americans and three Filipinos, the are out of employment. Disorder and suf- members of which are appointed by the presfering must result from this condition. ident, is to form the upper house of the asGeneral stagnation of business, because of sembly; the lower house will be composed the growing poverty of the people, gives the of members elected by the votes of the civilmerchants great anxiety. To the best of its

To the best of its ized and Christian natives. No conclusion ability the Cuban government is struggling was arrived at regarding the monetary with the problems growing out of the public standard of the islands, the senate and house distress. A decline in imports, causing a conferees having disagreed on that point, serious falling off in customs receipts and holding out for the silver and the gold stanreducing still further the republic's inade- dard respectively. Consequently the presquate revenues, is expected because of the ent unsatisfactory conditions are continued. lack of profitable industries. The effort to Currency of fluctuating value composed encourage cattle raising as a desirable sub- mainly of Mexican silver dollars has proved stitute for the growing of sugar and tobacco a serious drawback to the commercial is being carried forward by the Cuban sec

welfare of the Philippines. The purretary of agriculture. It is not likely, how chase of the friars' lands is authorized and ever, that any real relief for the island will

the sale of the public domain in small tracts be supplied until the United States gov is provided for. In the effort to prevent the ernment supplies it. A visionary plan for forming of vast estates by corporations or traile reciprocity with Great Britain has individuals, the natives in a measure are debeen conceived by some sugar planters and nied the benefit that would come from the urged upon the government. But one has investment of capital on a large scale for the

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development of the islands' resources. Civ- the Philippines now enjoy a greater measure
ilization and progress presumably must take of peace and good order than they ever did
the same forms in the Philippines that they before since the Spaniards first look posses-
do in other parts of the tropics. However, sion of the archipelago is probably justified.
the safeguards thrown around the islanders
are an earnest of the good intentions of con-
gress, which has shown its abhorrence of
any attempt at exploitation by capitalists to
the injury of the Filipinos. The president
is understood to approve highly of the law,
believing the terms on which the natives are
to obtain their legislature and representa-
tion at Washington to be better than those
contained in the house bill.



of the


The Philippine civil governfor Polit- ment bill was signed July 1. ical Pris- On the same day civil rule was

substituted for martial law in Laguna province, island of Luzon, “thus completing,” in the words of Acting Governor Wright, “the establishment of civil government over all civilized people of the archipelago.” On July 4 the president by proclamation abolished the office of military governor of the Philippines. By the same

MAJOR GENERAL ADNA R. CHAFFEE. proclamation General Chaffee was in

Commander of the military forces in the Philippines, whose structed to continue to hold the military

recall is announced for September 30. He will be

succeeded by Maj. Gen. George W. Davis. forces in the islands subject to the call of the civil authorities for the maintenance of or


The proclamations of peace der. Another proclamation of the same

and amnesty give point to a gendate declared a general amnesty applying to

eral order issued to the Ameripolitical prisoners held for offenses growing


can army on the same day by out of the revolt in the Philippines. In or the secretary of war in the name of the der to avail themselves of this pardon it was president. In it the warmest possible praise necessary merely for such prisoners to take is bestowed on the officers and enlisted men the cath of allegiance to the United States. for their work in Cuba and the Philippines. In view of the complete suppression of In Cuba, the secretary says, after four years armed resistance to American authority, ex

of service the American soldiers "have left cept in the Moro country, it was clear that a record of ordered justice and liberty, of the political prisoners in Manila, Guam and rapid improvement in material and moral elsewhere, including Aguinaldo, would has- conditions and progress in the art of ten to accept their liberty. Whether or not government which reflects great credit the Filipinos appreciate the sentiment at upon the peopie of the United States." taching to this act of an American president In regard to the service performed by the on the anniversary of the signing of the Dec army in the Philippines the secretary says, laration of Independence may be a matter after dwelling upon the extraordinary diffifor doubt; at least there can be no doubt culties attending that service: "Its splenas to the satisfaction felt by Americans over did, virile energy has been accompanied by the pardon thus extended. It enables them self control, patience and magnanimity. to realize more clearly than they have real With surprisingly few individual excepized before the marvelous celerity with tions, its course has been characterized by which the army and the civil representatives humanity and kindness to the prisoner and of the American government have brought the non-combatant.” This

