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in charge of it. Mr. Mondell of Wyoming, who was leader of the forces on the floor of the House, and Mr. Reeder of Kansas, for effective work on the committee, deserve special credit. Representative Francis G. Newlands, who has long been working for the passage of such a measure, again did effective work. Representative Tongue of Oregon, as chairman of the committee, and Representative Sutherland of Utah, were also prominently identified with the bill."
Public discussion turns more upon markets than on any one proposition in planning for our national prosperity. The policy of the United States for the last forty years has been to build up home markets, not only for our manufacturers, but for our farmers as well. We have built up our
KERN RIVER IRRIGATION WORKS, CALIFORNIA. manufactories in order that we may have home markets for our farmers, as the one hundredth meridian. and also to encourage everything that could we sold $950,000,000 worth of American permanently live and prosper within the farm products in foreign countries, and we United States through the diversification of are developing a market for our products in our industries.
Asia which will absorb the whole surplus Forty-six years ago Iowa was
of farm products from the West, no matter country and there was no homestead law, how many additional acres of arid land we so the settlers bought their land. Their may reclaim and cultivate. The products Eastern friends were somewhat alarmed as of the Western lands will simply increase to what the result might be, but the East the great aggregate of wealth which the built railroads to Iowa pioneers, and some American farmer is bringing back to this times went farther west than they had gone country for our agricultural exports.” and waited for them to come, and the re The unpleasant conviction has been sult in regard to marketing the Western forced upon us that the United States in farm products was in some cases unsatis- its population is becoming somewhat out factory to the Eastern farmer, but the East- of balance as regards the town and the ern manufacturer got such a market as is country. The cities are growing in propornot to be found anywhere else in the world tion faster than the country. There is danoutside of the Mississippi Valley; and the ger in this and everything possible should prosperity of the manufacturer has in turn be done to promote the growth of rural brought prosperity to the Eastern farmer population. Uncle Sam has taken the Whatever temporary detriment the opening greatest step in this regard in the passing up of the Western lands did to the Eastern of the Irrigation Bill, which means thoufarmer has been wholly overcome and sands of new homes in the West. Uncle overbalanced by the benefit which the Sam has a great deal of land and a great Eastern farmer has received from the deal of water out there. That land is arid establishment of the great manufac and the water which should make it proturing industries of the East. As ductive is running to waste. Uncle Sam Congressman Newlands of Nevada once will wet some of those great mountains, said in a speech delivered at a banquet to valleys and plains and build more homes a number of public prominent men, “We and make more markets, have gone on developing the West as far That is the development of the United
States that will do the most good. It will ury, to be known as the “reclamation fund, take many years to wet all that dry land, to be used in the examination and survey but the first great step has been taken, and for and the construction and maintenance it is only a matter of time when the great of irrigation works for the storage, diverstretch of now desert country will give sion, and development of waters for the forth bountiful harvests to increase the reclamation of arid and semi-arid lands in wealth of the entire country. Uncle Sam the said States and Territories, and for has given the West its greatest gift. There the payment of all other expenditures pronow dawns upon this great tract of coun vided for in this Act : try a future so bright that it is impossible "Provided, That in case the receipts from to even prophesy the wonderful develop- the sale and disposal of public lands other ment that is now within reach.
than those realized from the sale and disOwing to its great importance and the posal of lands referred to in this section are widespread interest manifested in the bill, insufficient to meet the requirements for the I herewith append the full text of the law: support of agricultural colleges in the sev
"An Act appropriating the receipts from eral States and Territories, under the Act the sale and disposal of public lands in of August thirtieth, eighteen hundred and certain States and Territories to the con ninety, entitled "An Act to apply a portion
of the proceeds of the public lands to the more complete endowment and support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, established under the provisions of an Act of Congress, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two," the deficiency, if any, in the sum necessary for the support of the said colleges shall be provided for from any money's in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.
“Section 2. That the SecreIn the development of this system 500,000 acres of land can be re tary of the Interior is hereby claimed at an estimated cost of not over $10 per acre. This land reclaimed will be worth from $35 to $50 per acre and will support a large agricul
authorized and directed to make tural population.
examinations and surveys for,
and to locate and construct, as struction of irrigation works for the reclam
herein provided, irrigation works for the ation of arid lands.
storage, diversion, and development of "Be it enacted by the Senate and House
waters, including artesian wells, and of Representatives of the United States of
to report to Congress at the beginAmerica in Congress assembled :
ning of each regular session as to "That all money's received from the sale the results of such examinations and surand disposal of public lands in Arizona,
veys, giving estimates of cost of all conCalifornia. Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Mon
templated works, the quantity and location tana, Nebraska Nevada, New Mexico, of the lands which can be irrigated thereNorth Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South from, and all facts relative to the practiDakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, cability of each irrigation project; also the beginning with the fiscal year ending June cost of works in process of construction as thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one, includ
well as of those which have been completed. ing the surplus of fees and commissions in
“Section 3. That the Secretary of the excess of allowances to registers and receiv
Interior shall, before giving the public noers, and excepting the five per centum of
tice provided for in section four of this Act, the proceeds of the sales of public lands in
withdraw from public entry the lands rethe above States set aside by law for edu
quired for any irrigation works contemcational and other purposes shall be, and plated under the provisions of this Act, and the same are hereby, reserved, set aside, and
shall restore to public entry any of the lands appropriated as a special fund in the Treas
so withdrawn when, in his judgment, such
"Provided, that the commutation provisions of the homestead laws shall not apply to entries made under this Act.
