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ful year.

It is well to recall that tle bold spirits who worked such a marvellous Sformation in the countries of webuern Europe when the people rose in the middle of the last century and shook so many thrones, came in large numbers to the United States when the movement failed. They brought with them the high courage and passionate love of liberty which made them conspicuous in their native countries. No nobler gift could have been bestowed upon the American people, then struggling blindly to throw off the load of slavery and the slave-holders' domination. Not only during the decade preceding the War of the Rebellion and during the years of that great conflict, but since the close of the war and up to the present time, the spirit of those liberty loving revolutionists has manifested itself in the various contests for purer government and broader human rights. Europe's gift to this nation fifty years ago was priceless.



According to the experience
Games of

of Rear-Admiral F. J. HigginWar. son, who commanded victor fare is the absolute necessity of introducing

iously the "blue" defensive wireless telegraph service for general use in squadron in the recent naval maneuvers on the American Navy. He stated that althe New England coast, the most important though his ships were all in touch with lesson to be learned from this mimic war him, they were often beyond signaling dis

tance; whereas, by wireless telegraph, he could have spoken to his ships at any moment by night or day. Aside from this lack, however, the efficiency of the defensive flotilla was proved by the outcome of this mimic warfare, which ended August 24.

Though civilians are prone to smile a: the games of war which the army and navy recently indulged in along the North Atlantic coast, it is unquestionably true that those games were useful and well worth the money and effort expended on them. American officers find it a novel experience to go through the motionis of fighting actual battles by way of drill, ince elaborate maneuvers of this sort heretofore have not been arranged by the war and navy departments. It is to be expected that they will be required annually from this time on, since the training which they give cannot be secured so well in any other way. The plan of holding autumn maneuvers, such as are so conspicuous a antire of army life in Europe, is likely to inti existence here also, thc igh necessary the maneuvers will be on a comparatively small scale. The



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naval operations which are planned for next To Admiral Higginson, commander of the winter in the West Indies, together with the so-called Blue Squadron, was given the task work done along the New England coast of preventing the enemy, represented by the during August and September, should White Squadron, under Commander Pillsserve to keep the officers of the navy from bury, from entering any port between Chatbecoming rusty. The first of the recent war ham, Mass., and Portland, Me, without games was the navy's affair exclusively. being discovered. As the squadron defend

ing that short stretch of coast was well provided with torpedo boats and other fast scouting vessels, Commander Pillsbury's chances of success were desperate at best. The game began at August 20, the White Squadron having put to sea two davs earlier. Four days and nights of anxious watching followed for the defenders of the coast.

At dawn of August 24, Commander Pillsbury's ships were discovered by watchers on the Kearsarge, Admiral Higginson's flagship, making their way into the harbor of Salem,

Mass. The White Squadron, MAIN DECK OF THE


after having cleverly evaded



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the outer lines of scouts, had run into the approach to New York was to be tested by very jaws of the defending feet and the the warships. Adn.iral Higginson co game was up. Admiral Higginson in his manded the naval forces, consisting of the official report of the operations declared Kearsarge, the Alabama, the Vassachusetts, them very beneficial in training the officers the Indiana, the Brooklyn, the Olympia and in scouting and praised highly the work of some minor vessels. The land operations the torpedo boat flotilla. The system of were directed by General MacArthur. As signaling employed in the navy he found soon as the game began the rlrarybacks atdeficient and urged strongly that wireless tending the wi.

on points telegraph apparatus be installed on all the instead of by the ac...... weight of metal beships without loss of time.

came apparent. In most of the attacks on

the formidable forts protecting the eastern The greater war game was

entrance to Long Island soud and the apAttack

that in which the navy was pit- proaches to Newport each of the combatants on the Coast.

ted against the land forces. confidently claimed to have put the other

Preparations for it had been act out of action. It is annoying, when one's ively under way for several months, the enemy has been blown to ažums constructwar department especially working ener ively, to have him remain defiant and even getically to bring the coast defenses up to boastful. Yet the public at large did not the highest possible point of efficiency. The care particularly whether the forts or the signal corps perfected a very complete sys- ships were put out of action in this or that tem of communication which stood the test engagement, since it viewed the uproar with of war conditions in a highly creditable an Olympiar, tolerance for bow sides. It is manner.

The game began at midnight, glad to know, at least, that the ships were August 31, and ended at noon September 6. handled brilliantly and when the work of the The adequacy of the forts protecting the artillervmt in ihre fun.. was thoroughly entrance of Long Island sound and the good. There were no disclosures of weak

py th Ir hi ti b it t 1 d t 1


ness in the coast defenses that served to boat. Thereupon the Panther bombarded startle thc public, notwithstanding recent the Crete-a-Pierrot, exploding her forward sensation, reports to lidi effect. So far powder magazine and sinking her. Everyas the unpracticed civilian id judge from body seemed to be satisfied with the outhis own observations and from the tri come of the adventure, except the Firminumphant reports of General MacArthur, the ists, who naturally are furious over the afcapture of New York by ships hammering fair. The provisional government, through their way through the sound or by land its president, General Boisrond Canal, hastforces unloaded from transports in the vi ened to express its gratification. The L'nited cinity of Newport, is going to be very diffi States had no criticism to offer of Gercult, if not impossible, when some capable many's straightforward methods. The enemy engages in that adventure.

