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(b) Preparatory Idustrial Continuation Schools, in which the pupil takes subjects entirely foreign to those related to his everyday experiences and learns a new trade or occupation.
D. HOMEMAKING SCHOOLS.
Homemaking schools are those schools in which the activities of the home are actually taught. They may include cooking, sewing, millinery, and the like.
I. Vocational Homemaking Day School. In these schools the greater portion of the work will bear directly upon the occupation of the home. The school may be conducted as a separate girls' school, or it may be conducted as a department in a high school,
(a) Part-Time Homemaking School. Part-time instruction in these schools will consist of a study of the subject of homemaking in the school and the actual practice of homemaking in the home.
II. Vocational Evening Homemaking School. As in the case of other evening schools, evening homemaking schools will be carried on for the purpose of giving definite instruction in homemaking. The work in these schools may consist of short-unit courses or of progressive courses of instruction. Into these schools will be admitted those persons, usually women, who wish to become proficient in homemaking.
(a) In case the students in the schools are employed during their working hours in occupations other than homemaking, such as clerks or stenographers, the school may be called a Preparatory Homemaking School.
III. Household Arts School. The work in these schools will be given for the purpose of enabling the students to become acquainted with the various activities found in the home. The aim of the course will tend to be somewhat general rather than specific. The thought that will underlie the work will be to furnish the student with an actual experience. This experience will serve as a basis for choice of vocation and may be of considerable value in the actual work of homemaking.
Usually these schools will not be organized apart from the ordinary high school, but will be single courses in these schools. They may be considered as prevocational in the sense that the work and instruction will be more inclined to be general than specific. The courses offered in the various schools will be designated as courses in domestic economy, domestic science, household arts, and the like.
E. TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS.
Technical High School. These schools are the schools which were organized largely as a result of the movement for manual training in the schools. They offer general courses in machine working, woodworking, and other forms of manual work. The academic work is also somewhat closely related to the work carried on in the shops. In most cases and more particularly in the first two years of these schools, the academic work is general rather than specific. There would probably be very little direct effort to teach specific occupations. These schools sometimes may be said to prepare pupils for the higher technical schools and for courses in engineering in these higher technical schools.
1 These schools may also serve the purpose of training bakers and that class of workers whose occupations may be said to relate closely to that of homemaking.
LOCATION OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.
The following tables were made directly from the replies to the questionnaire which was sent to the State departments and to the individual schools. In other words, as far as possible, each school listed in the accompanying tables has been placed there by the authority of some person directly in charge of the school. This has prevented the committee from arbitrarily setting up and listing, or attempting to determine, the exact type to which a school belonged.
The data are as accurate as could be made from the material available. There is no thought of making the tables inclusive or absolutely correct. Any omissions that may have occurred have resulted from: First, failure to reply to the questionnaire; second, some schools already in operation may not have been known to the committee; and third, in the progress of the movement new schools are continually being established. Obviously it has been impossible to include in this list all of the commercial arts schools, household arts schools, industrial arts schools, technical high schools, as well as departments of these various types which are carried on quite generally in the United States. These schools have been purposely omitted, because this book is devoted mainly to the interests of vocational education, and it is generally recognized that schools of this type can not be classed as vocational schools.
It should be mentioned also that some omissions are due to the fact that State departments of education were unaware that certain types of vocational schools were in operation in the communities within their own States; nor is this a result of negligence, as many such schools are maintained wholly by local taxation and are carried on under local management. In some cases also States reporting, because of an insufficient amount of funds at their disposal, have been unable to make accurate investigations or to prepare sufficient data to provide statistics for specific types of education. For these reasons it is almost sure to follow that a vocational school true to some of the types indicated in this analysis may have been carried on for a considerable period without the full recognition of those who have been attempting to determine just where vocational education is at its greatest development. In other instances schools which have been doing successful work as vocational schools, but which are conducted under a separate foundation or as semiprivate institutions, have not been considered as within the province of the work of this committee. It is clear, therefore, that more of the several types of schools exist than are here recorded, and the officers of such schools should communicate with this committee, providing the necessary data for classification if they wish consideration in
future lists. In case it seems unwise for the committee to continue this form of investigation and report, the data will be turned over to the United States Bureau of Education or some other ogranization prepared to carry on this investigation permanently.
In the preparation of these lists no effort has been made to give the exact location of the school beyond the town or city and State in which it is situated. Any other method would add materially to the length of the tables and to the cumbersomeness of the report.