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3. What is the slack season with you? From

to 4. What is the busy season with you? From

to 5. Is difficulty experienced in obtaining efficient journeymen workmen for

permanent employment?

(a) Is so, in what occupations?
(6) Is this difficulty due to

(1) Lack of an apprenticeship system in the shop?
(2) Lack of opportunity to learn the trade in the shop?

(3) Other causes? (Specify.) 6. What is the age period of maximum productivity for workers? (Indicate

age at which the journeyman commonly begins to earn full wage, and age

at which earning power begins to decline.) From age years, to age

years. Are there exceptional occupations to which the age limits specified do not apply? If so, indicate

the limits for these exceptional occupations. 7. After how many years' experience as an apprentice and journeyman does a

journeyman ordinarily earn his maximum wage? 8. In what occupations is the demand for more workers likely to increase most rapidly during the next five years?

(Explain why.)

9. Is the supply of unskilled labor becoming greater or less, relatively to the demand for it?

The supply of skilled labor ? Why? 10. Are promotions frequently made in your establishment from one occupa

tion to another? 11. What is the usual line of promotion for a journeyman? 12. Are individual workmen frequently shifted from one process, or machine,

or occupation to another? 13. What trades can a boy learn in your shop thoroughly? 14. Can untrained beginners be used ?

In what occupations can they be used ? 15. Is the foreign-trained worker a better workman? If so, why? (Is it, for

example, due to superior natural ability, or to better training in school,

or in shop?)

What are the deficiencies of the native Americans? 16. Can you retain thoroughly trained efficient workmen permanently in your 23. What conditions, if any, are to be guarded against as exerting morally un

employ, or do you find it necessary to lay off such men at certain seasons?

PART II.--('onditions under which the work is performed.

[In answering questions 17 to 24 specify in each case occupations and conditions. ]

17. What conditions involve peculiar physical training? (Specify jobs and

conditions.) 18. What conditions involve peculiar nervous strain? (Specify jobs and condi

tions.) -19. What conditions tend to impair health? (Specify jobs and conditions.)

20. What conditions especially stimulate the intelligence of the workers?

(Specify jobs and conditions.) 21. What conditions, if any, narrow and restrict the mental development of the

worker? (Specify jobs and conditions.) 22. What conditions tend to kill out the worker's ambition and interest in his

trade? (Specify jobs and conditions.)

wholesome influences? (Specify jobs and conditions.) 24. What other conditions of work are important as affecting the welfare of

the workers? (Specify jobs and conditions.)

PART III.—How workers are trained.

25. Does the worker receive any instruction or training in your establishment more than he can pick up on the job?

If so, who gives it to him? (Indicate nature of training.) 26. What occupations in your shop can be learned in the shop with little or no

instruction? 27. What are the terms of any agreement of apprenticeship under which ap

prentices are now working in your shop? (If possible, provide copies of

such agreements.) 28. Do you find that those who are apprenticed have a better attitude toward

their work than those who are not? (Specify advantages and disadvantages of formal apprenticeship.)

PART IV.--Relation of occupation to school training.

29. In what ways have you found the industry hampered by a lack of ele

mentary school education on the part of beginners? What knowledge that beginners should have is most frequently lacking?

(Specify occupations and deficiencies in detail.) 30. In what occupations, if any, is general school training beyond the seventh

grade of value in increasing efficiency as workers? 31. Assuming that school training beyond the seventh grade is an advantage,

what subjects should be taught? 32. What kind of a school would most help workers in the various occupations

during the apprenticeship period ?
Day schools
Part-time day schools
Night schools

Other schools (specify)
For which occupations do you believe that such schools could be provided

to best advantage? --

In your opinion, what should be taught in such a school? 33. If a part-time day school were established, would you as an employer be 39. What tests do you apply to determine fitness or efficiency of applicants?

willing to enter into an agreement providing for a definite period of attendance of apprentices at such a school for a definite number of hours

each week, paying them the usual wage while in school? 34. For what occupations would you enter into such an agreement? 35. If a part-time day school were established, in your opinion how many hours

per week should an apprentice attend? 36. In your opinion, what should the schools do for the worker before he enters

the shop? (Consider what amount of general education the school should give, what amount of vocational or industrial training, etc., and in general what the schools should give that is needed in the shop but can not be

acquired in the shop.) 37. What do you believe a night school should teach to help the journeyman

who wants to advance in his trade? 38. What questions do you ask applicants for work?

40. What records are kept in your shop to determine efficiency of workmen?

41. How can the worker be given an interest in his work? Can you suggest a

modification of conditions in the shop or in shop practice or in school

training? 42. Would you be willing to cooperate with the schools in an effort to organize

shop practice so as to develop interest and efficiency on the part of the

worker? (2) The individual schedules, obtained from the workers, cover such important points as:

Age distribution of apprentices and workers and the nativity of the workers, by trades.

