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who have left home deliberatelr and cum
nurses from the school's hospital and nurse history of the race. At all of our church training department showed by means of services, chapel exercises and public gatherscreens, a bed, rubber sheets, bath utensils, ings these melodies are sung, and at this thermometer, medicines and foods, and commencement gathering to which I have not least importanta student who posed referred the music ranged from the "Inas a patient, how they would treat a fever flammatus," which I may perhaps be alcase.
lowed to say was sung in such a manner as The courses of training in the various in to elicit unstinted praise from the audience, dustries last from one to four years. Stu to some of the unique and inspiring of the dents who complete a course satisfactorily Negro songs. are given a certificate of proficiency. Sev Because I have spoken so strongly in favor enty such certificates were given at this of industrial training I would not have it industrial commencement. The academic understood that I undervalue academic educommencement comes a little later in the cation. I would have every pupil get all season, at the close of the regular school the mental training that his pocketbook and rear. The graduates from the academic time will allow. The race needs professional decartment receive diplomas.
men and women, but the rank and file must
have industrial training before the people of the race can come to possess that general prosperity which alone supplies a foundation for the proper support of the professional class. Our aim at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is to so balance industrial and academic, and moral and religious training as to best fit each individual who is a student here to go out into the world and do the most efficient work of which he or she is capable.
I do not think that I can explain in any better way how Tuskegee does its work than by giving a description
of the grounds and buildings A CLASS IN COOKING, TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE.
as one coming here now sees
them. As I have said, the I ought not to dismiss this industrial school was started, twenty-one rears ago, commencement of which I am speaking with three small, old buildings and one hun without a reference to the music which was dred acres of practically unimproved land. interspersed between the various numbers, We now have more than fifty buildings, seto because the training of all the students in eral of them three and four story brick music is one of the features which the school structures, and twenty-seren hundred acres emphasizes. All the students have instruc of land, eight hundred of which are cultition in vocal music. In addition to this a vated by the young men each year. The choir of one hundred and twenty-five voices, men who do this work on the land not only an orchestra, and a band have special in- pay their way by doing it, but, under the struction, and ample opportunity is afforded direction of thoroughly trained men are for such as wish to take a special course in learning the best methods of modern farm piano instruction. Along with thoroughing, stock raising, dairying, gardening and music, however, the school has always in- farming their life work. Among them are ajuted upon the students retaining and sing. to be found not only the sons of farmer, ing those beautiful, old-time Negro melon but men who own farms themselves an dies which are so essentially a part of the
here to learn how to carry on their farms dents obtain a great deal of practical work more successfully.
which apprentices in a shop would not get. Tuskegee is the county seat of Macon They are required to take their turns in county. It is situated in the southeastern running the various engines upon the place. part of the state, forty miles from Mont One of these is a seventy-five horsepower gomery and one hundred and forty from engine given by the late Mr. C. P. HuntAtlanta. It is only five miles from a direct ington. They have also built a number of line of rail from New York to New Or- engines which are employed in various leans, and is connected with this by a local places about the school. The plumbing and railroad. It is easily accessible from the steam heating division is connected with North by the trains of the Southern Rail the machine shop. Under the direction of road and the Western Railway of Alabama.
