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and art; he should further have a general education not less than that represented by elementary school graduation or its equivalent. He should have some command of the technique of teaching and school administration, and he must be trained in the application of principles of teaching to industrial-school problems. He should have a background of educational principles, theory, and practice which will help him to understand the aim and place of his own work, and to interpret the social use of the school in which he serves. He must have the ability to make his own work serve the ends for which industrial schools are established, i. e., to fit boys and men for skilled workmanship and intelligent citizenship. He should have, or acquire, a grasp on the economic, social, industrial, and educational history and evolution that have led up to the movement for industrial education in our day.

The shop instructor's personal appearance, manner, and dress must be such as will not be a handicap to him as a leader of boys. He must use judgment and discretion in all matters relating to neatness and cleanliness in person and dress.

His personal qualifications must be such as to establish a presumption that he can perform the duties he undertakes. Consideration must be given to health, strength, and temperament, as shown by his ability to get along with people and his interest in community activities. He should be not less than 25 nor more than 40 years old at the time of entering the work. His habits must be such as will not bring him into disrepute in the school or community, or set a bad example for the students. He should show ability to deal with boys; and successful experience and interest in them and their sports are assets as a teacher. His manner of dealing with boys must, of necessity, be different from that which prevails in a strictly commercial shop.

3. Teachers and instructors of related subjects.-The ideal teacher of related subjects whom, admittedly, in practice it would be difficult to secure in large numbers, should have trade equipment, teaching equipment, and personal equipment equal to that set forth above for the shop instructor. In addition, he should have had as a minimum in academic instruction not less than that indicated by high-school graduation or its equivalent. He should show evidence of ability to teach the special subjects for which he offers his services by preparation of not less than two years beyond the highest grade he is required to teach. The ability to apply these subjects in a practical way to trade problems is also essential.

A man with trade experience equal to that desired for the shop instructor is best equipped to serve as a teacher of related subjects, but if such a teacher is not available, great care should be taken to obtain such experience or familiarity with the processes of the trade

as will equip him to teach his subjects so as to prepare a boy to use them in accordance with the best practice of the trade. The character and extent of the experience that would justify the presumption of ability to teach related subjects will vary for different trades, and can only be determined for any given trade by the judgment of those who have themselves had successful experience in it.

4. Teachers of nonvocational subjects.-The teacher of nonvocational subjects in an industrial school enters a field where few precedents exist. The practical character of the trade work creates an atmosphere which demands a concrete and practical presentation of the nonvocational subjects such as is not common in our traditional schools. A teacher can not expect to teach boys in these schools the same subject matter or by exactly the same methods pursued in high schools. He has a special field, and, to a large extent, unexplored territory. He must take the boys who come to him and so organize the subject matter as to make it an effective supplement to the other work of the school, and so far as possible to function in the life of the pupil.

His teaching equipment, personal equipment, and general schooling should not be less than are demanded for the teacher of related subjects mentioned above. In his special field he needs, perhaps, not more knowledge, but knowledge of a different quality and the ability to organize it. He should have an appreciation of the conditions and problems of modern industry such as can be expected of an intelligent layman, and a knowledge of the more common machines and trade processes carried on in the schools. A man with some natural mechanical ability, even from an amateur standpoint, is more likely to succeed in such work than one whose interests are entirely academic.

Experience as a wage earner is an asset, as it enables one to gain a sympathetic insight into the needs of the worker, to understand the aims and purposes of the industrial school and its responsibility for the pupil and to the industry; and to see clearly the relation of his own subjects to those of his fellow teachers, and the place and bearing of his service on the total service which the school undertakes to render to the pupil and to the industries.

Such a teacher must be able to use material drawn from the world. of work in teaching such subjects as civics, economics, industrial history, and English. His work must interrelate with the affairs of the industry and the activities of the school, and on no account should be taught as something remote from the pupil's life and experience. His greatest effort should be to make his teaching of civics and economics develop principles that will enable the pupil as a wage earner to solve successfully his problems as a worker in industry and as an intelligent citizen.


It has been found by experience that for most purposes the pupils in a school for vocational education should not be less than 14 years of age; that in day classes they should not be more than 25; and that in evening classes the lowest age of admission should be 16 years, with almost no limit beyond the requirement of the industry as to the maximum age limit. The qualifications of the pupils will vary with the needs of the industry. In general, however, they should be persons who have completed the seventh grade of the general school and who show that they are competent to profit by the instruction sought. In the part-time schools, in which approximately one-half time is given to instruction and one-half to the work, and in the evening classes they should in most cases be employed in the same industry as that in which they are being taught specific things concerning the allied trade or industry. The most marked exception to the above condition will be that in the case of "homemaking" for girls and women over 17 years of age.