Monroe doctrine cannot object to the pun

ishment of piracy.
Ever since President Sam of
Sinking a Haiti resigned his office last

In view of the frequent out-
Gunboat. spring and departed from the Duty of

this Gov

rages against foreigners comrepublic, the people have been


mitted by various petty repubin a turmoil. General Firmin led a revolt

lics in this hemisphere, it has against the provisional government and come to be a common cry in Europe that carried on fighting with some success. He the United States must either extend or had full control of the coast, since the ad abandon the Monroe doctrine. Since this miral of the Haitian fleet, consisting of nation will not permit European governa small gunboat and another vesse

ments to secure new footholds on this side poused the Firminist cause. The other of the Atlantic, say these foreign critics, it vessel was soon run aground, but the gun must establish a protectorate over all the boat, the Crete-a-Pierrot, with Admiral other American nations, set up an internaKillick on board, proved exceedingly use- tional court of claims in Washington and ful in transporting insurgent soldiers from strengthen its navy sufficiently to enforce place to place and otherwise assisting in

the findings of that court. This is a fanattacks on the coast towns. When, how

tastic program, to say the least of it. The ever, that rebel gunboat attempted to estab United States is not likely to consent to do lish a blockade of the harbor of Cape Hai

all the police work for Europe throughout tien, Commander McCrea, of the Ameri

this hemisphere. It has never said that can gunboat Jiachias, served notice ripon

European nations were not free to chasAdmiral Killick that his blockade was not tise offending governments in this part of effective and that he would not be per the world whenever they had cause to do mitted to visit or search any foreign vessel

so. It has merely said with unmistakable attempting to enter the port. In the face

emphasis that no more American soil is to of this warning: the Crete-a-Pierrot

pass into the possession of any European September 2. searched the German mer

nation by conquest or in any other way. chant vessel llarkomannia at the entrance While Europe is disturbed because of the of the harbor and tryk from her munitions misdemeanors of Haitians, Venezuelans, of war belonging to the provisional gov Colombians and others, it has its own badly ernment of Haiti.

The government at governed nations to which it should give Berlin at once ordered the German gin

some thought. What, for example, would boat Panther to capture the Crete-a-Pier be the attitude of other European govemrot as a pirate. On September 7,

ments if the United States should declare Panther discovered the Firminist vessel at

war on Turkey because of outrages comthe entrance v Fres harbor. Captain mitted against Americans and should seize

rer gave Admiral

and annex Turkish territory? There is no Killick fiiteen minutes del which to strike his

Monroe doctrine in Europe, but that lack
la his imen.
The Hai-

woull not prevent the European nations
wa Scotch descent on

from ordering the United States off that war his crew and

continent in a hurry. The Vonroe doctrine then blew 11p the

magazine is merely a form of the old law of selí presof his vessel. perishing by a

ervation and is neither strange nor unique. which also destroyed the stern of

To demand that the United States keep the



Eckermann of

colors and de
tian admiral
his father's sister

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peace from one end of the hemisphere to crash comes, says Mr. Sage—and there is the other or else abandon the Monroe doc othing original in the remark-it will trine is an absurdity. It is not impossible, bring national disaster. Of urse he is however, that Haiti, lying as it does be right. Everybody knows that sooner or tween Cuba and Porto Rico, some day will later the crash is bound to come. Not even become part of the American system, since the great Mr. Morgan can keep it off. its people must be nearly ready to admit Now, however, Mr. Morgan has securities that they are incapable of ruling themselves. to sell—millions of dollars' worth of them. When the isthmian canal shall have been They are good securities in their way, but dug the forces of civilization directed into he prefers the money. All the gaping of that quarter are likely to quell the revo the crowds, all the craning of necks to look lutionary spirit in Colombia and perhaps at him and to listen to what he will say if in its neighbor, Venezuela. With such in he shall happen to speak, all the stories of cidental results achieved by the United States Europe will have to be satisfied.


The return of Mr. J. Pierpont Return

Morgan to the United States of Mr. Morgan.

after his summer in Europe cre

ated a flutter of such proportions that it might well have caused a cynic to smile. The great financier who was courted by the leading men of England and the continent, including the king of Great Britain and the emperor of Germany, has reached a point in his career of power where his nod is portentous and the futter of his eyebrow is doom. He is a factor for foreign ministries to take into their calculations. He is said to have evaded with skill an opportunity to reorganize the financial affairs of the sultan. His ship combine has given the British cabinet, as well as the British parliament, a great deal of worry. The kaiser is represented by correspondents as having interceded with Mr. Morgan to spare the great German steamship companies to the uses of the fatherland. In this country we are in a chronic state of awaiting breathlessly his next achievement in order that we may be refreshed with the sight of a new wonder. But shall we all knock off work permanently on our own account to give Mr. Morgan's activities free play ? Surely the human race has other duties besides those of scraping money together with which to subscribe for stock in Mr. Morgan's billiondollar corporations and repeating to one another legends of his prescience and power. Mr. Russell Sage, who is not a particularly wise man, recently took occasion to say that there was great danger to the country in the constant issuing of enormous quantities of inflated securities "which are disposed of to the American peop! with a good brand on them.” When the

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