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work in a given community. For example, some States have gone so far as to say that a person in charge of vocational

work should be

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a person acquainted with the needs of the industry as well as with certain and somewhat definite educational equipment. It has been

determined also that the instructors for trade work shall be persons who have had a considerable background of actual experience in the trade which they are to teach, that the instructors who are to teach the technical studies which are related to the work shall be persons who have a considerable acquaintance with the trade or industry for which the instruction is to be given.

Again, the State may set up certain definite restrictions and requirements as to types of buildings, whether or not the work shall be carried on in a school building or factory building, in a building erected especially for the purpose, or in an old school building which has been reconstructed in such a way as to be most effective for the teaching of the trade in question. The State may even go so far as to determine the type of equipment which shall be used in each school, whether or not modern machinery shall be installed, or whether it seems more advisable to utilize machinery of a slightly earlier day for the purpose of meeting the local situation.

In some cases the State will insist upon a review and approval of the course of study to be offered before such courses of study are put in operation. In many cases this may forestall the inauguration of courses which will fail to teach the trade effectively. These courses will vary considerably in accordance with the needs of the particular industry. The person preparing the same should keep clearly in mind this objective; otherwise it will be found necessary continuously to revise and modify the courses to such an extent that it will be difficult to do satisfactory work. Another requirement which may often be established has to do with the person to whom this type of education shall be offered. That is to say, it may be offered only to persons of a certain age, from 14 to 16 years or from 14 to 30 years; it may be offered to persons with a previous grammar-school education or to persons who have completed the regular school work of the seventh grade; or it may be offered only to those persons engaged in the particular trade or in some branch of the particular industry for which the instruction is to be given. Certain other limitations may be placed upon the work by the State, such as the size of classes, length of time to be allowed each subject, length of time to be devoted to a single operation, length of time necessary for the full completion of the course. These requirements and limitations may be set up by the State for the purpose of providing standards of judgment, which may be used for approval or disapproval of the school. In many cases they will be set up as a condition for reimbursement by the State. In these cases it may be necessary for the local community to provide not alone for the pupils resident in that particular community but for nonresident pupils. In all cases, previous to the actual inauguration of the work, the local authorities should become familiar with these exact requirements and limitations set up by the

central State authority, for in this way will be avoided opportunity for misunderstandings and possible friction.


In all probability the most effective organization for the introduction of vocational education into any community of ordinary size will be the school committee of the town or city. This school committee, of its own initiative or through the initiative of its paid executive, the superintendent, will be the most likely to become interested in providing, first, for a type of training which shall meet the needs of that group of pupils who can not or will not profit by the general education or by the various arts courses which are ordinarily offered by the regular schools; second, a type of training which shall provide rather definitely a type of education which shall enable boys and girls of these ages to meet more effectively the requirements of an industry which, for economic or other reasons, they are obliged to enter at comparatively early ages. Furthermore, it is probably true that, because of economic and strategic reasons as well as because of lack of organization and manipulation, the school board will for some time be the most acceptable means for the successful administration of this form of education.

It should not be overlooked, however, that there are certain extraneous factors which enter into the permanent progress of vocational education. The factors are so well known that extended comment is unnecessary. They may be mentioned here to serve only as a guide to what experience has proven to be one of the best ways in which to secure the full cooperation of all forces in any way. interested. It is clear that a group of manufacturers or a group of workers know more as to the requirement of a given industry than do a group composed, it may be, of professional men, general business men, and in many instances of women who make up the average school board. It is necessary, then, to provide some means by which those actually engaged in the administration of this work can be assisted and to some extent at least guided and directed by those intimately acquainted with the industrial conditions of the immediate locality. Again, those who have had to do with the introduction of the work, with the conduct of the survey, and with the recommendations made therein will be in a position to give more intelligent assistance than can be afforded by a group composed of persons who are unacquainted with these details. For these reasons it is highly desirable that the survey committee be continued as an advisory board to act in conjunction with the executive officer in charge of this work. In case it appears impracticable to continue the survey committee in every case, there should be appointed an


advisory board composed of employers and employees as well as laymen. While this board will act in an advisory capacity only, it will serve as a sort of clearing house through which the executive officer can forestall difficulties as well as readjust his own action and thinking, so that the work done will more nearly meet the needs of the worker and the work.

The foregoing plan places clearly the responsibility for the conduct of vocational education. In most communities the executive officers

and workers in the field should be planned somewhat after the following arrangement:

1. Chief executive officers:

(a) Superintendent of schools.

(b) Assistant superintendent of schools.

(c) Special superintendent of schools in charge of vocational work.

In actual practice each of these three methods may be found. In any case they will vary with the size of the community and with the extent of the work to be done in vocational education.

2. Assistant executive officers:

(a) Director of vocational education.

(b) Director of men's work.

(c) Director of women's work.

(d) Director of homemaking.

(e) Director of continuation schools.

(f) Director of evening industrial schools.

Again, the necessity for these several directors will depend upon the size of the town or city and upon the number of activities to be undertaken in the particular field of vocational education. In the smaller city, in the city of one industry, as well as in the city which is to attempt to provide for only one of the types indicated, all of the duties will devolve upon one person. In some cases it will be necessary for the superintendent of schools to serve both in the capacity of supervisor and that of director. Hence, while the foregoing analysis sets up something of an ideal situation, there will no doubt be found necessary many modifications to meet the specific situation to which these principles may be applied.

3. Principals of separate buildings which have been set apart for instruction in vocational training.

As in the case of principals for schools of general education, the duties of this office may be either administrative and supervisory, or they may be a combination of these functions with those of instruction. For purposes of clearness in the differentiation of this work and general education, it would probably be better to denominate these men directors of buildings. In many instances it may be found necessary or advisable to place this work under the same roof as that

of general education. In such cases the term principal should be retained.

4. Heads of departments:

(a) In a vocational school.

(b) In a department of a vocational school.

(c) In a department for vocational education in a general secondary school.

The suggestion is made here that such persons be denominated "directors" of this or that department rather than as heads of departments. It will occur that an overlapping of function will appear to be present; nevertheless, for purposes of clarity and actual ease in understanding by the laymen, it is advisable to distinguish in a rather definite way between the heads of departments in general education and the directors of departments in vocational education. 5. Instructors:

(a) In industrial subjects—

1. Shop operations.

2. Shop practice.

(b) In special technical subjects—

1. Drawing.

2. Chemistry.

3. Physics.

(c) In academic subjects

1. English.

2. Civics, etc.


In the case of each of the several officers and instructors enumerated above, as previously indicated, there should be set up either by State or local requirement somewhat specific standards of attainment and qualifications. Until the work of vocational education has had a longer opportunity to crystallize, it will be necessary to use good judgment and common sense as to the administration of those standards. There are, in the main, four divisions into one of which all those who are immediately occupied in carrying on vocational education will naturally fall:

1. Directors of schools and directors of departments.-The principal or director of a vocational school should have had a thorough academic training and preferably experience with different lines of public-school work. He must be in sympathy with vocational education, have the vocational point of view, and sufficient technical and practical knowledge to enable him to administer the vocational work.

2. Shop and vocational instructors.-The shop instructor must know his trade as fully as does a skilled journeyman; and in addition must have the knowledge of the technical method in use in the trade, together with a command of its drawing, mathematics, science,

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