Actual practice has fairly established 15 as the most desirable group with which to work to advantage. As in so much of this work, the number of pupils in a given case must depend largely upon local conditions, upon the complications of the trade, upon uniformity or lack of uniformity of intelligence in the group to be taught, and upon the care with which the shop instruction is organized.


In general the location and construction of the buildings and the type and extent of the equipment should bear a direct relation to the needs of the pupil, to the needs of the industries for which training is to be provided, to the material prosperity or wealth of the community, and to the importance in which this work is regarded by the citizens.

In any specific case it is obvious that, in so far as possible, the location should be such as to convenience the majority of the pupils who are likely to attend. It should be located also with some regard to the industry, and with due consideration for lighting both day and evening. In actual practice the following provisions have been made for housing this special type of education:

1. The special school erected and fully equipped for this purpose. The best examples of such schools are the private schools, Williamson Trade School, at Philadelphia; the Wentworth Institute, at Boston; and the John S. Rankin, Jr., School, at St. Louis.

The Trade School for Boys, at Worcester, and the Milwaukee Trade School for Boys are examples of public schools devoted entirely to Vocational work.

2. The old factory building remodeled. The chief objections to this adaptation will be improper location, inefficient lighting, and inadequate heating. It will have the advantages of adequate floor space, an atmosphere of reality, possibilities for rearrangement and additions and alterations. In some cases these latter may furnish excellent opportunity for constructive work by the pupils. Good examples of this type are the schools at New Bedford and Springfield, Mass., and the industrial school at Rochester, N. Y.

3. The abandoned schoolhouse remodeled as a shop. The chief advantages for this use of an old schoolhouse are the ease of accomplishment, especially during the experimental stages, the probable lessened cost and the creation of favorable public sentiment. Its disadvantages, like those of the old factory, may be location, improper lighting, with the added difficulties of construction, size and shape of rooms, and its appeal to the pupils. It isn't shop enough. Newton, Lowell, and Somerville, Mass., have each adopted this plan.

4. The utilization of a room or rooms in a regular secondary school building, which rooms have been fitted up for this purpose. This plan will be best adapted to the small community and to the community with limited financial resources. It should be clearly understood, however, that this work is conducted upon an entirely different basis from that of the regular high school, that it is proposed to reach a group who have not been prepared for the general secondary education offered in the general school. The requirements for the teachers should be those set up in a prceding section of this chapter, other than those for the general school. In short, the line of demarkation should be sufficiently distinct to make it clear that the pupils in this department are learning to do specific things which will enable them to earn a better living when they finish their training.


It is an unfortunate thing for an industrial school to have a complete building and equipment turned over to it at the outset. If the pupil is to be adjusted to meet the demands of the industry, his training must be real. If it is real, it must be given in a productive shop, making useful things that can be utilized in the school system or sold on the open market at or above the market price. Schools giving training in such subjects as woodworking, metalworking, electrical working, can readily find use for the work of the pupils either in

the building itself or in the school system. Every school should make a part of its own equipment. This has been done by most of the industrial and trade schools. Enough equipment ought to be bought at the outset to start the work. Sometimes an equipment sufficient to give the first year's training is bought, after which the pupils are able to make most at least of the tools and machines and facilities necessary for their further training in the following years. Where schools find themselves with limited resources at the start, much secondhand equipment for use in the first year of the work at least, can be bought that will serve its purpose well. In the other years of the course, it is necessary to secure the very latest and best machinery, so that when the boy leaves the school he will be familiar with it and can take his place in the shop successfully.

One of the handicaps under which the school shop must always labor is that of keeping its machinery from time to time fully abreast of the best equipment of the commercial shop. It is doubtful whether this can be done altogether successfully. Under the stress of competition, the commercial shop changes its equipment from time to time. The school without such competition is very likely to remain content with machinery that is behind the times. This is one of the strongest reasons why the part-time scheme of education that enables a boy to get the most of his practical training in the industry itself promises to be most effective in dealing with the great body of wageearners between 14 and 18 years of age.

Many enthusiastic supporters of part-time education have been led to claim that all the equipment the school needs in dealing with the wage-earner for the time which it demands away from the shopwork is a teacher, a textbook, a blackboard, and some desks. In their enthusiasm they fail to recognize the conditions under which most of those who are employed in the industries labor. Large scale production, extreme division of labor, and the specialized machine have supplanted the artisan or tradesman with the machine-worker. The old trades in which men were able to get experience with all the different tools, machines, and processes of their callings are rapidly disappearing. Modern industry does not give the worker a chance to get a broad experience in working with different machines. The typical boy who comes to the part-time school will be one who is spending his entire time at one machine, making one small part or portion of the final output of the factory.

The schools must always take the boy as it finds him and give to him the training he needs. In giving part-time instruction to the worker at the specialized machine, the school must provide under the school roof, if it is to meet modern industrial conditions, a sufficient amount of equipment to enable the boy to get the elementary practice and experience at the machines, with the tools and in the

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