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art, economic goods, and the specialized service of others. All persons should also be trained in the habitual actions, appreciations, knowledge, insight, and ideals, which constitute approved moral conduct and good citizenship. The forms of education designed to produce these ends may be further subdivided and described by such terms as "elementary education," "academic education," "general secondary education," etc.

4. Distinction between vocational and practical arts education.-Vocational education is also to be distinguished from various forms of so-called "practical education," which may resemble, in their processes, vocational education, but which do not result in definite forms of vocational efficiency.

The various forms of nonvocational education here comprised under the term "practical arts," include manual training, sloyd, manual arts, arts and crafts when pursued as part of general education, household arts, simple gardening and agricultural education, many phases of commercial education, etc.

(a) The various forms of practical arts education as now given in schools are not properly vocational, although sometimes mistaken for vocational education, because they do not result, except by chance, in recognized forms of vocational efficiency, nor are they assumed to be given to persons who have defined vocational aims. The means and methods they adopt are not selected with a view to the preparation of the pupil for recognized callings.

(b) Various forms of practical arts education have an important and valuable place in general or liberal education, as a means of enlarging general intelligence, developing sound appreciation of economic products, and in part in laying the foundations for vocational choice.

(c) Practical arts education is sometimes termed "prevocational education," because of the belief that a suitable program of practical arts training will make important contributions toward the individual's ability to choose a vocation wisely. Its value to this end depends largely upon the degree to which the individual has already developed vocational interest and a desire to choose a suitable vocation.

5. Distinction between direct (or systematic) vocational education and indirect vocational education.-A large amount of vocational education, in the broad sense of that term, especially for the unskilled or semiskilled occupations, is an indirect result or a by-product of association and cooperation with older people engaged in productive occupations. One is said to “pick up" skill, vocational intelligence, or vocational ideals in this way. Among primitive peoples usually, and even in civilized society in many fields, such as homemaking and farming, indirect

vocational education is common. There is a tendency in society to substitute systematic or direct vocational education for indirect (and therefore, presumably, uneconomic and ineffective) procedures.

6. Distinction between systematic vocational education through schools and through other agencies.-Vocational education may be carried on through a school (an agency specialized for this purpose) or through other agencies, primarily specialized for other and, usually, profit-making purposes, and only secondarily adapted to systematic vocational education. Apprenticeship in the trades, and, originally, in the professions, is an example of such nonschool systematic vocational education. Farmers and homemakers sometimes quite systematically train their children to follow their own vocations. Commercial establishments often provide for the definite instruction and advancement of young assistants. There is a manifest tendency on the part of society to transfer to school agencies vocational education, because of the greater degree of concentration and effectiveness thus made possible, and because, under modern conditions, economic agencies are unable to give due attention to systematic vocational education as a secondary phase of their responsibilities.

7. Distinction between private and public vocational schools.-Vocational schools may be supported by private agencies either through endowments or through fees received from students. Such schools, when controlled by private agencies, are called "private vocational schools." They may further be distinguished according as they are (a) endowed with more or less philanthropic intent, and having no object of profit in view; or (b) as being on a commercial basis in having profit making as a chief end. Public vocational schools are those supported, at least in part, under public expense, and are usually under the control of publicly constituted authorities. Professional schools in State universities, trade and commercial schools conducted by municipalities, agricultural and homemaking schools conducted by States or subdivisions thereof, etc., are examples of public vocational schools.

As a rule, professional schools in the United States have not been organized for profit. Many commercial, and some trade schools, are conducted for profit. Philanthropy has also endowed many trade schools for dependent or defective children.


1. Major divisions of occupations.-The economic or productive occupations (as distinguished from leisure and cultural occupations) which men and women follow (chiefly for self-support) may, for convenience, be grouped in six large classes, namely, the

professions, the agricultural pursuits, the commercial pursuits, trades and industries, homemaking pursuits, and nautical pursuits.

The major divisions of wage-earning occupations recognized by the United States census are: The professions, agriculture, domestic occupations, trade and transportation, and trades and manufacturing pursuits. The United States census does not recognize the division of nautical pursuits, nor does it include homemaking pursuits (because nonwage-earning) under the head of domestic occupations.

The United States census includes under trade and transportation (for commercial pursuits) railway workers, sailors, etc. Under the domestic occupations are included barbers, janitors, soldiers, watchmen, cooks, servants, hotel keepers, etc.

2. Major divisions of vocational education.-The suitable major divisions of vocational education, corresponding, in the main, to those of the economic occupations, are these: Professional education, vocational commercial education, vocational agricultural education, vocational industrial education, vocational homemaking education, and nautical education.

It is advantageous to subdivide vocational education into the six divisions given above, because each division has its own distinctive. pedagogical characteristics, based largely upon the phases of the occupation for which training is being given. It is clear, however, that in many cases a hard and fast classification will not be practicable. For example, cooking as a wage-earning occupation will be classed under the industries, whereas cooking as a part of home making will come properly under home-making education.