The regular hours of daily and weekly labor, by trades.
Time lost by workers, by trades.
Causes of loss of time.
Extent of fluctuation of employment, by trades.
Extent of overtime worked, by trades.
Years of experience as wage earners of workers.
Years of experience in present occupation and in other occupations.
Age of entrance upon wage-earning occupations, by trades.
Period of apprenticeships served in years by workers in different trades.
Relation of years of experience to hourly wage.

Change of place of employment during apprenticeship, by trades, and reason for changing.

Extent to which workers receive proper instruction in the shop while learning the trade.

Highest, lowest, and average wages, by occupations within trades.
Locality in which workers learned trades.
Change of occupations of present workers, by trades.

Mistits in present position by trades as to natural ability, training, and experience.

Employees working under conditions causing strain or impairing health, through occupational disease.

Possibilities of learning different trades completely in the shop.
Age of leaving school of apprentices and workers.
Hourly and weekly wages of apprentices and workers, by trades.

The following, taken also from the Richmond Survey, illustrates the extent of the individual schedule":

66

INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF RICHMOND, VA.

INDIVIDUAL SCHEDULE.

¡NOTE.—All information furnished on this card will be held strictly confidential and used only to determine what kind of industrial education will best meet the needs of persons engaged in the industries of Richmond.)

Name
1. Age

years.
2. Place of birth: (a) City

(b) State

(c) Country

3. Occupation ---
4. Member of what union ?
5. Name of employer
6. (a) Regular number of hours of labor per day (except Saturday) ?
(b) On Saturday?

(c) Total per week?
7. (a) Wage per hour?
(b) Overtime wage per hour?

(c) Wage per week, not including overtime? (NOTE.— Pieceworkers should give approximate estimate of earnings, and state piecework."] E. How many weeks of work did you lose during the year ended June 1, 1914,

through: (NOTE.--Estimate number of weeks where you can not give exact number. ] (a) Sickness, weeks. (b) Accident, weeks. (c) Factory shut

down, weeks. (d) Temporarily laid off, weeks. (e)

weeks. (f) Total time lost, weeks. 9. If you were on part time during any portion of the year, how many weeks?

(b) How many weeks overtime? 10. How many years have you been in your present trade, including apprenticeship?

years. 11. How many years did you serve as an apprentice? years. 12. At what age did you begin to learn your trade? 13. (a) Name of city in which you learned your trade?

(b) In how many shops were you employed during your apprenticeship? --- (c)

What were your reasons for changing your place of employment? 14. (a) Is your present occupation one for which you feel that your training, experience, and ability best fit you?

(b) If not, specify occupation for which you are better fitted 15. (a) If you had had opportunities for suitable training, do you feel that you would have been more successful in some other occupation?

(b) If so, in what occupation ? 16. Does your work involve peculiar physical or nervous strain?

(Specify in detail the nature and consequences of such strain.) 17. Are there conditions of your work which tend to impair health?

(Specify in detail.)

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19. Check (-) those qualities most essential to success in your trade:
(a) Mental alertness.
(b) Special adaptability.

(c) Ini-
tiative.
(d) Accuracy.
(e) Patience.

(f)
Strength.
(g) Endurance.

(h) Keenness of sight.
(i) Dexterity.

(j)
20. (a) While learning your trade did you receive proper help and instruc-

tion? ----- (b) What kind of help or instruction that you should have
received was not given? (Specify any difficulties encountered by you in
learning your trade.)

21. Can a boy learn your trade thoroughly in the shop?
22. At what age did you leave school?
23. What grade did you complete?
24. In what ways, if at all, have you found yourself hamperr 1 by a lack of

knowledge or of school training?
25. Indicate below any school courses, including correspondence courses, taken

since leaving school :

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26. Why did you take these courses? (Specify reasons for each course.)
27. Did this school work result in increase of wages? (State, if possible,

amount of increase in wages due to this work.)
28. What other benefits did you receive from these courses?
29. In your opinion, what should the schools teach to help the worker before

he begins to learn your trade? 30. What do you think a part-time school should teach a beginner during his

apprenticeship? 31. What could an evening school teach to help you in your occupation?

TABULAR ANALYSES.

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Tabular analyses of occupations or operations by industries or trade groups.—The purpose of this character of analysis is to present in brief summaries a description of each occupation or operation for immediate visualizations, which will show the characteristics of the occupations or operations in comparative form. Each such tabulation presents the analysis under two general heads—“Findings about occupations or operations in the industry” and “Findings about education for occupations or operations in the industry."

The method of gathering material for the above analyses is by visitation to shops and factories to study at first hand industrial processes and conditions and secure the schedule information. This method purposes also to explain to employers and employees the nature of the inquiry and to secure their cooperation. Each interview represents a personal conference (which is of a strictly confidential nature in so far as the individual is concerned) of about 20 minutes for the purpose of filling out the scheduled questions.

The following analysis of painting as used in the Richmond survey is an illustration of the "tabular analysis.”

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