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gerial or other related work. It has been proposed, for example, that a school for the preparation of superintendents and principals of schools should presuppose perhaps five years of experience as teacher before systematic study for the administrative work is begun.

V. PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.

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Because of the highly differentiated character of the trades and industries, a series of problems arise in industrial education which have not yet appeared in other fields.

Problem 1. To what extent and under what conditions shall training be given for highly specialized occupations in manufacturing and other related callings where so-called “unskilled” or specialized service is in large demand?

For example, in the manufacture of cotton and woolen cloth, the number of specialized occupations is now nearly 100. Some of these require little or no special training, and may be adequately supplied by the labor of children or women. In shoemaking, it is said that the number of specialized operations for each of which individual workers are specialized, reaches several hundred. Similar tendencies toward differentiation and specialization of occupation are found in the food-packing industries, iron and steel working industries, small hardware and jewelry manufacturing, printing and publishing, the building trades, transportation, and even certain phases of agriculture, such as sugar production, wheat-growing, etc. The building up of department stores, large jobbing houses, etc., in commerce increases also in a large degree specialization in salesmanship and clerical service.

(a) There is no evidence that the tendency toward extreme differentiation and specialization in occupational fields will be stayed. In proportion as economic units of production and exchange enlarge, supervision becomes more efficient, and mechanical devices are invented and improved, so, it would appear, in almost all occupational fields specialization and the relatively large employment of unskilled service seems to increase. The persistency of this tendency will depend upon the economic advantages resulting from such specialization.

(6) On the other hand, from the standpoint of the individual worker, serious questions as yet uninvestigated arise as to the psychological, moral, and physical effects of extremely specialized occupation. A large part of personal growth in character, physical powers, and probably also in mental capacity has always been dependent upon the occupation followed. Early specialization may Tesult in a complete arrest of development in these lines.

It is probable, however, that specialization of occupation for one whose physical growth has been completed is much less dangerous than for one still plastic. Hence, while extreme specialization for a worker at 15 years of age may give bad results, the same may not at all be true if the occupation is entered upon at the age of 22 or 23. This represents a promising field for further inquiry and investigation.

(c) In the meantime there are good grounds for urging that all persons be given an opportunity for systematic vocational education, either in some trade requiring various operations, or over a series of the special operations found in a highly specialized manufacturing or other economic process.

Problem 2. To what extent and under what conditions can training for foremanship be organized and conducted ?

In almost all fields of organized industry the post of foreman, overseer, or other special director of groups of workers is clearly recognized. Such posts commonly require (1) the degree of expert knowledge of the occupation which a skilled worker is supposed to possess; and also (2) qualities not easily described, but related to leadership, capacity to direct workers, knowledge of human nature, organizing ability, etc.

(a) Foremen must combine, of necessity, native ability with a high degree of training; hence almost invariably these must be selected men who have had considerable experience.

(6) Experience does not suggest that industrial schools can train foremen, as such, economically. Young people from 14 to 20 years of age can hardly be selected with reference to their native ability to serve as foremen. Hence, training in the special lines of knowledge required for foremanship would be largely wasted. On the other hand, when skilled workmen are selected after several years of experience for positions of foremanship they often find themselves handicapped for lack of the technical knowledge which foremen should have.

(c) Probably the need should be met by (1) a systematic course, offered to all alike, toward the occupational pursuit itself, followed by (2) opportunities at evening schools and short courses for workers who have had a few years' experience in the industry, further to qualify themselves if they desire.

Problem 3. To what extent shall prolonged courses of industrial training be offered to girls in industrial and other occupational fields, who, in the main, will spend but from four to seven years in the occupation, after which they will take up home making?

The census of the United States shows that at the present time there are employed in this country a very considerable number of girls from 14 to 20 years of age. It is well known that the large majority, probably at least 90 per cent of these in the wageearning callings, will take up homemaking as a career between the

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ages of 20 and 27 years. The problem of the industrial training of these, therefore, involves, on the one hand, comparatively short courses of training, and, on the other, courses which will produce the maximum degree of efficiency in early stages.

Problem 4. Are there callings in industrial fields intermediate between those of a strictly professional nature, such as engineering, and those of a strictly trade nature, for which a large degree of technical instruction, as distinguished from practical training, is desirable ?

It is sometimes alleged that there are such technical fields, for which, for example, the technical training offered in some of our high schools might be suited. Draftsmanship is sometimes alleged as an example, while in other fields such occupations as assaying, computing, and the like, may serve as examples. No sufficient anaylsis of these possibilities has yet been made.

Problem 5. What, at any given stage of vocational training for the industrial occupations, should be the proportion of time and energy of the pupil given, respectively, to technical instruction and to practical training?

