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814. Averill, Lawrence A. Back to Pestalozzi. Educational review, 51: 10-20, June 1916.

The writer says that the great contributions of Pestalozzi to the teaching profession are as follows: (1) Natural education as opposed to formal instruction; (2) the significance of home education; (3) self-activity; (4) adaptation to the age of the child; (5) the psychology of individual differences; (6) beginnings of experimental psychology.

815. Chapman, John Jay. The schoolmaster. Atlantic monthly, 117: 650-54,

May 1916.

Says that the defect of American education is diffuseness; it ought to be met and corrected in every field of life. Commends the headmasters in private schools for having more freedom of action than "any other officers in the hierarchy of education."

816. Davis, William Holmes. Reprints of short articles on school matters. Dan

ville, Va., The Danville school [1916] 24 p. 8°.

CONTENTS.-Public inspection of private secondary schools.-The growth and importance of the private boarding-school.-Planning for the future of private secondary schools.-University's obligation to future students.-Parents should visit schools before choosing.-Colleges and churches. The private boarding-school as a community builder.-New Year thoughts about schools. Biography in secondary schools.-The democracy of the private boarding-school.What can a private school do?

Educational review,

Writer says that the cultural course as now constituted does not produce a knowledge of the best that has been done and said in the world, but a "jumbled mass of uncorrelated matter."

817. Goodrich, Henry W. A suggestion for a cultural course.

51 50-56, June 1916.

818. Jones, George Ellis. Training in education. Pittsburgh, Pa., University of Pittsburgh, 1916. 113 p. 8°. (University of Pittsburgh bulletin. General series. vol. 12, no. 17.)

"A study of the basis, functioning, and examples of activity in learning."

819. Kendall, C. N. Two agencies in education of children-the home and. the school. Child-welfare magazine, 10: 324-27, May 1916.

820. Keyser, Cassius J. The human worth of rigorous thinking; essays and addresses. 8°.

New York, Columbia university press, 1916. 314 p.

821. Krebs, Henry C. Reaching the children; a book for teachers and parents; with introduction by C. N. Kendall. New York and Chicago, The A. S. Barnes company [1916] vi, 127 p. 16°.

822. Moore, Ernest C. What is education? Education, 36: 564-70, May 1916. Says that education is "the process by which one learns to use his own mind in socially profitable ways in the making of his own knowledge."

823. Prosser, Charles A. Education as preparedness. School and society, 3 : 796

807, June 3, 1916.

An address before the Harvard teachers association, Boston, March 11, 1916.

824. Russell, Bertrand. Education as a political institution.

117: 750-57, June 1916.

Atlantic monthly,

The writer says: "The wish to preserve the past, rather than the hope of creating the future, dominates the minds of those who control the teaching of the young." Analyzes the existing systems of education, and calls for a reform.

825. Tear, Daniel A. Motor activity and elementary education. Educational bi-monthly, 10: 444-52, June 1916.

826. Vidari, Giovanni. Elementi di pedagogia. Milano, U. Hoepli, 1916. 401 p. 16°.

827. Wilson, H. B. and Wilson, G. M. The motivation of school work. Boston, New York [etc.] Houghton Mifflin company [1916] ix, 265 p. 12°.

Designed to aid teachers in discovering problems and motives for the work that will make it appeal to and interest the pupil.

828. Young, Ella Flagg. Democracy and education. Journal of education, 84:

5-6, July 6, 1916.

A discussion of Professor Dewey's book "Democracy and education."

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: CHILD STUDY. 829. Arnold, Felix. Weights and school progress. Psychological clinic, 10 :

33-39, April 15, 1916.

Gives tables showing with convincing regularity that the lighter pupil is the lower in his school

grade. 830. Bateman, W. G. The idealş of some western children. Educational review,

51 : 21-39, June 1916.

Results of a study of 1200 children in the public schools of Missoula, Mont. 831. Betts, George Herbert. The mind and its education. Rev. and enl. ed.

New York, D. Appleton and company (1916] xvi, 311 p. 12. 832. Binet, Alfred and Simon, Th. The development of intelligence in children

(the Binet-Simon scale); tr. by Elizabeth S. Kite. [Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins company, 1916] 336 p. front. 8o. (Publications of the Training

school at Vineland, N. J. Department of research, no. 11.) 833.