the teacher in this department the young The Institute is located about one mile from men have put in all the plumbing and steamthe town. One entering the school grounds heating apparatus required by the many at the gate nearest the town sees first two buildings upon the grounds. The foreman brick buildings originally used as shops, in the foundry is a young man who
took a but now, since the Trades Building was four years' course in the machine shop erected, converted into dormitories for boys. here, and then went into a large foundry in One of these-Cassedy Hall—the generos: Chattanooga for further instruction. All ity of Mr. George Foster Peabody made pos- these shops, I ought to say here, will eventsible to refit so thoroughly that it is now ually be removed to the other end of the one of the best dormitories for boys that we grounds, as soon as it is possible to comhave
. Near these buildings are the saw plete the Trades Building by adding suitmill
, carpenter shop and machine shop and able shop rooms to receive these classes. foundry. in all of which classes of young The ground on which they now stand will men are doing practical, thorough work. In be utilized at some future time as the site the machine shop, for instance, the course for another boys’ dormitory, to accommoof training requires three years, and the stu date the constantly increasing number of
in the morning. Under ordinary circum Although Commissioner Woodbury is stances one machine will clean 60,000 making strenuous efforts to attain the square yards of asphalt pavement in a day. standard of cleanliness set up by Col. WarUnlike every other kind of street sweeper ing during the Strong administration, he has it can do its quickest and most effective not yet been successful. He is much hamwork on a wet day, as then the dirt of the pered still by the Tammany administration. street is thoroughly loosened from the pave There are many vicious elements under the ment and it becomes a comparatively easy domination of that powerful organization matter for the spray of water to push the within the city of New York which do not dirt into the gutter. Under such conditions stop short of anything which will impede more than 60,000 square yards can be his efforts to bring about a more cleanly cleaned in a day. For a stone or other condition. Despite the utmost care and rough pavement 10 per cent. more of water watchfulness on his part there have been and 10 per cent. more time would be re repeated instances in the short time in quired to clean the same amount of surface. which he has been at the head of the depart
Sanitarians in foreign cities where this ment, that many pieces of his apparatus method of street cleaning has been thor have been disabled and temporarily put out oughly tried, claim that the health condi of commission by unknown miscreants. tions will be much improved by the adop- For this reason New York is not as clean as tion of this method of cleansing the streets it was under the Strong administration.
There are several cleaner cities than New York City, notably Detroit and Washington. In these two cities a combination system, that is, machine and hand work, is used. Boston uses both methods, but relies more fully upon the use of street sweepers at night. Owing to the large amount of stone pavements in that city it is difficult to keep it as clean as some other American cities. In winter time it is very difficult to get around because the snow is not removed as rapidly as it might be. The narrowness of the streets is an impediment also. Baltimore is a well cleaned city; in fact, it is the cleanest southern city there is,
and it performs its work at a more reasonaThe crowd standing close up to the sprinkler show what
ble expense than many others. Among the perfect control is had of the water
larger cities Chicago and Philadelphia are
the poorest cleaned. In these two cities, as for the reason that it takes the major part in most cases, the civic untidiness is due to of the dust and dirt lying on the pavement the fact that appropriations sufficiently large which so often fills the air on a windy day, are not given to the departments having and gets rid of it by driving it into the sew this work to perform. ers. By this means the clouds of dust
It is commonly understood that it costs laden with disease germs, are almost made more to clean a mile of pavement in New impossible. It is not altogether ideal, how
York City than anywhere else in the United ever, for on an asphalt pavement it makes States, but reference to the following tables the street slippery for a short time, and it
will show that there are other cities where could not be used during the day when the
the cost, per mile, is very heavy. The statraffic is the heaviest, because it would be
tistics were compiled from recent reports of too expensive, and the picker with his
the cities included in the list. By referbroom and cart would be just as essential
ence to the tables it will be seen that Richto the general cleanliness of the street, on
mond paid $2,383 per mile, while New the busy thoroughfares, as formerly. Here,
York only paid $2,049. The cost for New as abroad, heavily trafficed streets require York was for the island of Manhattan only, constant cleaning by the white wing sys as it has been impossible to get any reliable tem, although it is not so essential to the figures during the Tammany administraless traveled residential districts.
TABLE No. 1.
CLEANSING ASPHALT PAVEMENT IN TENEMENT-HOUSE
DISTRICT, MARKET AND HENRY STS., NEW YORK.
square miles 15 a 8 a 25% a Area of city
TABLE No. 2.
308 2,466 1,643 *29, 463,919 Chicago
3,946 1.348 *22,916,000 Philadelphia....
