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long tube. The phlox family, wild and cul- roads and woodland paths. Some varieties tivated, is a large one, and they adapt them- prefer the rich soil and moist shade of the selves to almost any soil or location.
river bank; others are proudest along the Along the garden fence a row of giant dry and dusty highway. But in every and all artichokes reared their heads of flowers, places they are the yellow diamonds in aumade up of 12-20 yellow rays. This is a tumn's jewel box. Their friends are so member of the sunflower family, and its many that it is scarcely necessary to make edible stem-tubers were dug up, boiled and even a passing comment on the plant itself pickled, and made a decidedly pleasant rel- and its manner of growth. ish. Few people distinguish between the They are, however, a family of very artichoke and the ordinary wild sunflowers, erect perennial herbs with single alternate the entire family flowering in early autumn leaves and numberless small, vellow heads
in spikes, compound panicles or racemes, giving the flower stem the appearance of a golden tipped or flowering wand.
Along the creek banks and swamps, or sometimes farther back in the dryer woodland, the small boy finds the black hawshrub. Down go the cat-tail flags he has gathered, and up he goes on fence or stump to fill his pockets with the sweet, black, flattish-oyal fruit, containing a very little soft pulp and a thin shelled stone. The shrub or small tree is the l'iburnum prunifolium in the central West, and its leaves are a slightly pointed oval with sharply cut borders. Early in the spring it bears compound cymes of white flowers. Another member of this same family, the Viburnum opulus, or cranberry tree, with 3-lobed leaves, wedgeshaped at the base, grows on the low lands along the creeks, I have seen several specimens of this variety in northern Illinois bearing many quarts of red cran
berry-Havored drupes. Served as GOLDEN ROD.
cranberries are prepared, they (Copyrigd: bs A. W. Mumford, Chicago )
make a very edible sauce. along every roadside from east to west and crindrical spikes are ready for winter bou
Cat-tails, with their long, brown, rorth to south. The disk or center of the com:non suntlower is brown: sf the arti
Çuets in September of October, and with
nothing but their own sheathing leaves, are choke, yellow, Up near the garden proper a sicky
a picturesque bit for the artist's brush. But
proper a sicks un'ess they are to be left in their native Sa stairis Pocket marsh, a pair of rubber boots must be tigasted with its associates-main cab. di sereu Soiar as temporary appearance is hages and tomates-an! sI take resere in that maric'ar member of my
concerned, ther mar be gathered earlier, iz'e banr fari's of plants.
bus the spikes will shrivel as they dry. There are nearly one tandret species of for tre housewiie if she knows the various
The summer outing is the harvest time this autumn ore which makes irith asters so beautida border is out
ese and aramaris weeds.
We have wandered along the creek where
"Nods lonely, of her beauteous race the last."
A word of suggestion by way of farewell: If you find a rare flower, that is, one that you think is rare because you have seen no other like it—don't pull it up root and branch. Leave some for somebody else next year. It is not love, but inherent vandalism, that induces us to carry home armfuls of wilted and insulted flowers.
FREEDOM OF SPEECH AMONG UNI. VERSITY PROFESSORS.—In reference to the strictures passed by President W. R. Harper of the University of Chicago upon several kinds of abuse of freedom of speech committed by university professors (see page 1656), Professor J. H. Wigmore, Dean of the Northwestern Law School, wrote to the Chicago “Record-Herald” of July 9th as follows:
"Dr. Harper's definition of the abuse of personal privilege seems to me entirely fair. Every one of the instances mentioned by him are of abuses that are constantly occurring. No doubt these abuses need to be frequently censured and constantly guarded against. The quality of tact is just as important in the university
professor as in the statesman. I should like FRINGED GENTIAN. (Copyrighted by A. W. Mumford, Chicago.)
