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In these courses many teachers, vocational counselors, and civic and social workers have received suggestions intended to help them advise youth. Gradually the vocational counselor will have less teaching and more professional counseling to do.

OUTLINE OF COURSE ON VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AT BOSTON UNIVERSITY.

1. The Need of Vocational Guidance.

Discussion of investigations of the problem.
Local experiences.
Federal report.
The dropping out from school.
Problems and discussion.

English reports.
2. Methods of Investigation.

Needs.
Details of a typical study.
Analysis of “necessity" as a cause for leaving school.
Standard authorities.
Problem of school and college education.

Problems and discussion.
3. The Scope of Vocational Guidance.

Tentative definition.
Description of main issues.
Analysis of terms.
Discussion of various definitions.
Beginnings in vocational guidance.
Problems and discussion.

Reading of class papers. 4. The Start in Life.

Entrance into a trade.
English apprenticeship, etc.
Present-day industry.
Material for vocational guidance.

Problems and discussion. 5. Occupational Study.

Outline of method.

Addresses by employers, etc. 6. Classification of occupations.

Analysis of demands and qualifications.

Addresses by employer, etc. 7. Material for Vocational Investigation.

Conference with experts.

Discussion of reports. 8. Social Legislation and Vocational Guidance.

Lecture and symposium by specialists. 9. Educational Survey and Guidance.

Methods of educational guidance in schools.
Symposium.

Review of material.
10. Factors in Vocational Choice.

Personal, educational, social, and economic analysis. 11. Factors in Vocational Choice (continued).

12. Vocational Guidance Technique.

Analysis of individual cases.
Typical sessions of counselors.

Methods of recording data.
13. Phases of the Vocational Guidance Movement.

Review of experiences.

The work of a vocational bureau. 14. Vocational Guidance Abroad.

England.

Scotland. 15. Germany. 16. Methods of Follow-up and After-care.

Discussion of programs.

Medical inspection at the start in life. 17. Relation to Employers.

Hiring, promotion, discharge.

Symposium. 18. Relation to Employers (continued). 19. Relation to Vocational Education and Other Movements.

Prevocational, etc., types of schools.

Educational readjustment.
20. Review of Investigations by Members of the Class.

Social gains.
Organizing vocational guidance.

Final definition and terminology. This course of study aims to provide teachers with the theory and technique of vocational counseling. Following is a list of some of the topics treated by experts at the Boston counselors' meetings:

TOPICS TREATED AT BOSTON COUNSELORS' MEETINGS.

The shoe industry.

Opportunities in the department store. The boy and girl in the department A social suggestion on boys and girls store,

as wage earners. The machine industry.

Trained nursing. A group of trades for boys.

Condition in industry for the young The telephone industry for girls.

girl wage earner. Stenography and typewriting for girls. Vocational opportunities for the girl Bookbinding for girls.

who completes the high school. Architecture.

The shoe and leather industry. The use of statistics.

Lunch-room and restaurant work for Mechanical and civil engineering. young women. Electrical engineering.

The department store. The machine trades.

Education for store employment. Agriculture.

The metal trades, Textile-mill working.

The profession of business. The building trades.

Girls in the candy factory. The selling clerk.

Printing. The needle trades.

The new child-labor law. Through parents.- Vocational guidance has a great opportunity and responsibility in its cooperation with parents and parents' organizations.

The Boston Home and School Association, for example, is founded on the basic principle of the proper home training of children. To the clear conceptions of the value of fostering cooperation between the home and the school, of the importance of studying methods of child training, and of the relation of civic improvement to child welfare is to be attributed the notable growth of the association.

Through this organization parent and teacher unite in working for the child. Such understanding and cooperation meet a great

. need in the public-school system.

The meetings of parents' associations furnish a rare opportunity for parents and teachers to become acquainted. The parent may tell the teacher his ambitions for the child and explain peculiarities which might otherwise puzzle the teacher; the teacher, on the other hand, has an opportunity to explain motive and method in school work and to act as a friendly adviser. In vocational guidance this work is of supreme importance, dealing with the home side of guidance, and may be briefly summed up by a quotation from an annual report of the association:

In no place is this mutual assistance more necessary than in choosing a vocation. Neither the parent nor the teacher can decide, to the pupil's best advantage, as to what occupation he should go into until his intellectual propensities, as shown by his school work, are measured with his general aptitudes as illustrated in his home life. Consultations of parents and teachers have proved most effective in gaining a true estimate of the pupil's fitness. That the parents appreciate the value of such cooperation is shown by the large attendance at the meetings where the subject of vocational opportunities and preparation for a vocation is discussed. The opportunity to meet personally a vocational adviser has been gladly seized by the parents. In order to obtain data which will give the teachers enlightenment with regard to every child, the Home and School Association proposes to send out to parents a questionnaire which will elicit the following information : 1. The educational ambitions of parents for their children. 2. How much parents know of educational opportunities. 3. The vocational ambitions of parents for their children. 4. Limitations of parents to carry out their desires. 5. How much parents know of vocational opportunities, and how much serious thought they have given to the vocational needs of their children.

