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The earlier congresses seem to have omitted completely any consideration of this question. Deeming it, however, of paramount importance at this time, not only for economic reasons of higher efficiency in the organization of business and the marketing of products at home and abroad, but for less apparently selfish reasons of acquiring by study the international way of looking at things and of assisting in establishing international amity, the committee on commercial education, as mentioned above, constructed a program that would permit the definition of commercial education through a series of graded papers by persons expert in the particular phase of the subject which they were invited to discuss. Beginning with introductory papers presented by men prominent in business, education, and government, and proceeding through a symposium of brief talks which would show the intimate relations between the fields of education, business, and government in the establishment of commercial education, the program discussed carefully the general phases of this type of education in elementary, secondary, and higher schools, whether a part of, or separate from, the regular public-school system, and treated under separate headings each of the well-recognized subjects taught or to be taught in the curriculum of commercial education. Further, in view of the fact that certain private educational agencies, established solely for the purpose or as a part of a mercantile, manufacturing, or exporting system, have been prominent in the United States in offering specific or general courses of business, the committee included in its program papers from most of these agencies. The executive committee of organization of the Second Pan American Scientific Congress authorized the framing of certain topics, the discussion of which by a representative from each of the participating countries would create a series of Pan American conferences, with the idea that some joint action might be taken now or at some subsequent congress leading to mutual benefit in the carrying out of the resolutions consequent upon the discussion of the particular topics. The committee on commercial education submitted for discussion the following Pan American theme:

How can a nation prepare in the most effective manner its young men for a business career that is to be pursued at home or in a foreign country? (a) In schools that are a part of the public-school system.

(b) In schools of private endowment.

(c) In special business schools of private ownership.

Outline a course of study that will best prepare young men to engage in such a business career. Each suggested outline should consider not only the character of the educational system of the country for which the course of study is intended, but the desirability and practicability of a uniform course of business education for all Pan American countries.

The program on commercial education, prepared by the committee

in charge, follows.


Pan American Union Building.


Joint session of Sections IV and IX, with program furnished by subsections on commercial education and commerce.


WILLIAM C. REDFIELD, Secretary of Commerce, Washington, D. C.

ANDREW J. PETERS, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C. JOHN H. FAHEY, President, United States Chamber of Commerce, Boston, Mass. EDMUND J. JAMES, President University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.


Preparation for Trade, Domestic and Foreign.

(a) From the Standpoint of the Business Man.1

J. A. FARRELL, President, National Foreign Trade Council, New York,
N. Y.

(b) From the Standpoint of the Educator.

EDWIN F. GAY, Dean, Graduate School of Business Administration,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting Chairman: S. P. CAPEN.

Is There a Profession of Business, and Can We Train for It?

ELLIOT H. GOODWIN, Secretary, U. S. Chamber of Commerce, Washington, D. C.

The Proper Use of Business Experts in Class Instruction on Domestic and Foreign Commerce. (Symposium-five-minute talks.)

ROGER W. BABSON, President, Babson's Statistical Bureau, Wellesley Hills, Mass.

EDWARD N. HURLEY, Chairman, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D. C.

WALLACE D. SIMMONS, Chairman, Committee on Education, National Foreign Trade Council, Philadelphia, Pa.

B. OLNEY HOUGH, Editor, "American Exporter," New York, N. Y.
WILBUR J. CARR, Director, Consular Service, Washington, D. C.1

HARRY ERWIN BARD, Secretary, Pan American Society for the United
States, New York, N. Y.

J. F. CROWELL, Executive Officer, Chamber of Commerce of State of New York, New York, N. Y.

1 Presented before the Conference on Foreign Service Training, Friday, Dec. 31.

The Proper Use of Business Experts, etc.-Continued.

JOHN CLAUSEN, Manager, Foreign Department, Crocker National Bank, San Francisco.

E. T. GUNDLACH, Gundlach Advertising Co., Chicago, Ill.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting Chairman: ROGER W. BABSON,

Commercial Education.

In Latin America

EDGAR E. BRANDON, Dean, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

In England

I. L. KANDEL, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching,
New York, N. Y.

In Germany

FREDERICK ERNEST FARRINGTON, Special Collaborator, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting Chairman: ROGER W. BABSON.

Modern Business and the New Orientation of Commercial Education.

ISAAC GRINFELD, Director, International Correspondence Schools, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic.

(a) Preparation for a Business Career in Chile.

(b) Latin-American Standpoint on Business Education.

