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and mountain rainfall--can reclaim at least 74,000,000 acres more. When it is considered that an area as large as the state of New York has been brought from barren drought to high productiveness by irrigation and that a further area nearly as large as New England and Pennsylvania combined may still be reclaimed by the operations authorized by the new irrigation law, one begins to realize the magnitude of this splendid annexation movement within the nation's own borders. The irrigated lands of the west offer a magnificent opportunity to the landless man. Under the new law the sale of these lands is strictly limited to actual settlers and no individual may purchase from the government more than 160 acres. The rapid growth of population in all civilized lands is bound to make the farmer a monopolist sooner or later unless the science of food production shall outrun the operations of the law of increase in the human family. To open new lands in Arizona or in the Philippines is to postpone the day

when there shall be more people to feed miral's testimony. Now that Aguinaldo is

than can be fed at a reasonable cost.
free to come to the United States whenever
he chooses to do so very likely when the
senate committee resumes its meetings next

Some of the vast forest re

A Great winter it will get that celebrated Filipino's

serves in the far west have an

Forest version of the relations existing between Reserve.

important bearing on the conhimself and the American admiral in the

trol and distribution of the early summer of 1898.

water supply which is turning wide tracts

of arid lands into fertile regions of farms Since there is no desire on the

and orchards. While the 40,719,474 acres New Ir

of forests in Arizona, California, Colorado, rigation part of the people that food Law.

shall become dear in this coun Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah and else

try or that the landless man where which are given government protecshall remain in that condition, one finds it tion are of great value to the public, it is a difficult to think that those who have ob- pity that the need of forest reserves in varijected in the past to systematic irrigation ous eastern states has not appealed to conof the great arid regions of the far west gress in the past. A very important beginunder government direction have had right ning in the direction of making good this on their side. The new irrigation law,

omission was the recent passage of the Morwhich provides for the establishment with ris bill, by which 231,400 acres of forest money obtained from the sale of public land in Minnesota, about the headwaters of lands of a fund to be used in the reclama the Mississippi, becomes a national reserve tion of arid tracts, has prepared the way

under the control of the secretary of agrifor a great work that will provide homes

culture. This land is a part of the Chipfor millions of people and food for millions pewa reservations in that region, four in more. That irrigation companies and in number, containing in all 830,000 acres. A dividuals have done much already in the di

movement was begun a few years ago by rection of reclaiming the western desert is

Colonel John S. Cooper of Chicago for the well known. About 35,000,000 acres of preservation of this whole tract as

national arid land thus far have been reclaimed by park. The committee of fifty public spirprivate enterprise, adding enormously to the ited gentlemen formed at that time through wealth of the nation. It is believed that

the efforts of Colonel Cooper to promote this the national government, by the wise use of plan was headed by Theodore Roosevelt

, all sources of water supply—streams, wells then governor of New York. It is a pleas

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ing coincidence that the signature of that law should make it possible for him to carry
enthusiastic member of the committee has on successfully the negotiations which are
now made the Morris bill a law. Under the still to come with the Panama Canal com-
terms of it 95 per cent of the pine timber pany and the government of Colombia.
on the tract is to be sold to satisfy a debt Failure to secure a good title to the property
of over $3,000,000 which the Chippewa In of the French corporation or refusal on the
dians owe to the United States, the balance part of the Colombian government to make
of the money, amounting to some millions of satisfactory grants of authority over the
dollars, going to the Chippewas. As no territory along the canal and over the bays
timber but pine is to be cut, a large part of by which it is approached will transfer the
the forest will remain standing. The pine president's negotiations to Nicaragua, since
tops are to be disposed of by the timbermen the building of the canal by one route or the
to prevent forest fires. Then the land is to other is fully decided upon. Both the ro-
be reforested under the direction of the gov mance of the undertaking and the practical
ernment foresters. This is to be the first utility of the canal appeal strongly to the
time that the practices of modern forestry public imagination and make the prospect
are put in operation on a large scale by the of entering upon the great task a source of
nation; therefore it marks the beginning of satisfaction to the people. Doubtless the
the movement which must go forward from people of France, when they were subscrib-
now on-to plant forests instead of destroy- ing their millions to aid the enterprise of De
ing them. Within this new forest reserve Lesseps, were greatly assisted by their im-
are 97 lakes and seven rivers, and there aginations in resolving to risk those sums.
the Mississippi takes its rise. Some of the The Americans, like the French, will have
lakes are very large, notably Leech and Cass discouragements later on, though it is not
lakes, containing islands of considerable size, to be expected that either the engineering
in all 17,000 acres in extent. On these or the political difficulties in the way will
islands the gigantic pine trees are not to be daunt those who are to have the work in
touched by the loggers. The wise policy hand.