130 1,350 1,080 *18,360,000 Baltimore...
37 411 371 * 6,307,000 St. Louis
61 873 82 1,910,019 Boston
43 489 369 6,971.886 Cleveland...
565 149 * 2,533.000 Butfalo..
42 800 332 6,242,260 Cincinnati.
620 349 * 5,933,000 San Francisco,
750 186 2,800,000 Detroit
515 267 4.942,277 Pittsburgh
230 200 * 3,910,000 New Orleans
196 1,300 199 * 3,383,000 Milwaukee...
21 502 75 1,981,425 Washington
69 484 210 3,600,000 Louisville.
21 286 155 * 2,635,000 Minneapolis.
53 789 100 * 1,700,000 Kansas City.
450 175 * 2,975.000 Jersey City
201 100 1.767.000 Indianapolis
540 88 1,181,259 St. Paul
7756 45 966,000 Rochester..
325 119 2,039,467
18 222 39 695,728 Omaha
350 82 1.785,635 Toledo.
30 100 125 1.897,196 Columbus, O...
300 116 2.744,511
162 83 * 1,411,000 Worcester
36 186 11 237,154
159 * 2.703,000
23 171 17 341.068 Memphis...
16 200 83 1.341,519 New Haven..
22 200 71 * 1,207.000 Albany....
10 144 80 1,419.515 Richmond, Va.
391.000 Grand Rapids.
18 283 152 * 2,584,000 Dayton....
10 175 31 725,000
17 259 181 3,171,230
X Y X Y Y Z z х Y Y z Х Х z z Y Х
New York **.
43,366,879 $114 $2,049 Chicago..
533,745 28 494 Baltimore.
220,000 34 593 St. Louis
61.751 24 414 Buffalo..
160.959 25 484 Cincinnati
190.000 32 544 San Francisco
192.000 68 1,032 Detroit..
149.000 28 524 Pittsburgh
125,300 32 626 New Orleans
78.000 23 391 Milwaukee..
148,000 41 704 Louisville.
90,000 37 580 Minneapolis.
45,272 26 452 Kansas City
35,000 12 200 Jersey City
31,000 17 310 India napolis
38.000 25 432 St. Paul
30,420 31 676 Rochester
76,417 37 Denver
25,000 66 1,136 Providence
15,092 64 1,156 Omaha
18,716 10 228 Toledo...
37,413 19 299 Columbus, O.
62,191 22 536 Syracuse
80,445 101 1,718 Allegheny
11,441 48 1,040 Nashville
32,000 11 194 Scranton
12,000 35 706 Memphis
41.000 30 494 New Haven
75,000 62 1,050 Albany.
41.536 28 519 Richmond, Va.
54,827 140 2,383 Grand Rapids.
43,000 16 283 Dayton.
12,391 17 398
50.800 16 281
X, work by contract; Y, by city; 2, by both.
Y Y 2 z z z
Among the cities of Great Britain, none is cleaner than Glasgow. The street department of this city may be considered a model of its kind. For more than a third of a century the work has been admirably performed by the city. The department has dust destructors and utilizers, machines which burn and machines which sift the vast mass of ashes, dust, garbage, refuse and street sweepings collected every day. The work of collecting and disposing of the entire waste of the city is performed by this department, which is officially known as the Cleansing Department. It employs a small army of men and boys, hundreds of horses and all kinds of machinery and apparatus. Besides it has several hundred railway cars, or, wagons, as they are called on the other side, used for the purpose of transporting ings, the manure and other refuse matter refuse to the more than seven hundred acres suitable for fertilizing, including bones, of farm land leased or owned by the city. which are burned and ground, all being As it is a model of excellence á brief de mixed together making a fine grade of land scription of its work cannot fail to interest fertilizer, is sold to the farmers within a American readers.