FRANCISCO ARAYA BENNETT, Attorney at Law, University Professor of

Political Economy and Principal Commercial Institute, Valparaiso, Chile. The Arguments for a Separate or Combined Course of Commercial Study. ROSWELL C. MCCREA, Dean, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

What Can the Small College Do in Training for Business?

GEORGE W. HOKE, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

How to Procure Adequately Prepared Instructors for Colleges and Universities. JAMES C. EGBERT, Director School of Business, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting chairman: ROGER W. BABSON.

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The Problem of Commercial Education in (a) Elementary Schools. (b) Secondary Schools. (c) Colleges.

(a and b) Elementary and Secondary Schools-Foundation; Subjects: Articulation, Correlation, and Methods.

(a) F. G. NICHOLS, Director Business Education, Department of Public Instruction, Rochester, N. Y.

(b) PAUL MONROE, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. DAVID SNEDDEN, former Commissioner of Education of Massachusetts, Boston, Mass.

(c) Colleges-Entrance Requirements.

DAVID KINLEY, Dean Graduate School, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. W. F. GEPHART, Professor of Economics, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.

Pan American Union Building.

Acting chairman: ALBERT A. SNOWDEN.

The Teaching of Special Subjects in the Collegiate Course of Study for Business, Domestic and Foreign.


GLEN LEVIN SWIGGETT, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. Geography

J. PAUL GOODE, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.


WM. R. SHEPHERD, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. Government—

JESSE S. REEVES, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Mathematics

EVERETT W. LORD, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

Banking and Finance

CHARLES LEE RAPER, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. Business Law

WARD W. PIERSON, the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Business Ethics and Psychology—

JAMES E. LOUGH, New York University, New York, N. Y. Organization and Administration

ARTHUR E. SWANSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill Statistics

E. DANA DURAND, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. Accounting

JOHN B. GEIJSBEEK, Foster Building, Denver, Colo.

DONALD F. GRASS, Leland Stanford Junior University, California.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting chairman: ALBERT A. SNOWDEN.

Special Schools of Secondary Grade: Raison d'être; character and method of instruction.

Commercial High School

WILLIAM FAIBLEY, Principal, Commercial High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. Young Men's Christian Association

EDWARD L. WERTHEIM, Director, West Side Y. M. C. A., New York

Business Colleges

C. C. GAINES, President, Eastman Business College, Poughkeepsie,
N. Y.

Value of Commercial Education



Pan American Union Building.

Acting Chairman: FREDERICK C. HICKS.

Special Schools of Commercial Education of College and University Grade.
Tulane University.

DEAN MORTON A. ALDRICH, College of Commerce and Business Admin-
istration, New Orleans, La.

University of Cincinnati: Continuation and Evening Courses.

DEAN FREDERICK C. HICKS, College of Commerce, Cincinnati, Ohio. University of Oregon: Problems of the Detached School.

HARRY B. MILLER, Director, School of Commerce, Eugene, Oreg. New York University: Two-Year Course and Individualization of Training for Business.

JEREMIAH W. JENKS, Director, Division of Public Affairs, New York
University, New York, N. Y.

The Graduate School of Business:

Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, Dartmouth College.
DEAN H. S. PERSON, Hanover, N. H.

Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.

DEAN EDWIN F. GAY, Cambridge, Mass.


Pan American Union Building.

Acting Chairman: ROGER W. BABSON.

Special Courses for Commercial Study. Statement as to Aims and Achievements since Establishment.

Correspondence Schools.

T. J. FOSTER, President, International Correspondence Schools, Scran-
ton, Pa.

SHERWIN CODY, Director, National Associated Schools of Scientific
Business, Chicago, Ill.

University Extension Work for Men in Business.

SAMUEL MACCLINTOCK, Director, La Salle Extension University, Chi-
cago, Ill.

Alexander Hamilton Institute.

JOSEPH FRENCH JOHNSON, Dean School of Commerce, Accounts, and
Finance, New York University, New York, N. Y.

National Association of Corporation Schools.

LEE GALLOWAY, Secretary, Alexander Hamilton Institute, New York,
N. Y.

Commercial Museum.

W. P. WILSON, Director, Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, Pa.
The National City Bank.

F. C. SCHWEDTMAN, Educational Director, the National City Bank,
New York, N. Y.

Bureau of Commercial Economics.

FRANCIS HOLLEY, Director, Bureau of Commercial Economics, Wash-
ington, D. C.

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