The wise policy hand. If the Panama route shall be secured of setting aside forest land should be con the national government will acquire with it tinued until numerous valuable tracts in the the Panama railway, thus dabbling in a sort eastern mountains are taken under govern of property ownership and operation which ment control. Another bill which is before is distinctly out of its line. This should be congress seeks to create an Appalachian re a source of satisfaction to advocates of govserve in the south at a cost to the nation of

ernment ownership and operation of the $10,000,000. The ultimate passage of this country's transportation systems. Howbill is expected, since the importance of ex ever, the railway is a small affair compared tensive forests for the control of flood with the waterway which is to be built, opwaters, the growth of valuable timber, the erated and guarded by the nation. Since preservation of game and other purposes is we have become a great people abroad as coming to be generally recognized.

well as at home, we have to look to our gov

ernment for the performance of great tasks By a surprising change in Choice

in bewildering variety. The growing bursentiment, after the choice of dens resting on the Washington authorities Panama the Nicaragua route for an in- will be appreciably increased by the new Route.

teroceanic canal seemed practi- waterway. (For a description of the Pancally assured, the Spooner anendment to ama Canal, see Vol. 2, page 886.) the Hepburn bill has become a law and under its provisions the canal presumably will


The beautiful mansion in be constructed by the Panama route.

at the which all the presidents have reJune 19 the senate adopted the bill by a vote White sided except Washington is of (17 to 6. In conference it was accepted by

undergoing a

more complete the representatives of the house, which had transformation than any since its restoravoted for the Nicaragua route early in the tion after the British burned it in 1814. session, and was passed without change The "White House" it has always been to June 26 by a vote of 255 to 8. Thus the

the people and President Roosevelt recently great controversy that has gone for

has given it that

officially. For nearly a hundred vears has been settled. The

many years its inadequacy as both resifree hand given to the president by the dence and business office has been a source

of the

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When the Tilden club of New Cleveland, York City, on June 19, drew Hill and speeches from Grover Cleveland Bryan. and David B. Hill on the future course of the democratic party it started an avalanche of discussion. The recrudescence of the former president was regarded as a personal affront by the followers of Mr. Bryan. Mr. Bryan had been invited to the meeting also, but had not been given an invitation to speak, so he stayed away. His published comments on the speech of Mr. Cleveland were particularly severe and the radical democrats very generally joined in the denunciation of the former president's utterances. It must be confessed that Mr. Cleveland gloated over the later discomfiture of those who had driven him from party leadership. He demanded the rejection of issues that brought only defeat. With a

certain elephantine felicity of phrase he deCourtesy The Chicago Daily News.

livered his rhetorical blows. “It is not in

the search of new and gaudy issues,” said of distress to the successive presidents and Mr. Cleveland, "nor in the interpretation of their families, but none of the various plans strange visions, that a strong and healthy for adding extensive wings to it and other democracy

democracy displays its splendid power. wise changing its outlines has been received

Another party may thrive on the ever shiftwith enough favor to warrant the taking of ing treatment of the ever shifting moods of such liberties with the historic structure. At popular restlessness, or by an insincere play last the difficulty has been solved by the authorization of a separate office building on the White House grounds, to be connected with the White House by a covered walk. That will leave the fine old mansion in which President John Adams first resided to be used solely as a residence and for social purposes. The departure from it forever of the force of secretaries and clerks, of the heavy footed office seekers and all the other aids or hindrances which the president encounters during business hours, has been delayed many years beyond the time when it should have taken place. Doubtless Dolly Madison would have been glad if there had been a little more privacy and elbow room at the White House before the British came and burned her out; at least many of her successors have found the quarters cramped. President Roosevelt's large and active family was particularly short of space. Now there will be plenty of room after the extensive remodeling of the mansion's interior shall have been completed. In the meantime the president and his family are at Oyster Bay and the office of the president at the capital is established in a roomy mansion in Lafayette square, where it will remain until the new structure is ready to

(Photogragh by Sarony.)

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receive it.