For other purposes, vocations may be grouped into (a) those requiring a relatively large amount of technical or abstract knowledge, such as the practice of medicine, law, teaching, engineering, and bookkeeping; and (b) those requiring or appearing to require a relatively large proportion of manual or other form of bodily skill, such as dentistry, machine-shop practice, dressmaking, and farming. In popular language, the distinction is made between "brain workers" and "hand workers." Also, it is important to make distinctions based on the suitable age at which workers can take up vocations (the so-called "age of efficient entrance into industry"). A person is rarely expected to take up responsible work in the practice of medicine before the age of 22 or 23; in engineering before the age of 20; and in teaching at least before the age of 18. Many trades can not be followed effectively until the worker has reached the age of 18, on account of the bodily strength required, or responsibility with machinery. Again, industrial vocations are frequently divided into the skilled and unskilled, to many of the former the word "trade" being applied.

(a) Because many forms of apparently practical education (i. e., training for productive pursuits), which are not in reality vocational (as defined above), are already designated by such terms as "commercial," "agricultural," "industrial," etc., it seems necessary that the term "vocational" should be included in each designation of a form of vocational education except the professional and nautical, as "vocational commercial education," "vocational agricultural education," etc.

(b) There is a sense in which the term "industrial" is also applied to many occupations lying outside of the trades and manufacturing pursuits, as when we speak of "industrial history," "industrial disturbances," "industrial and political development," etc. This usage has also been extended to the field of education, so that there is a popular sense in which "industrial education means nearly every form of vocational education, except, perhaps, homemaking and professional education. This loose and indefinite usage should be discouraged.

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3 (Definition). Professional education includes those forms of vocational education the direct purpose of each of which is to prepare individuals for the successful pursuit of a recognized profession.

Among the professions recognized by the United States census are: Law, medicine, engineering, journalism, theology, architecture, acting, dentistry, teaching, music, literature.

Nursing, leadership in agriculture, leadership in war, and leadership in institutional management should probably also be included among the professions.

(a) Vocational education for the professions, like vocational education for the trades, was formerly carried on through apprenticeship, but now schools of medicine, law, theology, and military leadership have entirely replaced apprenticeship as a means of systematic vocational education for these professions. Schools for these professions originated in some cases several centuries ago. Vocational schools of engineering and teaching were first founded early in the nineteenth century. Almost every profession (except nursing, acting, and, in a measure, journalism) now has numerous wellorganized schools of vocational training. Conscious apprenticeship methods seem to survive only in training for nursing and, in a measure, acting and journalism.

(b) In some professions, such as medicine, law, and teaching, the State safeguards standards by means of certification or licensing. In these cases the requirements of such certification greatly affect standards of vocational school work. The practice of State certification is carried much further in European countries than in America.

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(c) Certain studies found in schools or colleges, preliminary to the professional course, are now recognized as preparatory or prevocational" to professional study. Examples of these are biology as prevocational to medicine; history and economics as prevocational to law; trigonometry and physics as prevocational to engineering; etc. It was formerly asserted that studies such as Latin and modern languages were prevocational to almost all of the professions. The validity of this contention is now disputed.

4 (Definition). Vocational commercial education includes those forms of voeational education the direct purpose of each of which is to fit for some recognized commercial calling.

Among the commercial callings enumerated by the United States census are those of agent, banker and broker, bookkeeper and accountant, clerk and copyist, commercial traveler, merchant and dealer (retail), merchant and dealer (wholesale), messenger and office boy, officials of banks and companies, packers and shippers, salesmen and saleswomen, stenographers and typewriters, telegraph and telephone operators, etc.

Most of the training for commercial pursuits is still obtained in and through the callings themselves. Schools for systematic vocational commercial training exist for only a few occupations, such as those of bookkeeping and accountancy, and stenography and typewriting. A few schools have also been founded to train salesmen and saleswomen, clerks, telegraph and telephone operators, etc. (a) It is desirable that steps be taken to analyze and define the essential features of the various commercial occupations for purposes of adapting to each its appropriate vocational training. For examples, that there are two distinct forms of salesmanship, namely, counter or indoor salesmanship and field or traveling salesmanship. These require different school training.

(b) The term "commercial education" has also long been employed to designate courses of study dealing with specific phases of practice or knowledge applicable in, or derived from, the commercial callings. Such education has frequently been fostered as Vocational education, although its actual outcome in vocational efficiency—that is, its positive vocational "functioning "-has not been demonstrated and is still in doubt. This has, perhaps, been particularly the case when these alleged vocational studies have been carried on in public high schools. The approach to them has usually been bookish and theoretical, and comparatively slight effort has been made to base either practice or intellectual study on the actual requirements of commercial callings.

The studies commonly employed in this capacity are accountancy, bookkeeping, commercial law, industrial history, history of com

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