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merce, business arithmetic, typewriting, stenography, business practice, etc.

(c) Much so-called "commercial education" in public and private schools doubtless has, or can be made to have, value as a part of liberal or general education designed to give young people some appreciation of, and insight into, the commercial occupations. Training and instruction of this character might also do much in directing young people toward efficient choice of commercial occupations and in giving vocational ideals.

(d) Unfortunately, no clearly defined line is yet drawn, especially in public schools, between commercial studies that are expected to "function" vocationally and those which are designed as part of a general or liberal education. This is a source of much misdirected effort, and probably many young people are permanently handicapped by the failure of schools to distinguish between these two objects.

5 (Definition). Commercial education, or preferably "commercial arts education," includes those studies derived from, or based upon, the commercial pursuits which are designed to give liberal or general education and to contribute to vocational guidance and vocational ideals in the field of the commercial occupations.

The term "commercial arts education " may seem somewhat forced in this connection, but there are good analogies in the departments of industrial arts education, agricultural arts education, and household arts education (which see).

6 (Definition). Vocational agricultural education includes those forms of vocational education the direct purpose of each of which is to prepare students for some one of the agricultural occupations.

Among agricultural occupations are those of agricultural laborer, dairyman, farmer or planter, gardener, florist or nurseryman, stock raiser, bee keeper, poultry keeper, etc.

Agricultural education of various kinds is now given in agricultural colleges. This includes much work of an essentially secondary grade (in extension classes, etc.), while a part of it is of a collegiate or professional level. A small number of agricultural secondary schools are also equipped to give actual vocational education toward agricultural pursuits.

Agricultural occupations being as yet less specialized than either professional or industrial occupations, agricultural education preserves a relatively general character. Much so-called "agricultural education" is still only quasi-vocational, because it does not give definite and actual preparation for agricultural vocations. But short lecture courses and demonstrations are valuable when offered

to experienced farmers, capable of carrying the knowledge thus acquired into practice, making it "function."

(a).The term "agricultural education" is also applied to various forms of agricultural study, frequently having as an alleged end Vocational education in agriculture. As found in most schools, the studies embraced under agricultural education are usually bookish and theoretical. Their actual "functioning" in efficiency to pursue such callings as those of the farmer, gardener, florist, poultryman, stock raiser, etc., is often doubtful, but their contributions to general or liberal education may be important.

(b) Agricultural education, so called, as now carried on in many schools is, or can be made, a valuable factor in liberal or general education. Appropriate studies under this head can give appreciation of, and insight into, agricultural occupations and the importance of agriculture both as an economic pursuit and as a means of social development. Furthermore, the study of agriculture to this end may give important vocational guidance and lead to the establishment of vocational ideals. It can also be made a valuable means of illustrating applications of various forms of science. It can, therefore, be regarded as an important form of liberal education.

(c) In many cases school authorities seem as yet to make no clearcut distinction between vocational agricultural education and agricultural instruction, which is actually nonvocational in its results, but may be made of importance in liberal education. As a consequence, effort in this direction is doubtless frequently misdirected.

7 (Definition). Agricultural arts education includes those forms of training and study based upon agricultural pursuits and designed to enhance general intelligence, to promote appreciation of agriculture as a form of economic activity, to show wherein various sciences have practical application to human affairs, and to give vocational guidance and to inspire vocational ideals as these relate to the field of agriculture. Agricultural arts education, therefore, constitutes an important division of liberal education, both in the elementary and the secondary field.

8 (Definition). Vocational industrial education includes those forms of vocational education the direct purpose of each of which is to fit the individual for some industrial pursuit or trade. Among the trades and industrial pursuits enumerated by the United States census are those of the carpenter and joiner, mason (brick and stone), painter and varnisher, paper hanger, plasterer, plumber and steam-fitter, roofer and slater, oil-well worker, chemical worker, brick and tile maker, glassworker, marble and stone cutter, potter, fisherman, miner, baker, butcher, confectioner, miller, food packer, blacksmith, iron and steel worker, machinist, boiler maker, stove maker, toolmaker, wheelwright, wire worker, shoemaker, har

ness maker, tanner, bottler, brewer, distiller, cabinetmaker, woodworker in general, brass worker, watchmaker, silver and gold worker, tinplate worker, bookbinder, box maker, engraver, paper-mill operative, printer, lithographer, dyer, cotton-mill operative, knittingmill operative, silk-mill operative, woolen-mill operative, dressmaker, hat maker, milliner, seamstress, shirt maker, tailor, broom and brush maker, charcoal burner, steam engineer, fireman, photographer, tobacco operative, upholsterer.

(a) For many of the foregoing vocations no systematic vocational education at present exists, either in schools or under nonschool agencies.

Among the industrial occupations for which neither organized apprenticeship nor vocational schools as yet offer training are mill operatives (in general), food packers, box makers, general woodworkers, shoemakers (in factories), general iron and steel workers, etc.

(b) For a number of the foregoing occupations wherein skill is required, the chief form of training available at the present time is apprenticeship, of a more or less organized character.

The large majority of persons following such pursuits as those of carpenter, plasterer, plumber, stonecutter, machinist, etc., are still trained through the agency of apprenticeship.

