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schools for the direct purpose of fitting these boys and girls to take their right place in life. As has been previously stated, already several States have undertaken the solution of this problem through legislation. It may be possible that such legislation is only tentative; it must of necessity be subject to constant revision and constant amendment. Nevertheless, the fact remains that these States at least recognize the need for this particular type of education in order to provide an equal opportunity for all.
TYPES OF VOCATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
A directory of secondary vocational schools now in operation in the several States is printed on pages 22-32 of this bulletin. It was compiled after a careful and detailed analysis of the several types of vocational schools. This analysis included also the industrial arts, commercial arts, practical arts, and technical schools, as well as the vocational schools. The following is the analysis as sent to each individual school, including the detailed description of each type of school which accompanies it.
NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION.
COMMITTEE UPON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE.
You are asked to fill in the name of your school as indicated. In order that we may know how to classify your school in our list, you are also asked to check in the following list the type which your particular school comes nearest to fitting.1 Kindly return this sheet to the committee at your earliest convenience.
ANALYSIS OF TYPES OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES.
A. Agricultural Schools.
I. Vocational agricultural day school.
B. Commercial Schools.
I. Vocational commercial day school. (a) Part-time commercial school. II. Commercial arts school.
III. Evening commercial school.
(a) Vocational commercial evening school.
C. Industrial Schools.
I. Vocational industrial day school.
(a) Vocational part-time industrial school.
(a) Vocational extension industrial school.
1 See booklet for complete statement of this analysis.
C. Industrial Schools-Continued.
IV. Continuation industrial school.
(a) Extension industrial continuation school.
D. Homemaking Schools.
I. Vocational homemaking day school.
II. Evening homemaking school.
(a) Vocational extension homemaking school.
E. Technical High School.
Town or City-
Name of School--
ANALYSIS OF TYPES OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES.
This analysis is based, as nearly as possible, both upon actual practice and general terms which are being used in the various parts of the country to distinguish between the several types of education involved.
You are asked to classify your particular school in accordance with this plan. In case none of the descriptions seem to fit your individual conditions, kindly make your own classification, telling us where in your opinion it should be placed in this scheme.
A. AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS.
Agricultural schools are those schools in which the teaching of some form of agriculture is made the prominent feature:
I. Vocational Agricultural Day School. Vocational agricultural day school is one in which the instruction is given in the daytime and under the real conditions of farm life. That is to say, the student must actually perform work upon land, or with stock or fruit, which work is productive and will teach him the actual operations involved.
These schools may be high schools devoting their entire time to agricultural education in this definite way, or to a study about the operations involved in the school time. This type of education may also be conducted as a department in a high school having other departments, such as preparatory courses, etc.
(a) Part-Time Agricultural School. Part-time agricultural education will be that form of education in which the pupil attends school one-half of the time, or thereabouts, and actually performs work upon farm projects the remaining portion of his time. His experience on the farm must be real productive experience.
II. Practical Arts Agricultural School. In these schools the work in agriculture will be of much more general nature than will that in the preceding schools. Under this head should be classified schools which offer work in home gardens or school gardens, which offer courses from agriculture textbooks without actual practical farm experience, and those which offer courses for the development of appreciation and interest in farming, or agriculture in general.
III. Farm-Extension School. It is known that farm-extension courses are provided through revenue from the United States Government in practically all
of the States in the country. Such courses are offered, for the benefit of persons now engaged in farm work and are not confined to age limitations. This committee desires to know if such work is carried on in the communities receiving this questionnaire.1
B. COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS.
Commercial schools are those schools in which the teaching of bookkeeping, stenography and typewriting, salesmanship, buying, filing, and general office practice are the controlling courses taught in the school.
I. Vocational Commercial Day School. In this type of school there will be offered either a two or four year course in such subjects as are indicated in the preceding description. So far as may be possible the real conditions of trade will be duplicated. The entire instruction will be carried on in the school. These schools may be conducted in some cases as a part of the fouryear commercial course so-called in some high schools. When so conducted, a positive distinction should be made between the work which is of a general character and is often offered during the first two years of the course, and that work which is of a more specific character and is offered for the purpose of training the students to become workers in the commercial field.