radius of one hundred miles of the city. Every bit of waste in this Scottish city The amount of waste material collected anis put to some good use. The street sweep- nually is something enormous. Nearly
Y Y Y Y
500,000 tons were collected and disposed of SUMMER BEVERAGES.-Cooling drinks last year. Nearly 50,000 carloads were are in demand during the warm months dispatched to the several farms. Of this
and among them all the old-fashioned tonnage more than 43 per cent. was sold to lemonade will always retain its popularity, farmers, the balance being deposited at the but this is now varied by the addition of various tips at the farms.
other fruits, for instance, a "grape To show the progressive spirit which al- lemonade” is enriched with the unfermented ways animates the chief executive of this grape juice. Another refreshing draught department, last year a new clinker screen is found in a lemonade to which crushed ing plant was installed. This machinery cherries and orange juice has been added. was erected in order to produce automat It is well known that even the mildest ically the clinker from the destructor plants of alcoholic drinks adds to the temperature in five different sizes, ranging from sand to of the body, hence the wise man avoids two and one-quarter inches in diameter. them in summer, calling for the cooling This clinker is disposed of for various build- and refreshing fruits. Raspberries, strawing operations, and with this arrangement berries, grapes, or any other desired fruits the material is produced to meet the re may be first cooked and strained, then added quirements of the various users, and it is to iced water and sweetened, to become being largely taken advantage of in connec nectar to a thirsty mortal. Buttermilk is tion with a variety of building operations. growing in popularity since science avers Last year nearly 10,000 tons were sold, that it is healthful as well as delicious. Iced bringing in a revenue to the department of tea with sugar and perhaps a bit of lemon, about $5,500. Another recent innovation or coffee with or without cream makes a has been the collection of waste paper from refreshing drink. Clam bouillon either hot the dwelling houses. Waste paper has been or cold is “a cup that cheers." collected from shops and ware houses for There is a chocolate confection which is many years.
About seven hundred tons of made of two ounces of chocolate syrup, onewaste paper were collected from the dwell
egg, cracked ice and milk to fill the glass, ing houses last year, which brought in a with whipped cream on the top. revenue of over $3,500 to the department. Crèmie de chocolat is a novelty imported In American cities the city has nothing to from Paris and consists of an ounce of do with the collection and disposal of waste chocolate, six ounces of milk, a tablespoonpaper. It is generally collected very ineffi ful of cream, with shaved ice and soda ciently, by numerous rag pickers, and the water to fill the glass. city realizes nothing from the service. The The old-fashioned “milk shake" is a palatcainy Scotchman turns an honest penny able and cooling beverage as are also the wherever an opportunity can be found and various fruit phosphates. there are few such that escape the vigilant A mint sangaree is a new mixture which eve of the superintendent of this well-or- is fragrant and delightful. It is made with ganized department. Although the out
half a glass of crushed ice, fresh mint well breaks of the bubonic plague and small-pox bruised, red orange juice and soda water entailed a large amount of additional work
to fill the glass, with a maraschino cherry and expenditure in connection with this de- and a slice of lemon on top. partment the total expenses for the year
Cherry mint sangaree is made with amounted to less than $450,000.
shaved ice, crushed mint, one drop of the anunt of work performed in New York spirits of mint, a tablespoonful oi cherry would probably cost from three to four sirup, and a tablespoonful of catawba times that amount. When we eliminate
syrup. politics from municipal government in
Mint lemonade is a compound of mint limerican cities, particularly as ther relate
syrup, lemon juice, soda water or plain wain the selection of the suburdinates in a de
ter and a slice of orange or lemon. partment, anii as they attect the tenure of
Lime juice pousse is made of lime chicc ar: wien we have adopted a few
Sirip, crushed ice and soda water. mre vf the matern metals 10 emplove! Line Frage is made of lime water, ice, in foreign cies. we ar hipe to shinin au? line syrup, with soxa water to fill glass. as gi results at as comnaratively sight a
I: should be understool that sugar to cost, allowing for the diference in waris
taste must be added to each of the above beilleen the two countries.