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More than 60 per cent of all the farms hired some labor, and nearly $22,000,000 was expended in farm wages.

The farms averaged 382.3 acres, and the average had been increasing for 20 years.

Less than 5 per cent of the farms contained less than 100 acres each, and only 20.2 per cent contained more than 500 acres. (See Table 5 and Figure 5.)

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TABLE 5.-Distribution of farms by size groups, North Dakota, 1910.

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The percentage of farms operated by tenants in North Dakota, 14.3, is very much less than that for the United States, 37, as shown in Table 6. The same table shows that in 11 States situated in various sections of the country the percentage of farms operated by tenants, 52.9, is nearly four times as great as in North Dakota.

To these considerations should be added the fact that in 1910 the average value of the 74,360 farms in North Dakota, including equipment, was $13,109. Not only is North Dakota overwhelmingly agri. cultural in its interests, but the people for the most part own their own farms, and each farm represents the investment of a considerable amount of capital. Socially and economically, therefore, the State is made up of a relatively high class of citizens abundantly able to pay for educational advantages and to utilize them fully. Such a population is far more likely to be interested in scientific and practical agricultural education than the tenant classes to be found in some other States.

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Most farmers grow a variety of crops within the range already indicated. Nearly half report vegetables in small quantities. The total value of vegetables reported was $3,148,304.

A very large per cent report horses, cattle, swine, poultry, and other live stock.

The total value of crops was $180,636,000; of live stock, $110,000,000; of animals sold and slaughtered, $14,457,000.

The value of milk, cream, butter fat sold and butter and cheese made was $4,872,304.

The value of forest products was almost negligible.

Although the total value of manufactured products increases from year to year, there are as yet no very large industrial plants. The 752 industrial establishments reported in 1910 had a capital of $1,585,000, paid in salaries and wages $2,416,000, and had an output valued at $19,138,000. Fully two-thirds of the value of all manufactured products consisted of the products of flour mills and of butter and cheese, the latter in small amounts. The total value added by the manufacturing process was $5,468,000.

Persons engaged in manufacturing numbered 4,148, only 2,732 of whom were wage earners.

Mining industries are increasing, but as yet are comparatively unimportant. In 1910 only 960 persons were reported as engaged in mining, including proprietors, officials, clerks, and wage earners. The total capital invested was $1,058,649; the amount paid in wages, $570,140; and the value of products, $564,000.

In the year 1910 the capital invested in farming in North Dakota was 84 times that invested in manufacturing and 926 times that invested in mining. (Table 7.) The number of farm operators was 103 times the number of operators of industries and 1,403 times the number of mining operators. The value of farm products was 11 times the value of manufactured products and 37 times the value of manufactured products over the value of raw material used in these products. It was 361 times the value of products of the mines.

TABLE 7.-Relative magnitude and value of farming, manufacturing, and min

ing in North Dakota, Federal census of 1910.

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1 Proprietors and firm members.
3 Value added to raw material by the manufacturing process, $5,464,000.

SUMMARY OF OCCUPATIONS.

A general view of the gainful occupations followed by the people of North Dakota is afforded by Table 8, which also compares this State with the neighboring States of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa, combined, and with the States of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio, combined. (See also Figures 6 and 7.)

In North Dakota, even more than in the three neighboring States referred to, agriculture is preeminent, 60.2 per cent and 45.8 per cent, respectively. The “trade” and “manufacturing ” groups are much less important in North Dakota, where, together, they comprise only 18 per cent of all occupations reported, whereas in the three States mentioned they include 27.5 per cent of the total. The differences between North Dakota and these three States in the cases of the remaining occupation groups are not striking.

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TABLE 8.-Distribution by general divisions of persons 10 years of age and over

engaged in gainful occupations-North Dakota compared with South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa, combined ; and with New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio combined, 1910.

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North Dakota, 1910.—Total population, 577,056; engaged in gainful occupations, 217,418; per cent of total population, 37.7.

On the other hand, comparison of North Dakota with four of the Eastern States—New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio, combined serves to emphasize the predominance of agricultural in

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DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS

ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS: 1910
NORTH DAKOTA COMPARED WITH SOUTH DAKOTA, NEBRASKA, IOWA

FIGURE 6.

In North Dakota, even more than in the three neighboring States indicated, agriculture is preeminent.

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terests in the former. Agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry constitute only 12.2 per cent of the occupations in the four States considered together, as compared with 60.2 per cent in North Dakota. (See Figure 7.)

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS

ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS: 1910
NORTH DAKOTA GOMPARED WITH NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA,NEW JERSEY, OHIO
NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY, OHIO

NORTH DAKOTA

MANUFACTURING
39.8%

slight importance in North Dakota. Thus, foresters, lumbermen, occupations, clearly distinguishable from agriculture, are of very “Agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry.” Certain of these

AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 60.2%

AGRICULTURE,

FORESTRY,
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

12.2%

ments of the occupational group designated by the census report as still further emphasized by an examination of the constituent ele

The predominance of agricultural interests in North Dakota is

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FIGURE 7.
Proportionately, agricultural interests are nearly five times as important in North Dakota as in New York, New Jersey, and

Ohio combined; and in the latter States the manufacturing interests are more than four times as important as in
North Dakota.

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