These schools may be known as commercial high schools devoting their entire time to commercial education or, as indicated above, they may form a part of the regularly conducted high school as a single department in that school.
(a) Part-Time Commercial School. Part-time commercial education is no doubt conducted in some communities. It is that form of education in which the pupil attends school a portion of the time and actually performs work in an office for the remaining portion of his time. The work carried on in the schools should be closely related to the work which is being carried on in the office. The office experiences must be real experiences and sufficiently varied to give the pupil an idea of general office practice.
II. Commercial-Arts School. In these schools the work in the commercial branches will be of a more general nature than that in the preceding schools. In addition to the work in the commercial subjects, there will in all probability be offered work in the general subjects of the school curriculum. In some instances, instead of real problems which the student is likely to meet in life, he will be studying general textbooks about commercial work and the way in which that work is carried on.
These courses or schools may be organized for the purpose of enabling the pupil to test out his own interest or desire for work of this nature. The courses may also be offered for certain pupils who desire to add to their general education the specific accomplishment of ability to use stenography or the typewriter.
III. Evening Commercial Schools. These schools may also be of the two types already described.
(a) Vocational Evening Schools. Those known as the vocational evening schools in which the entire emphasis is placed upon the acquisition of some specific form of commercial work, as the use of typewriting and stenography.
(b) Commercial-Arts Evening School. The commercial-arts course in the evening school in which a general acquaintance with commercial subjects is all that is expected to be accomplished by the course.
1 It is not known to this committee that evening courses in agriculture exist in any part of the country. If they do exist, they should be classified either as practical-arts or farmextension courses. Kindly classify any which you may have in this particular way.
C. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.
Industrial schools are those schools in which the teaching of some trade, or parts of trades, constitutes the work of the schools. These schools may include such work as carpentry, mining, and training of teamsters, printers, barbers, etc.
I. Vocational Industrial Day School. The vocational industrial day school is one in which the instruction is given in the daytime. So far as possible the actual conditions of the shop are duplicated. The product made is marketable. The student performs work which is productive at the same time that he is learning the operations involved.
These schools may be of the nature of high schools which devote their entire time to instruction in trades. They may give both what might be called elementary instruction in the vocation, admitting pupils at 14 years of age, or they may give advanced instruction, admitting pupils at 16 years of age. The control of the instruction in these schools, whether the work is done in school or shop, is directly in the hands of the school.
(a) Part-Time Vocational Industrial Schools will be those schools in which a considerable portion of the time, nearly one-half, is given to the instruction in the school itself, and the other one-half to the earning of wages in a shop.
In this type of school usually there is a definite effort to make the school responsible to a considerable extent for the shopwork, although the responsibility may be equally divided. For this classification, however, these facts need not be considered.
II. Evening Industrial School. The evening industrial school will be a school in which the instruction in the trade or occupation is carried on in the evening. The work in the school may consist either of the short unit course or of the progressive course of instruction. In these schools there will be usually admitted only those persons who are actually engaged in the industry for which the instruction is given.
(a) Vocational Extension Industrial School. In case the instruction is in a field corresponding to that in which the person is engaged, the school will be called an Extension Industrial School.
(b) In case the work in the school is different from that in which the student is employed, and is for the purpose of giving him a new trade, the school may be called a Preparatory Industrial School.
III. Industrial Arts School. In these schools work closely allied to the industries-that is to say the trades and occupations-will be given. There will not be any direct attempt to teach a vocation through the instruction given. The thought that will underlie the work is to provide the pupil with experience, which experience will enable him to know something of certain occupations, and which may result in enabling him to choose wisely for his own vocation. They do not offer specialized courses of work. They are sometimes known as Pre-Vocational Schools. Another object which may underlie these schools will be the development of appreciation and interest in certain specified industries.
IV. Continuation Industrial School. Continuation industrial schools are those schools made up, for the most part, of students who spend the greater portion of their time in the industry, but who are obliged up to the age of 18 years to attend school a few hours per week (in no case less than four hours). Like the evening industrial school, they may be separated into two types:
(a) Extension Industrial Continuation Schools, in which the instruction in the school is about the work which the student is doing in the daytime, or is closely related to that work.