The intelligence of the feeble-minded; tr. by Elizabeth S. Kite. (Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins company, 1916] 328 p. illus. 8°. (Publications of the Training school at Vineland, N. J. Department of research,

no. 12.) 834. Birch, T. Bruce. Standard tests and scales of measurements. Psychological

clinic, 10 : 49–57, April 15, 1916.

A paper read before the Schoolmasters' club of Central Ohio. 835. Bonser, Frederick C. The selective significance of reasoning ability tests.

Journal of educational psychology, 7 : 187–200, April 1916.

"To what extent do tests of reasoning ability enable us to predict the probable success of pupils in school? The author attempts to answer this question on the basis of a study of the school records of the 757 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children tested in roasoning by the author nino years ago. Boys in the highest quartile of the reasoning tests have 3.5 as much chance of finishing

the high school as those in the lowest quartile.” 836. Brown, H. A. The significance of the measurement of ability to read. Edu

cation, 36 : 589–610, May 1916.

The aims dominating the teaching of reading should be: “(1) Teaching to read should mean teaching to read silently, i. e., teaching to study efficiently. (2) Instruction at every step should be carefully adapted to the scientifically determined needs of individual pupils. (3) The teaching of reading should have for its aim to lead the child into an acquaintance with the world's

best literature." 837. Carey, N. Factors in the mental processes of school children. British journal

of psychology (London) 8 : 170-82, May 1916.

Part 3 of series. Deals with factors concerned in the school subjects. 838. Freeman, Frank N. Experimental education. Laboratory manual and

typical results. Boston, New York (etc.) Houghton Mifflin company (1916)

viii, 220 p. 12o. (Riverside textbooks in education, ed. by E. P. Cubberley.) 839.

The psychology of the common branches. Boston, New York [etc.] Houghton Mifflin company (1916] xii, 275 p. 12o. 840. Gray, P. L. Norms of performance in the fundamental processes of arithmetic.

Journal of experimental pedagogy and training college record (London) 3 : 31018, June 5, 1916.

Study made in schools of all grades and types of Leeds, England; 3,645 boys and 3,715 girls. 841. Hall, G. Stanley. The child from eight to twelve. Mother's magazine,

11 : 27-28, August 1916.

The characteristics, instincts, etc., of the child from eight to twelve.

842. Hanus, Paul H. Measuring progress in learning Latin. School review, 24 :

342–51, May 1916.

An effort to measure the growth of power in three elements of Latin assumed to be fundamental-vocabulary, translation, and grammar. Endeavors to ascertain what correlations exist be

tween these phases of growth. 843. Heilman, J. D. Psychology in the schoolroom. Journal of educational psy

chology, 7 : 337–47, June 1916.

Read before the Superintendents' and principals' section of the Colorado state teachers' associa

tion, November 5, 1915. 844. Hill, David Spence. The practical in educational research. Psychological

clinic, 10 : 65-70, May 15, 1916.

A paper prepared for the Round table of directors of educational research, Department of super

intendence, National education association, Detroit, February 24, 1916. 845. La Rue, Daniel Wolford. Making the most of the childreii. New York, The

Educational book company [1916) 135 p. 12o.

Seeks to answer the questions, How can we discover and develop the best that is born in our

children and, How get them acquainted with their own futures? 846. Lewis, E. E. Testing the spelling abilities of Iowa school children by the Buck

ingham spelling tests. Elementary school journal, 16 : 556–64, June 1916.

Study of the spelling abilities of 8,624 Iowa school children in 10 cities, approximately 1,500 chil. dren in each grade from the third to the eighth inclusive. Author does not regard the results of

his investigation as final. 847. MacDougall, Robert. Habit and the social order. School and society,

3: 726–37, May 20, 1916.

An address before the New York Schoolmasters' Club, 848. Mead, Cyrus D. and Sears, Isabel. Additive subtraction and multiplicative

division tested. Journal of educational psychology, 7 : 261-70, May 1916.

Delivered before Section L of the American association for the advancement of science, December 29, 1915.