President Roosevelt does not velt intend to surrender the trust ison the

sue to the democrats, no matter Trusts.

how much they may covet it. Following his assault on the packers' combine, delivered through the attorney general, which apparently is to have the effect of uniting the various packing firms in one huge corporation, he gave expression in his Fourth of July speech at Pittsburg to his views on the necessity for trust regulation. "Much," he said, “can be done along the lines of supervision and regulation of the great industrial combinations." However, he dwelt upon the ruin that would be wrought by reckless interference with great enterprises on which entire communities depend for employment and support. Beyond doubt there must be national supervision of the great industrial combines which control the price of necessaries of life. Their suspension of the law of supply and demand by

exercising rigid control over the sources of GROVER CLEVELAND.

supply of necessary commodities has not (Photograph by Sarony.)

proved uniformly beneficial to the people

by any means. It is right that the utmost upon unreasoning prejudice and selfish an care should be exercised in establishing suticipation, but the democratic party never." pervision, though it is not recorded that In rather obscure terms he pointed to the the great concerns that hold commanding trusts and the tariff as affording issues for positions in the ranks of the trusts have disthe party:

He did not mention the republicans' Philippine policy. Mr. Hill followed with a clever speech in which Mr. Bryan was complimented and President Roosevelt was assailed; he named over the points of democratic doctrine on which he believed all members of the party could unite. Mr. Cleveland had announced his permanent retirement from party leadership, but Mr. Hill was careful to do nothing of the sort. Mr. Bryan in commenting on the former president's speech, declared that it revealed the programme of the "plutocratic elements” which were seeking to get control of the democratic party. Those elements, he said, had been served in many conspicuous ways by Mr. Cleveland during his second term as president. Such reorganization of the party as was favored by the Tilden club orators Mr. Bryan rejected with scoru. It is apparent, however, that the words of Mr. Cleveland have been hailed with satisfaction by a very large number of democrats. The opinion is growing that Mr. Hill will be the next party nominee for president, notwithstanding the distrust with which he is regarded by the radical

Who recently issued a statement attacking the position of element.

Ex-President Cleveland.



played tender solicitude for the interests the mine workers has deteriorated since of the rival concerns which they have driven they were unionized. An increase of 39 to the wall. Still, competition that brings cents a ton in the price of coal at the mines business success through stern methods not is pointed to as more than cffsetting the inforbidden by law will not be punished by the crease of 13 cents a ton in the cost of minpeople; all they seek is protection for them- ing which is claimed by the operators. Furselves. When a corporation or set of cor thermore, the notorious practice of the coal porations dominate a great industry and pay roads in charging themselves exorbitant their own price to the producer of the raw rates for the transportation of their own coal product while making prices arbitrarily to to market, where they control absolutely the consumer, they hold a position of power the price to the consumer, is dwelt upon as that is full of danger, if not of positive accounting for the alleged disappearance of harm, to the public. It is too much to ex profits. The injustice of paying a mine pect corporations with excessive issues of worker only for a "long ton" of coal, on the capital stock on which they struggle to pay plea that impurities are contained in it and dividends voluntarily to conduct their af then docking him if impurities are actually fairs by the golden rule. The people must found, though the consumer gets only the take wise measures for their own protection. legal ton from the dealer, is pointed out.


In the At the beginning of July the
Anthra mine operators in the anthracite
region of Pennsylvania


nounced that there was marked eagerness among the striking mine workers to return to the tasks abandoned by them early in May. The truth of this assertion was strongly denied by the spokesmen for the strikers. The mines remaine<l idle. Some days earlier President Mitchell called a general convention to meet in Indianapolis July 17, at which delegates from the miners' unions in all the states where the United Mine Workers of America is organized were to consider the advisability of a sympathetic strike of mine workers throughout the bituminous region. It was felt that this desperate action, which could be taken only in violation of contracts, particularly in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Penn

JOHN MITCHELL. sylvania, would cost the union dear in dis

President United Mine Workers of America. honor. As the officers of the coal roads which control the anthracite mines clung In closing his statement President Mitchell to their determination to break up the union says: "We repeat our proposition to arbiso far as it related to their workmen, the trate all questions in dispute and if our miners felt that defeat in the present in- premises are wrong, if our position is unstance would end all hope of improving tenable, if our demands cannot be sustained their condition in the anthracite field at any

by facts and figures, we will again return future time. President Mitchell on June 22

to the mines." A very strong sentiment to issued a statement replying to the assertions the effect that the operators should either of the presidents of the coal roads on the open their mines or agree to arbitration has points at issue between them and the 147,000 developed among those who at the beginstrikers. The miners, he says, are employed ning of the strike took sides with the coal never to exceed 200 days in any year, com roads. The report of Colonel Wright, pensation for their services averaging $1.42

United States commissioner of labor, was for ten hours of very perilous labor. By

understood to recommend

arbitration. quoting statistics of coal production he seeks Whether or not the president would take acto disprove the charge that the capacity of tion either looking to the settlement of the

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