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sun and the moon: at these many simple people at their going in and out of the church did their reverence, because they said, the Lord their God was there."--Ibid p. 15.-Neal Vol. 11. p. 233. “ The recorder proved in his defence, that the church of St. Edmund's was a lay fee; and legally exempted from the jurisdiction of the bishop: that consequently those who had purchased the church had lawful power to alter the windows : he set forth the gross blunders of the painter, and proved by acts of parliament made in the reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth that all pictures should be removed out of churches."Rapin, Vol. x. p. 260.-" He alleged that it was agreed by the parishioners at a vestry, at which were present six justices of the peace, that the glass should be changed; and that accordingly he took down a quarry or two in a quiet and peaceable manner."--Neal, Vol. 11. p. 234. said he did not pretend to justify the errors of the painter, but observed, that God being called in scripture the Ancient of Days, mght lead him into it. But that Shorfield was much more to blame than the painter, for daring to make alterations without licence. In short, Shorfield was sentenced to pay five hundred pounds ; (Laud would have had it a thousand pounds :) to make a public acknowledgment of his fault, before such persons as the bishop should please to name: to be committed (close prisoner) to the fleet ; to be removed from his recordership; and be bound to his good behaviour." --Rapin, Vol. x. p. 61, 62.

si Laud

CHAP. IX.

The King manifestly labours a coalition with

the Church of Rome, and strongly favours Popery.

IT is now evident that Jaines I. (the father of king Charles, under whom he was educated, and for whose maxims and conduct he always expressed the highest veneration) was strongly inclined, if not actually reconciled, to the church of Rome. “ This appears from his secret treaty with the king of Spain in 1596, managed by John Ogleby a Scotch baron, who declared to his catholic majesty, that king James would turn catholic, and enter into a confederacy with his holiness (the pope) and his catholic majesty against the queen of England, and produced a letter of credence of the said king James, presenting a memorial of the reasons that induced him, the king of Scotland, to be reconciled to the see apostolic. This transaction is mentioned by none of our historians. The papers relating io this affair were found amongst Sir R. Winwood's; which the reader may see in the collection of state papers lately published by Edm. Sayer, Esq. Vol. i. p. 11."- Rapin, Vol. x. p. 274.

Mons. Dageant's Memoirs and the archbishop of Embrun's narrative of his own conference with king James put his good affection to the popish religion beyond all reasonable doubt.

This prince (Charles) formed under such a father, when negociating his marriage with the princess of Spain at Madrid, wrote with his own hand“ a letter to pope Gregory XV. (who had written to him exhorting him to come into the bosom of the church, and imitate his glorious ancestors, who had done so great things for the de

fence of religion.) In which letter he addresses him-- Most HOLY FATHER- and says, - It was an unspeakable pleasure to me to read the generous exploits of the kings my predecessors.1 believe your holiness hath set their erample before my eyes, to the end that I may imitate them in all my actions; for in truth they have often exposed their estates and lives for the exaltation of the holy chair. I do not esteem it a greater honour to be descended from so great princes, than to imitate them in the zeal of their piety.--I intreat your holiness to believe, that I have been always far from encouraging novelties, or to be a partisan of any faction against the catholic, apostolic roman religion-and I will employ my· self for the time to come, to have but one religion and one faith, seeing that we all believe in one Jesus Christ : having resolved in myself to spare nothing I have in the world, and to suffer all manner of discommodities, even to the hazarding my estate and life, for a thing so pleasing to God."-Rapin, Vol. 1x. p. 535. There is another copy of this letter in Rapin ; in which the expressions are more qualified ; but which is the most authentic, seems not easy to determine.

What the sentiments of this prince, Charles I. were of the popish religion, and how he stood affected to it, may farther be seen in the articles of the marriage treaty, to which he signed and solemnly swore.

Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, provide :- That the princess, his intended spouse, her men-servants and maid-servants, their children, descendants, servants, and all their families, of what sort soever, may be freely and publicly catholics. That she shall have in her palace a chapel, and near her palace a public and capacious church, adorned as she should think convenient;" i. e. with popish decorations and utensils.

Articles, 10, 11, 18, Allow her twenty-four priests and assistants, with a bishop over them, exercising episcopal authority and jurisdiction ; wearing their vestments and habits according to the custom of Rome.

Article 13, provides that the princess and her servants may procure from Rome dispensations, indulgencies, jubilees, and all graces, and all manner of catholic books whatsoever.

Article 16, That the laws against catholics in England, or any other part of the king's dominions, shall not extend to the children of this marriage : and though they be catholics they shall not lose the right of succession to the kingdom.

Articles 17, 20, That the nurses for the children shall be chosen by the princess : and both sons and daughters shall be brought up under her care, at least

till the age of ten years." - Ibid, Vol. IX. p. 544. It was afterward enlarged to thirteen years.

Besides these, he swore also to four private articles. "I. That no laws made against roman catholics shall at any time hereafter, by any means or chance whatsoever, directly or indirectly, be commanded to be put in execution. II. That no other laws shall hereafter be made anew against them; but there shall be a perpetual toleration of the roman catholic religion within private houses throughout all his dominions. III. That he will never, either by himself or any other person whatsoever, directly or indirectly, treat or attempt any thing with the princess which shall be repugnant to the romish religion ; nor by any means persuade her to relinquish or renounce it. IV. That he will use all his authority and influence to have all and singular these articles in favour of the roman catholics ratified and confirmed by parliament; and to have the laws against them revoked : and that no new laws should ever hereafter be enacted against them."-Rapin, Vol. ix. p. 548.

The words of the oath were these, -- " I Charles engage myself, that all things contained in the foregoing articles, which concern as well the suspension as the abrogation of all laws made against roman catholics, shall within three years infallibly take effect, and sooner if possible : which we will have to lie upon our conscience and royal honour. Furthermore, as oft as the princess shall desire that I should give ear to divines and others whom her highness shall be pleased to employ in matters of the romish religion, I will hearken to them willingly, without ali difficulty, and laying aside all excuse."— Neal, Vol. 11. p. 142.

These were the articles of the Spanish match, which was just ready to be consummated. the marriage with the daughter of France, the same (or rather greater) advantages were stipulated for the catholics. It was agreed to be celebrated according to the form of the church of Rome; and ratified in England without the intervention of any church ceremony. And the children, which should be born, were to be brought up by their mother till thirteen years of age. This last article was of very bad consequence to England; it had very near been the ruin of church and state.”Rapin, Vol. ix. p. 596.

In prosecution of the great design of reconciling the two churches of England and Rome, or of bringing the former to a state of rivalship or resemblance of the latter,—“ Laud, visiting the university (of Oxford for the king, made a new body of statutes; in the preface to which he se

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