"In two second grade and two third grade classes preliminary tests were made to determine the abilities of the pupils in addition combinations. One second grade class was then taught subtraction for four months by the usual take away'method, and the other by the additive' method. The same procedure was followed with division in the third grade classes. The 'take away'

method gave the better results in subtraction, and the 'multiplicative'-method in division." 849. Mentality tests: a symposium. Journal of educational psychology, 7 : 229–40,

278–86, 348-60, April, May, June 1916. 850. Moss, Sanford A. Aptitude as a basis for education. Engineering education,

6 : 637–50, May 1916.

Discusses the subject “Should time be spent in study of a subject for which there is no aptitude, and which can give no direct benefit, for the sake of the indirect benefit in the way of culture, mind and will training?” Concludes that "aptitude is a real essential for successful use of a subject, and that no actual use can be made of a subject by an inapt person who attempts to make laborious

study take the place of aptitude." 851. Pintner, Rudolf and Gilliland, A, R. Oral and silent reading. Journal of

educational psychology, 7 : 201-12, April 1916.

"Eighty elementary pupils, from the third to the eighth grades, twenty high school pupils, and thirty college students were tested in both oral and silent reading. Pupils of the third and fourth grades do better in oral than silent reading, those in grades five to eight do about as well

in either, while high school and college students do much better in silent reading.” 852. Rugg, Harold Ordway. The experimental determination of mental discipline

in school studies. Baltimore, Warwick & York, inc., 1916. 132 p. 12'.

“Selected bibliography": p. 117–120. 853. Starch, Daniel. A scale for measuring ability in arithmetic. Journal of edu

cational psychology, 7 : 213-22, April 1916.

“This scale is designed to measure ability in arithmetical reasoning as shown in the solution of concrete problems, and is composed of a serious of problems arranged in the order of steps of increasing difficulty. The value of the problems was determined experimentally by testing 2,515 children from grades four to eight."

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854. Terman, Lewis M. The measurement of intelligence; an explanation of and

a complete guide for the use of the Stanford revision and extension of the Binet-Simon intelligence scale. Boston, New York [etc.] Houghton Mifflin company (1916] xviii, 362 p. 12o. (Riverside textbooks in education, ed.

by E. P. Cubberley.) 855. Tidyman, W. F. A descriptive and critical study of Buckingham's investiga

tion of spelling efficiency. Educational administration and supervision, 2;

290-304, May 1916. 856. Young, Herman H. The Witmer formboard. Psychological clinic, 10 : 93–

111, June 15, 1916.

Bibliography: p. 110-11. 857. Zeidler, Richard. Tests of efficiency in the rural and village schools of Santa

Clara county, California. Elementary school journal, 16 : 542-55, June 1916.

The writer says: “The object of tuis study was to measure the results of arithmetic teaching in the rural and village schools of Santa Clara county, and to ascertain the status of such schools in the teachings of the fundamentals in arithmetic as compared with the work in localities where similar tests have been made."

Contains statistical tables and graphs.

SPECIAL METHODS OF INSTRUCTION.

858. Ballard, Anna W. The direct method and its application to American schools.

Educational review, 51 : 447–56, May 1916.

Advocates the direct method, because of the effect on the pupils. It holds their attention,

arouses their interest and their ingenuity, and wakens their desire to excel. 859. Bogardus, Emory S. Education and motion pictures. Western journal of

education, 22 : 18-19, May 1916.

The extent to which motion pictures are used for educational purposes. 860. Feasey, J. Eaton. Open-air education: outdoor instruction for all schools.

World's work (London), 28 : 54–62, June 1916.

Practical suggestions for teaching various useful things: Water level and gradients; glasses and

heat; direction and map making; sound waves and echoes; nature study and chemistry. 861. Garrard, G. W. The use of moving pictures in educational work. Wyoming

school journal, 12 : 259-62, May-June 1916.

Discusses the opportunities for good that lie in the proper use of moving pictures and the diffi

culties involved in the installation and operation of moving picture apparatus. 862. Koch, Frederick H. The amateur theater in the university. Quarterly

journal of the University of North Dakota, 6 : 298-308, July 1916.

An address delivered at the sixth annual convention of the Drama league of America, St. Louis, April 26, 1916.

