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mills for a few hours each afternoon "to The society publishes no newspaper or maglearn." li the work is congenial they are azine, official or otherwise. carefully trained and are given every op In three of the villages, there are licensed portunity to "work up" but if this emplor- pharmacies. The quantity of drugs prement is not agreeable, they are at liberty to pared for the outside market is not large, as choose some other line of work.
no effort has ever been made to build up a In Old Amana there is a calico printing drug trade. As a rule, only special orders establishment, where four thousand five are filled.
are filled. Many physicians of the state hundred yards of calico are dyed and prefer to get their supplies here rather than printed daily. The patterns for the calico to send further east for them. The society are designed and made by a member of the were the first people west of Chicago to besociety. This “colony calico," as it is gin the manufacture of pepsin, and their called, is sold in different parts of the manufacture is still considered one of the United States and Canada, and is quite as best in the market. favorably known as the woolen goods.
In addition to the aforenamed industries. The industrial efficiency of the operatives each village has its shoe-maker, tailor, harin the Amana mills and factories is notice ness-maker, carpenter, blacksmith, tool
smith, wagon-maker, etc. These tradesmen, as a rule, do not devote their entire time to their occupations, but only make and repair what is needed in their line by the people of the village. During the busy season they stand ready to be called to the factory or the field as circumstances de mand.
The Amana schools are public, not parochial, being supported by the township and sharing in the school fund of the state. Amana township, which the society owns, is divided into independent districts with a school house in each village. They levy their own school tax, build their own school houses, employ their own teachers. These teachers are all members of the society and are well educated in both German and English. They attend the county institute and are examined by the county superintendent. The wages paid them are $30 per month for twelve months; but since they
may not keep the money it is turned back AMASA BHOOLMASTER AND BOYS IS THE ORCHARD. into the common treasury.
Long before the Amana visitor starts on abis great to even the casual observer. his tour of inspection, the colony boys and Each worker labors with the air of a man in girls between the ages of five and fourteen physical comiort and peace of mind, and are hard at work in die Schule. Here they with the energy of a man who is working may be found six days in the week, all the for himself and expects to enjoy all the year round. The sessions open early and fruits of his labor.
close late, and there are no vacations. To Besides these mills and factories, the so those of us who are accustomed to the short ciety owns and operates seven saw mills, sessions and long vacations of the modern two machine shops, one soap iactory and public school, this at first thought seems alone printing office and bookbindery. The
most cruelty to the children; but a visit 10 job work for the stores and miils, the text the school very soon convinces one that books used in the schools, the hymn books these children fare quite as well as the little used in the churches, and other religious people of the world." books commonly read in the community are
The school sistem is a natural outgrowth all printed at the Amana printing office of the society's co-operative mode of living.
When mothers, grand-mothers and big sis- boys usually go to the different shops and ters are busy in the kitchen or in the garden factories for instruction in the trades. The during the greater part of the day, some older girls clean up the schoolhouse and provision must be made for the children, help in the knitting department. During hence the twelve-months school with its the summer months, the children keep the long daily sessions. The school naturally school premises in order by cutting the largely supplants the home training of the grass and caring for the flowers, or help in children in the world.” That it is in every the garden or the orchards. The atmossense adequate, everyone who has visited phere about the school is more like that of a the school must acknowledge. Never have large household than that of the ordinary I seen a group of children so uniformly school. The perfect equality maintained well mannered, pleasant spoken, courteous, has eliminated that shrinking timidity so and thoughtful as in the Amana schools. common among small children. Each child
What would otherwise seem like a long, has the air of a stock-holder in the corporatiresome daily session is broken up into tion. three parts: First, die Lehr-schule, when School discipline, as a care, is reduced to. all the common branches are taught; sec a minimum. When a community of men ondly, die Spiel-stunde, or hour of play, and women have for generations maintained when the children romp and play their the same high standards of living and of quaint little German games; and thirdly, die thinking, it is easy to understand why the Arbeits-schule, or manual training depart- school children of to-day are so uniformly ment. In this latter department, during the well mannered and obedient. There winter time, the younger boys and girls are
mischievous boys and giggling girls, but taught to knit and crochet. One is sur such types as make our city teachers grow prised to learn how many pairs of stockings old before their time are wholly wanting. and mittens these little folks can make dur No Amana boy or girl has ever been sent ing the year. Each child has for his yarns to the State Industrial Schools. and needles a basket which is stored away
The work in die Lehr-schule is divided "between times" in enclosed shelves in the into three grades, each of which is presided Arbeits-schule.
over by its own schoolmaster. The teachJust before the knitting lesson a lunch of ers in the school proper are all men, but bread and butter is served to the children by there are women among the “working teachthe older girls. During this hour the older ers." The primary teacher at Old Amana
AN AMANA CHURCH.
marches to church, where he sits on the front seat in full view of a long row of elders.