Extreme and opposed examples of the problem under consideration are the following: (1) In the making of the machinist, a boy beginning at the age of 14 might devote his first two years very largely to such technical studies as drawing, mathematics, mechanics, and shop exercises, together with shopwork and shop English, and on the other hand give a minimum amount of attention to productive shopwork of a thoroughly practical nature. Between his sixteenth and eighteenth years the proportion of time given to his shopwork might be very greatly increased, with a diminution of the amount of attention given to technical work.

On the other hand, a program of training might be devised by which during the first year he might give from 60 to 80 per cent of his time to productive shopwork, with relatively only a small amount of technical instruction related to it. In his later years the proportion of time given to shopwork might be diminished, and the proportion of time given to technical instruction might be greatly increased

The problem involved is not one merely for a given individual, but one which shall meet the requirements of the largest proportion of individuals as these present themselves for training. The first program might be the best for the person, if he could be found, who possesses inherent qualifications for foremanship; but it might prove exceedingly wasteful for that large majority of prospective workers in iron and steel who have little capacity for abstract thinking. The second program might prove much the better for the so-called concrete-minded ” people, and might also prove most effective for those who were capable of surviving four or more years of training as given.

VI. PROBLEMS OF COMMERCIAL EDUCATION.

The chief problems found in commercial education at the present time, apart from those involving its relationship to general education, are found in connection with the unanalyzed character of the occupations, from the standpoint of programs of commercial training

Problem 1. To what extent should commercial occupations other than those of (a) accountancy and bookkeeping, (b) stenography and typewriting, be differentiated from the purpose of vocational education ?

Statistics show clearly that in the commercial world approximately 80 per cent of the workers are found in fields of salesmanship, etc., as against 20 per cent in the specialized fields of accountancy, and stenography and typewriting. For the former occupations, however, little or no systematic vocational education is yet offered, in the main because requirements of these occupations that might be met by school vocational training have not been defined.

VII. PROBLEMS OF HOMEMAKING EDUCATION.

The two chief problems connected with homemaking education at the present time are (a) those connected with the more effective coordination of that education with the home activities of the pupils and (6) those connected with the age at which it is efficiently practicable to begin systematic vocational homemaking education.

Problem 1. To what extent and under what conditions in a program of systematic vocational homemaking education can cooperation with the home be secured, and the equipment and facilities of the home be utilized for purposes of practical training?

(a) Every girl seeking a homemaking education must either live at home, in a school dormitory, or under other conditions involving a close contact with the various operations for which she is being trained. An efficient program of vocational homemaking education will involve the extensive use of the facilities thus offered.

(6) The problem presents different aspects, according as the vocational day school or the vocational evening school is under consideration. The principle is the same in both cases, however.

Problem 2. At what age is efficient homemaking education most practicable?

It is quite probable that there must be differentiation of groups for homemaking education, according to age as affected by the occupations followed. For example, it may be doubted whether girls who from 14 to 21 years

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age will be wage earners in occupations not related to the home, and who will be either living at home as boarders or in boarding houses, can efficiently respond to vocational homemaking education until somewhat late in their wageearning careers. Again, when conditions of caste shall have been so changed that home employment on a wage basis shall be attractive, systematic vocational education for this might well be begun at 14 or 15 years of age. In the case of girls not contemplating wage-earning careers, but who design to remain at home, systematic vocational education might well take place during the high-school period.

VIII. PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

Some examples now exist of successful programs of agricultural vocational education wherein the home farm is successfully combined with the school for instruction and for the direction of practical work. The two problems at present most pressing are (1) the provision of opportunities for practical training for city boys, and (2) the problem of combining secondary vocational agricultural education with preparation for higher institutions for the study of agriculture.

Problem 1. Under what conditions can boys living under urban conditions be provided with facilities for that portion of vocational agricultural education connected with practical work?

Experiments are being made in the direction of renting vacant land adjacent to cities for this purpose and putting boys in charge of their work on a project basis.

Problem 2. To what extent is it practicable for boys in the course of receiving a vocational agricultural education properly to qualify themselves for an agricultural college?

Obviously the requirements of an efficient vocational agricultural education are defined by the conditions of successful farming. It is not yet clear as to what should constitute the minimum requirements for admission to the agricultural college. Probably the college should distinguish in its work between degree work and courses of agriculture of a practical nature.

IX. PROBLEMS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF VOCATIONAL

EDUCATION.

The effectiveness of any form of vocational education depends largely upon the degree to which those directing it comprehend and respond to the practical requirements of the occupations for which training is being given. There arise, therefore, (a) problems as to

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