Tells of the work of the Little play house of the University of North Dakota. 863. Kress, E. De l'utilité du cinématographe dans l'enseignement. Paris, C.

Mendel (1916] 32 p. 12o. (Bibliothèque de photo-revue.)

On cover: Bibliothèque générale de cinématographie. no. 6, série rose. 864. Wolgamott, Alberta M. Moving pictures in industrial education. Manual

training and vocational cducation, 17 : 745-49, June 1916.

In this article Miss Wolgamott gives "a summary of the present situation with reference to the moving picture as a means in industrial education. She not only offers helpful suggestions to users of moving picture reels but makes clear certain limitations which are also important to keep in mind. The article looks toward the perfection of the moving picture machine and its wider use in education."

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SPECIAL SUBJECTS OF CURRICULUM.

865. Archer, Richard L.; Owen, L. V.D., and Chapman, A. E. The teaching of

history in elementary schools. Loudon, A. & C. Black, ltd., 1916. 263 p. 12°.

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866. Association of history teachers of the Middle states and Maryland.

Proceedings of the meetings held in 1915, at Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia, Pa. 126 p. 8°. (Fdgar Dawson, secretary-treasurer, Hunter college, New York, N. Y.)

Contains: 1. R. W. Kelsey: Recent changes in the teaching of history in the universities and colleges of the Middle states and Maryland, p. 3-10. 2. D. C. Knowlton: Some recent changes in the teaching of history of the Middle states and Maryland, p. 11-22. 3. E. E. Giltner: A description of the changes in the teaching of history in the elementary schools from 1910 to 1915, p. 23–32; Discussion, p. 32-34. 4. J. M. Vincent: The literary recreations of the historical teacher, p. 35– 53. 5. L. J. Hedge: The differentiation of history teaching in the elementary school, seventh grade, from that of the high school, senior class, illustrated by reference to the causes of the American revolution, p. 54–61. 6. W. E. Lingelbach: The content of the course in European history in the secondary schools, p. 80-87. 7. Helen L. Young: The content of the course in European history in secondary schools, p. 88–95. 8. A. C. Bryan: The content of the course in European history in secondary schools, with special reference to the influence of vocational education, p.

96-101; Discussion, p. 104-13. 867. Ayer, Fred Carleton. The psychology of drawing, with special reference to

laboratory teaching. Baltimore, Warwick & York, inc., 1916. 186 p. 12o.

Bibliography: p. 169-180. 868. Baker, Franklin T. Shakspere in the schools. English journal, 5 : 299–309,

May 1916.

Reprinted, with the permission of the author, from Shaksperean studies, by members of the

English faculty of Columbia iniversity; published by the Columbia University press. 869. Beasley, E. Gertrude. The reorganization of English in the elementary

school. Elementary school journal, 16 : 565–70, June 1916.

Writer makes a plea for “direct emphasis on the laws and forms of expression." 870. Bourgin, Hubert. L'éducation dans et par les classes de français. Revue

internationale de l'enseignement, 36 : 196-210, May-june 1916.

A discussion of the two problems in the educative value of teaching French, general and theoreti.

cal and special and practical. 871. Brenna, Ernestina. Metodologia dell'insegnamento storico con speciale

riguardo alla scuola popolare. Milano, New York (etc.) F. Vallardi (1916) 216 p. 12o. (Biblioteca enciclopedica Vallardi. Biblioteca pedagogica.)

“Appendice bibliografica”: p. (211)-216. 872. Briggs, Thomas H. General science in secondary schools. Teachers college

record, 17 : 19-30, January 1916.

Also separately reprinted. 873. Caldwell, Otis W. Central association of science and mathematics teachers.

Report of the Committee on a four-year high school science course. School science and mathematics, 16 : 393–99, May 1916.

Read before the Central association of science and mathematics teachers, Chicago, Xovember

27, 1915. 874. Davis, William Hawley. Is debating primarily a game? Quarterly Journal of

public speaking, 2 : 171--79, April 1916.

Read at the third annual meeting of the New England oral English and public speaking conference, Cambridge, Mass., April 7-8, 1916.

Urges the necessity of improving debating ideals and practices, so that this important means of securing effective training in speaking may be rescued from the list of games and pastimes.

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