(c) For some of the foregoing occupations, well-organized vocational schools (generally called trade schools), supported either privately or publicly, are available in various parts of the country, although the total number of workers trained by them constitutes, as yet, but a small proportion of those required by the industry.

Among the occupations for which definitely organized vocational schools, giving either complete training or partial training adjusted to the practice obtained in the industry, are these: Carpenter, house painter, plumber, machinist, bricklayer, cabinetmaker, patternmaker, sheet metal worker, bookbinder, sign painter, electrical worker, printer, dressmaker, milliner, etc.

In foreign countries well-organized day or part-time vocational schools are found also for such occupations as those of baker, butcher, weaver, cook, teamster, lithographer.

Some industries have organized special schools for such occupations as those of motorman, glove maker, photographer, linotype operator, telephone operator, confectioner, etc.

(d) The term "industrial education" is frequently applied to a variety of forms of practical, or apparently technical training, based upon operations characteristic of some industries.

Among the forms of so-called practical training to which the term industrial education is sometimes applied are manual training, sloyd,

mechanical drawing, technical training, mechanics arts training, printing, bookbinding, metal work, etc.

(e) Like commercial arts education, and agricultural arts education described above, the really valuable pursuit in "this industrial education" (which may properly be called "industrial arts" education) should be realized through the participation of the pupil in the practical phases of selected processes, as these may be found adapted to the pupil's experience, physical powers, etc. Practical participation in industrial arts processes can be supplemented by reading, visits to industrial establishments, experience in analyzing and assembling machines, etc., all of which may have as a controlling purpose the increasing of the pupil's general intelligence, the stimulation of his powers of wise utilization, the laying of foundations for vocational choice, and the interpreting of contemporary life. All these constitute valuable contributions to general education.

9 (Definition). Industrial arts education includes those forms of training and study based upon industrial pursuits and designed to enhance general intelligence and give vocational guidance in the field of industrial occupations.

(a) Reform schools for juvenile delinquents have been in the past, and are sometimes still, called "industrial schools." When these institutions ceased to be looked upon merely as prisons, or houses of refuge, public sentiment demanded that vocational training should be given in them, in view of the probable fact that neither the opportunities of apprenticeship nor of home vocational training would be available for these unfortunate youth. Hence, even 50 years ago a form of systematic vocational training was undertaken in reform schools. Probably only a small part of this training ever actually "functioned" in vocational power, because of wrong pedagogical methods employed.

10 (Definition). Vocational homemaking education includes those forms of vocational education the direct object of which is to fit for homemaking as practiced by the wife and mother in the home and also for some specialized forms as practiced by household employees, housekeepers, or other wage-earning assistants to the homemaker.

A large variety of more or less unspecialized activities are carried on in the home. These include the preparation of meals, laundering, house cleaning, garment making, garment repairing, the nursing of children, minor repair work in the equipment of the home, etc. In homes conducted on a somewhat elaborate scale, specialized forms of service may be found, the workers being housekeepers, cooks, waitresses, chambermaids, nurses, butlers, janitors, etc.

Among occupations which were formerly carried on in the home, but have been since specialized away from it, are those of spinning,

weaving, milking, butter and cheese making, tanning, barbering, brewing, food packing, shoemaking, furniture making, etc. Other occupations which now seem to be in process of being specialized away from the home are baking, garment making, fruit preserving, etc.

(a) As in the case of farming, there is comparatively little specific vocational differentiation within the average home. Notwithstanding the removal from the home of many specific forms of productive work, homemaking remains a distinctive and clearly defined vocation for the wife and mother living under normal family relations as well as for specialist workers in homes and institutions. It is ordinarily a composite vocation, utilizing various forms of skill and related knowledge. Vocational education for homemaking must, therefore, aim to produce as many forms of power as the distinctive home operations now require, each to a degree suited to the time, energy, and native ability of the learner. It is especially necessary that in the homemaker an harmonious union of various forms of skill and knowledge should be found.

(7) From 60 per cent to 80 per cent of all women eventually become homemakers. Modern social and economic conditions are such that the majority of these spend the years from substantially 16 to 20 or 25 in wage-earning pursuits (only a small proportion being connected with homes), after which homemaking is entered as a career to be followed for life, or at least for many years.

(c) During recent years, many forms of education have been introduced into private and public schools as designed to minister to the development of homemaking power or appreciation. These are variously named "household arts," "domestic science," "domestic arts," "household economics," "home economics." "domestic economy," etc. Frequently they have been introduced into schools as subjects of study and laboratory experiment on the same basis as other studies. The extent to which these studies "function" vocationally, if at all, for homemaking is yet in doubt, especially when they are followed only from two to five hours per week. In most instances it is probable that the training thus given should be rewarded as effective rather on the side of liberal than of vocational education.

(d) The study of household arts (with the aid of suitable textbooks, laboratory experimental work, etc.) can obviously be made a valuable feature of liberal education, in the sense that such study can improve standards of utilization and develop larger ideals of home life. Women exert an exceptionally large influence on standards of consumption in the fields of artistic products, economic utilities, and specialized service. For this reason, it is especially important that as a phase of their general education they should be instructed and trained as to most effective standards of utilization.

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