Amana Society is after all a religious organization. Its communism is simply a means for the better development of a spiritual life, and, in their words, “is not practiced for temporal or pecuniary purposes, or as an experiment to solve social problems.” Their fundamental doctrine is that inspiration and revelation are just as potent to-day as in olden times. Three members have been inspired during the last three-quarters of a century, and their writings are just as much a part of the religious service of the society as are the readings from the Bible.
"We are a church all the time, even in our home life,” they will tell you; and they believe this devotion to be the cause of their progress and success. Some of their ideas of religious communism are formulated as follows:
community. There is just one aisle in the a.-Religion is the only bond which can
church, a wide center aisle ; on either side of unite men in true fellowship. b.-If this is this there is a row of long well scrubbed the fundamental doctrine of a communistic benches or settees. In the general meeting, society, it will succeed. c.—When com the men are grouped on one side of the munism is attempted by those who reject church, the women on the other, both acGod, or admitting His existence deny His cording to age, the youngsters on the front interest in human affairs, then it must fail. seats, the older members behind. d.-Reason alone, without a religious and The service begins with silent prayer. moral obligation, cannot bind men into a Hymns are sung, but without instrumental community which shall be lasting, harmoni
accompaniment. The service is dignified ous, or advantageous.
and impressive and breathes throughout a It is interesting to note that while in many reverent and devout spirit. Even the cemerespects the society is like one large family, tery bespeaks Amana's simple gospel of still they seldom collect in large numbers, equality, for there are no family lots, no not even in their devotional exercises. In monuments. The departed members are the churches there are
several separate placed side by side in perfect rows regardapartments or meeting rooms, one in front less of family ties. Each grave is marked of the other. For the usual Sunday service by a low, white-painted board or slab, with the girls and young women, not necessarily the simplest kind of an inscription on the unmarried, assemble in one room, the boys side facing the grave. and young men in another, while the older All in all the Amana Inspirationists are members assemble in a third. The wraps a peaceful, happy, and virtuous people. are all left on rows of hooks in the hallway. That they are at the same time a prosperous Periodically there is a general meeting on community is evidenced by the county auSunday afternoons in a fourth room, a very ditor's books wherein their real and perlarge assembly room. The church and its sonal property is listed at about $1,644,interior, like the colony dress, is marked by 620.00. It is true that a community like its severity. The whitewashed walls, the this lacks many of the things which we have bare floors and the long unpainted benches come to look upon as essential to our hapall bespeak the character of the service. piness. But the plain life and simple virThere is no pulpit, simply a plain table tues of these German people, nevertheless, where the presiding elder sits. On either suggests this question : Are not we “of the side of him facing the congregation is seated world” paying too high a price for some of a row of elders who are chosen by the peo the things which we boast of as evidences ple from the most spiritually inclined of the of the higher civilization ?
mothers are asked merely to keep on with
5 grasp the meaning of the experiment.
when then there remains the difficulty Holmg the mothers to keep on with the
with the trip. For instance, a nurse shows
BABIES—How SAVED IN THE SLUMS.- the visiting force is made up aboos stirely
, tell the mother what i
who folds it up in a towel and feeds it a to do for it, and leave her a circular explain-
dwellers, the city had no surface to utilize But these experiments are only part of for expansion except that of the water the scheme. In the meantime, 300 infants which surrounds it.So it has built far out in the tenements are demonstrating the ef into the water six great two-story piers, fect of the same germs. As all the bacteria large enough to hold an army comfortably
, are represented in the various lots of milk
and the upper story of each is given to the supplied to the slums, the institute has only people. Three of these recreation piers are to choose the babies who are fed on the dif on the West side and three on the East, ferent kinds to make the conditions for its
located at the very points where they can experiment perfect, within limitations.
be of use to the greatest number of people. What they are the doctors appointed to The need of these breathing spaces is shown watch over tenement babies know only too clearly by the shifting thousands that make liell . They spend, perhaps, days in their
a day's population of the piers; especially district securing their quota of babies. The in the case of the mothers and infants and
children of all ages. Summer kindergarten is one of the attractions provided here by the city. Not only the city, moreover
, but also churches, societies, and associations
illustrating it in the only way they can un
. I once the experiment is started; so
With a summer's record of 40,000 infants and older children, and 20,000 moth
crs taken out to sea, the doctors and nurses women doctors have their hands full every day, but the -11ccessful than
benefit of their object lessons does not end ent mothers,
le to to P
aind of milk. paweed so muc?