, then, about the pacification of the Philippines. dict of the president and the secretary of Considering the enormous difficulties of the war on the conduct of the army in the light task. a wonderful change has been wrought of the criticisms showered upon it by oppowithin a very brief period. The claim that

(Continued on page 1610.)

the ver


A SCENE IN MODERN EGYPT-OUTSIDE AN EUROPEAN HOTEL IN CAIRO. The East and West touch one another in Cairo: the Cairo donkey stands next to the Western hall porter. The life of

an Egyptian town is less romantic than it used to be, but it is much more safe.



The Mohammedans in India alone number 57,000,000, and this festival is a great occasion.



THE PRESENT STATE OF THE GREAT NILE DAM. SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST. The purpose of this dam is to regulate the annual flow of the Nile river (see vol. 1, page 248). It is a mile in length, and has taken four years to construct. The navigation channel with four locks is at the

further end. The dam is now being used for the first time.

[graphic][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]


nents of the administration's Philippine pol


Testimony given by Admiral icy from Senator Hoar downward. The Dewey's Dewey before the Philippines senate investigation, the courts martial, the Testi committee of the senate floods of fervid oratory, have failed to con


June 26, 27 and 28, dwelt on vince the commander in chief of the Amer the relations existing between the admiral ican army that it has not shown itself as and Aguinaldo immediately after the battle humane as it is brave. Not only in its of Cavite. The witness said that the Filtwo thousand combats, large and small, but ipino leader and the other refugees from in all its other trying tasks, the president Hongkong and Singapore were forced upon declares, it has acquitted itself well. “The him by the insistence of United States Conpresident,” says Secretary Root, "feels that sul General Pratt, stationed at the latter he expresses the sentiments of all the loyal city. He did not care for any assistance people of the United States in doing honor which they could give him. Aguinaldo he to the whole army, which has joined in the regarded as a mere collector of ioot and not

at all as a liberator of his people. It did not enter his head, he asserted, that the restless young native was working for Filipino independence. The admiral had furnished arms to Aguinaldo in order that he and his associates might drive back the Spaniards into Manila and thus prepare the way for the city's capture. Aguinaldo furnished him herds of cattle for the ships and it is reasonable to suppose that the command by that ingenious native of a considerable area from which provisions might be drawn was desirable to the Americans who had to obtain a large part of their supplies from the friendly people. The admiral denied with positiveness that he had ever regarded Aguinaldo as an ally. Immediately after the naval battle the governor of Manila had displayed white flags on the walls and had offered to surrender the city. This offer could not be accepted because troops were iacking to hold Manila. At the suggestion of Senator Dietrich the admiral agreed that if he had actually placed confidence in Aguinaldo and his followers the surrender of the city would have been ac

cepted and the Filipinos would have been Governor of the Philippines, now in Rome representing the

given the task of guarding it. Continuing government in the negotiations with the Pope to remove the Friars from the islands

his testimony, the admiral said that when a

sufficient number of American troops had performance and shares in the credit of arrived arrangements were completed with these honorable services.”

the Spanish governor for a spectacular atCongress having adjourned, the public is tack upon the city, it having been agreed denied the privilege of hearing the views that the surrender should come after a litof Mr. Carmack or Mr. Patterson on the tle firing by the Americans, the Spaniards floor of the senate in regard to this declara- making no reply. This arrangement was tion. The administration in thus proclaim- carried out. In regard to Dewey's famous ing that the army was not cruel to the assertion that he believed the Filipinos more Filipinos and that its achievements in the capable of self government than the Cubans Philippines are glorious and almost with- he gave the explanation that while he still out a stain, faces with boldness the issue held to that opinion he did not think that which democratic senators have been at either the Cubans or the Filipinos were capgreat pains to build up for use in the im- able of self government. It is well to have pending political canvass.

had these matters illuminated by the ad



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