“Section 4. That upon the determination by the Secretary of the Interior that any irrigation project is practicable, he may cause to be let contracts for the construction of the same in such portions or sections as it may be practicable to construct and complete as parts of the whole project, providing the necessary funds for such portions or sections are available in the reclamation fund, and thereupon he shall give public notice of the lands irrigable under such project, and limit of area per entry, which limit shall represent the acreage which, in the opinion of the Secretary, may
be reasonably required for the A MOVABLE PUMPING PLANT.
support of a family upon the Part of a Texas system for irrigating rice fields. The water is pumped lands in question; also of the from the Rio Grande river into canals. The pumps have a combined capacity of 48,000 gallons per minute.
charges which shall be made per
acre upon the said entries, and lands are not required for the purposes of upon lands in private ownership which may this Act; and the Secretary of the Interior be irrigated by the waters of the said irriis hereby authorized, at or immediately prior gation project, and the number of annual to the time of beginning the surveys for installments, not exceeding ten, in which any contemplated irrigation works, to with such charges shall be paid and the time draw from entry, except under the home when such payments shall commence. The stead laws, any public lands believed to be said charges shall be determined with a susceptible of irrigation from said works; view of returning to the reclamation fund
"Provided, That all lands entered and en- the estimated cost of construction of the tries made under the homestead laws within project, and shall be apportioned equitably: areas so withdrawn during such withdrawal **Provided, That in all construction work shall be subject to all the provisions, lim- eight hours shall constitute a day's work, itations, charges, terms, and conditions of and no Mongolian labor shall be employed this Act: that said surveys shall be prose thereon. cuted diligently to completion, and upon “Section 5. That the entryman upon the completion thereof, and of the neces lands to be irrigated by such works shall, sary maps, plans, and estimates of cost, the in addition to compliance with the homeSecretary of the Interior shall determine stead laws, reclaim at least one-half of the whether or not said project is practicable total irrigable area of his entry for agriand advisable, and if determined to be im- cultural purposes, and before receiving patpracticable or unadvisable he shall there
ent for the lands covered by his entry shall upon restore said lands to entry; that pub- pay to the Government the charges apporlic lands which it is proposed to irrigate by tioned against such tract, as provided in means of any contemplated works shall be
section four. No right to the use of water subject to entry only under the provisions for land in private ownership shall be sold of the homestead laws in tracts of not less
for a tract exceeding one hundred and than forty nor more than one hundred and
sixty acres to any one landowner, and no sixty acres, and shall be subject to the lim- such sale shall be made to any landowner itations, charges. terms, and conditions unless he be an actual bona-side resident herein provided :
on such land, or occupant thereof residing
in the neighborhood of said land, and no waters of any of the works herein provided such right shall permanently attach until for, then the management and operation of all payments therefor are made. The an such irrigation works shall pass to the nual installments shall be paid to the re owners of the lands irrigated thereby, to be ceiver of the local land office of the district maintained at their expense under such in which the land is situated, and a failure form of organization and under such rules to make any two payments when due shall and regulations as may be acceptable to the render the entry subject to cancellation, Secretary of the Interior: with the forfeiture of all rights under this “Provided, That the title to and the manAct, as well as of any moneys already paid agement and operation of the reservoirs thereon. All moneys received from the and the works necessary for their protecabove
shall be paid into the tion and operation shall remain in the Gov
reclamation fund. Registers and receivers ernment until otherwise provided by Conshall be allowed the usual commissions on gress. all moneys paid for lands entered under this "Section 7. 'That where in carrying out Act.
the provisions of this Act it becomes neces"Section 6. That the Secretary of the sary to acquire any rights or property, the Interior is hereby authorized and directed Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorto use the reclamation fund for the opera ized to acquire the same for the United tion and maintenance of all reservoirs and States by purchase or by condemnation unirrigation works constructed under the pro der judicial process, and to pay from the visions of this Act.
reclamation fund the sums which may be "Provided, That when the payments re needed for that purpose, and it shall be the quired by this Act are made for the ma duty of the Attorney-General of the United jor portion of the lands irrigated from the States upon every application of the Secre