The vocation bureau has counseled with parents and advisers of youth from its beginning. It has cooperated with the Boston Home and School Association steadily, and the two organizations have published jointly The Boston Home and School News-Letter, which has been of value to the fathers and mothers of thousands of school children.

Through employers.—The vocation bureau has constantly borne in mind the proposition that a sound development of its work depends not only on close contact with schools, neighborhoods, teachers, parents, and children, but also with employers, business bodies, industrial experts, and the occupations themselves in all their breadth,

variety, and changes. Occupational investigation, fundamental though it be, is not vocational guidance. The investigation determines, to be sure, what kind of cooperation is possible or desirable, and on what terms; it is the basis of vocational information, of plan making for special training courses in schools, and of social and legislative action; but the vocational guidance idea requires that contact with the employments be something more than onlooking. Moreover, there are splendid agencies for specialized research, such as the Sage Foundation, with its thoroughgoing studies of industry. A vocation bureau must be, among other things, a research body; nevertheless, it must depend for some of its most valuable material on important research agencies. Moreover, its work must not duplicate the work of the child-welfare agencies, nor solely promote vocational education. The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education and the commissions at work in various cities and States are better equipped for this work. It is the special business of a vocation bureau to organize the prolonged service which takes hold of the child when the life career motive is awakened, to help guide, train, and tide over that child during the difficult transition period into the occupations; direct the child, when it is genuinely ready for employment, into the most advantageous openings possible; and stand by the young workers, so far as may be, throughout their occupational life.

The employer's interest is absolutely essential to such a plan. To fail to profit by his criticism, by his point of view, by his important cooperative possibilities, is to invite failure. The bureau is in close touch with a large number of industrial, commercial, and professional concerns in sympathy with its purposes. Employers have approved its methods and have supported its efforts for more thoroughgoing protection and opportunity for the young worker.

Better to understand the employer's relation to vocational guidance, the bureau organized in 1912 a conference of employment managers. Men representing a score or more of the important manufacturing and business establishments have been meeting regularly in informal conference. In December, 1912, an Employment Managers' Association was formed, whose objects are defined in its constitution as follows:

ARTICLE I.

NAME AND OBJECT.

SECTION 1. The name of this organization shall be the Employment Managers' Association.

SEC. 2. The objects and purposes of the organization shall be: 1. To discuss problems of employees; their training and their efficiency.

2. To compare experiences which shall throw light on failures and successes in conducting the employment department.

3. To invite experts or other persons who have knowledge of the best methods or experiments for ascertaining the qualifications of employees, and providing for their advancement; and more particularly to study the questions connected with the most effective employment of young people.

Through research and publications.-Vocational guidance, like vocational education, must base its work not only upon a study of the youth and his environment, but upon accurate knowledge of the occupations open to young people. Such knowledge, wherever possible, should be gained by first-hand investigation of shops and factories and business offices in every community.

The objects to be sought for in such studies are:
1. To present vocational facts simply and accurately.

2. To make accessible a knowledge of all the employments—the professions as well as the trades, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled; the business, the homemaking, and governmental callings; and also any new and significant vocational activities of men and women.

3. So far as possible to supply parents, teachers, and others interested with the material necessary for an intelligent consideration of the occupations, their needs, demands, opportunities, relative desirability, training requirements, and the possibilities they offer for careers.

4. To analyze the relation of vocational aptitudes, interests, and habits to modern industrial demands, and thus lay an adequate foundation for a system of training regardful of social as well as economic needs.

The proper utilization of such material should make for a heightened interest in the community's training opportunities, and should make the fact increasingly clear that society will gain immensely by devoting the adolescent period in whole or in part to preparing for the start in life. Above all, the studies should help toward a clearer understanding of what working life ought to develop in social as well as in wage-earning efficiency.

They should show also clearly and emphatically what the world of employment expects and demands of the vocational school.

The movements for vocational guidance and vocational education have done nothing better than in making clear the social wastefulness of employing children from 14 to 16 years of age without a compensating program of training. These are the foundation years of vocational efficiency. Skilled mechanics know this, and they safeguard these years for their children by careful search of available apprenticeship opportunities.

The laws in several States stipulate that children from 14 to 16 years of age must be at work or at school. These provisions mean

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