to suggest, however, that the duty of the
other party to the situation should not be igwater lilies float; we have seen the golden nored. I mean the duty of the university rod and asters and sunflowers on the high
government toward the principle of free ways, and in the field the tradescantia and speech. A university should never so act the wild yellow lily (Lilium canadense); toward a professor as to give ground for we have gathered berries and trailing sprays the public feeling that he is being punof creepers ; but deep in the dark forest, or ished for the sake of his opinions. Such on a shaded hillside, unmolested, stands the a result is deplorable, because it closes the dainty Adiatum pedatum, a maiden-hair fern mouths of many sound-minded professors, with stripes black and glossy. Its slender compelling them to refrain from honest and polished stem stands erect about nine inches
proper utterances, for fear of unjust cenin height, and then forks into several
Let me illustrate by the case of a branches bearing on the one side slender judge. A judge cannot be sued for wrongpennate divisions. These, as well as the ful judgment, even though he acts malicmore common varieties of ferns, bear trans iously and corruptly. This is not because planting to shady lawn nooks quite well. the law wishes to protect corrupt judges, And who was it who wrote:
but because it wishes to preserve for the "Farewell, dear flowers! sweetly your time ye
honest judge absolute freedom in the perspent,
formance of his duty. So it is with the proFit, while ye lived, for smell or ornament ; fessor, and the university has a duty some
And, after death, for cures.”
times to suffer a foolish man to speak with
out rebuke in order that the great body of "The south wind searches for the flowers whose fragrance late he bore,
teachers may do their daily work without And sighs to find them in the woods and by
fear. So far as I am aware the universithe stream no more.”
ties of this country scrupulously observe The - frost-nipped sumach warms the this duty. Certainly the University of Chisombre hillside with its crimson sprays, and cago has stood firmly for professional freethe blue gentian flower
dom of speech."
OLIVER CUMMINGS FARRINGTON, Ph. D.
Curator of Geology, Field Columbian Museum.
geology is more often referred to with living being, all may be learned by the in
admiration by those who have not spection of a single specimen. The same specially studied the subject than the ability is true of countless objects which one trained of the paleontologist to reconstruct from in geology meets in his way. It is this a single bone the entire animal of which it power of using the present as a key to unonce formed a part. While the statement lock the past, which has made geology that this can be done would in any but ex what we at present know it to be, and the ceptional cases be an exaggeration of the acquisition of this accomplishment may be strict truth, it is essentially true and may gained by anyone with a little patient and though this is less generally known, bz ap- careful study. plied to geological observations in general. We are walking along a country road in In the bone the paleontologist sees that cer- the northern United States. We have tain prominences indicate the size and dis- walked along such roads before, and our tribution of certain muscles. These in turn thoughts have probably turned to the flowindicate others, and so one feature points out ers, the birds, the sky; or we have simply another, until a fairly complete whole is been intent on reaching the next town. formed.
To-day, however, let us change our custom So from the shape and surface of a single and think simply about the road itself. "The pebble the geologist can reconstruct a world road," vou say what can there be to think of conditions under which it was formed. about in a road. except its quality as a highFor instance, the climate of the time or war!" times of whose passage it bears marks, its Q. Well, let us see. formation, whether in the depths of the sea made of or on its shore, its transportation, whether by 1. Soil. rivers or by ice. its origin, whether it welled 0. What is soil? up out of the earth's interior in the eruption A. Decomposed rock.
What is the road
Q. Yes, perhaps. What kinds of soil are seen will afford an insight into the history there?
and origin of the leading natural features A. Clayey, sandy and gravelly soils. of all the adjacent territory.
Q. Yes, very good. What kind of soil In the region in which the reader is supis the road made of where we are walking posed to be traveling, an insight into the now?
origin of one of its leading features will be A. Gravelly.
most quickly gained, if he will continue his Q. What was it a few yards back? walk until he finds a place where the road Ã. Clayey.
has been cut through a bank, leaving a secQ. Do you think it remarkable or signifi- tion of it bare. The character of the bank cant that the soil should be of gravel in one where it is thus exposed will probably be place and clay in another?
found to more or less resemble that shown A. Well, yes, I had not thought of that. in the accompanying engraving. A miscel
Q. Again, where is the road leading now,
laneous collection of boulders of various over a hill or along a plain ?
shapes and sizes is seen, accompanied by A. Over a hill.
and interspersed with sand and clay. Not Q. How was it a few rods back?
only are the boulders and pebbles of differA. Along a plain.
ent shapes and sizes, but they are of differQ. Why is there a hill here and a plain ent colors and degrees of hardness as well, there?
showing that they were formed from many A. I don't know. I had not thought of kinds of rock. Some can easily be scratched that.
with a knife, others not at all; some are of Q. Evidently then there are many things the same grain throughout, others show about a road and the country it traverses large crystals scattered in a fine ground which afford food for thought, and it is also mass; some have dividing planes along true that inquiry into the phenomena there which they can be split into parallel layers,